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Initial Results From the 2005 NHES Early Childhood Program Participation Survey

NCES 2006-075
May 2006

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Table 3. Percentage distribution of children from birth through age 5 and not yet in kindergarten whose parents reported various combinations of weekly care arrangements, by child and family characteristics: 2005
Characteristic Number of children
One relative arrangement only One nonrelative arrangement only One center-based program only1 More than one nonparental arrangement of a single type2 Combination of nonparental arrangement types3
  Total 12,344201445616
Childís age
Less than 1 year 1,47136272367
1-2 years 4,262252136711
3-5 years 6,61112655522
Childís sex
Male 6,411191346517
Female 5,934201443616
Childís race/ethnicity
White, non-Hispanic 7,088161645518
Black, non-Hispanic 2,03923949515
Hispanic 2,096281340612
Asian or Pacific Islander, non-Hispanic 34817955514
Other race, non-Hispanic477326743520
Family type
Two parents 9,168181547515
One parent 2,961261039620
Nonparent guardian(s) 216148!441122
Parentsí language spoken most at home5
Both/only parent(s) speak(s) English 11,090191444617
One of two parents speaks English 210227624!5
No parent speaks English 1,04424154848
Motherís level of education6
Less than a high school 730311044510
High school/GED 3,104251142715
Vocational/technical or some college 3,504231442516
Bachelorís degree 2,845121552517
Graduate or professional education
  or degree
Motherís school enrollment status6
Enrolled 1,894201146617
Not enrolled 10,194191545516
Motherís employment status6
35 or more hours per week 6,078201739618
Less than 35 hours per week 2,978231437621
Looking for work 652281244107
Not in the labor force 2,3801366939
Motherís work shift6, 7
Regular shift 7,985201739519
Variable shift 1,0712213331220
Neighborhood conditions8
Concern regarding neighborhood
  health and safety conditions
No concern regarding neighborhood
  health and safety conditions
Household income
$25,000 or less 3,00827943515
$25,001 to $50,000 2,767271140517
$50,001 to $75,000 2,635161944615
$75,001 to $100,000 1,775131947615
$100,001 or more 2,159101352521
Poverty status9
At or above poverty threshold 10,017181545617
Below poverty threshold 2,32828943515
!Interpret data with caution; coefficient of variation is 50 percent or more.

1Center-based arrangements include day care centers, Head Start programs, preschools, prekindergartens, and other early childhood programs.

2Estimates include more than one arrangement of a given type (e.g., two relative arrangements).

3Estimates include any combination of relative care, nonrelative care, and center-based programs, but only one arrangement of a given type (e.g., one nonrelative arrangement, or one center-based program).

4"Other race, non-Hispanic" includes children who were multiracial and not of Hispanic ethnicity, or who were American Indian or Alaska Native, or were not Hispanic, White, Black, Asian, or Pacific Islander.

5Complete descriptions of the categories for parentsí language are as follows: (1) "Both/only parent(s) learned English as child(ren) or currently speak(s) English in the home," (2) "One of two parents learned English as a child or currently speaks English in the home," and (3) "No parent learned English as a child and both/only parent(s) currently speak(s) a non-English language in the home."

6Children without mothers living in the household are not included in estimates related to motherís education, enrollment, employment status, or work shift.

7Work shifts were collapsed into two categories: regular and variable work shifts. A regular work shift is one with set hours. A variable shift is one that changes from days to evenings or nights regardless of whether the hours are set by the employer or the employee.

8Parents or guardians respond "yes" or "no" to the question: "Are there any conditions in your neighborhood that make you worried about the health or safety of ((CHILD)/any of the children) in your household?"

9Children are considered poor if they were living in households with incomes below the poverty threshold, which is a dollar amount determined by the federal government to meet the householdís needs, given its size and composition.

NOTE: Estimates include children from birth through 5 years of age, and not yet in kindergarten, with at least one weekly nonparental care arrangement. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Early Childhood Program Participation Survey of the National Household Education Surveys Program (ECPP-NHES:2005).

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