||Regular Elementary/Secondary Education Programs. Activities
that provide students in prekindergarten through grade 12 with
learning experiences to prepare them for further education or
training and for responsibilities as citizens, family members,
and workers. Regular programs should be distinguished from special
education programs that focus on adapting curriculum or instruction
to accommodate a specific disability; from vocational/technical
programs that focus on career skills; and from alternative education
programs that focus on the educational needs of students at
risk of failing or dropping out of school because of academic,
behavioral, or situational factors.
||Special Programs. Special Programs include activities
for elementary and secondary students (prekindergarten*
through grade 12) receiving services outside the realm of "regular
programs." These services are related to mental retardation,
orthopedic impairment, emotional disturbance, developmental
delay, specific learning disabilities, multiple disabilities,
hearing impairment, other health impairments, visual impairments
including blindness, autism, deaf-blindness, traumatic brain
injury, and speech or language impairments. Special Programs
is also inclusive of students receiving services related to
gifted and talented programs.
Mental retardation means significantly subaverage
general intellectual functioning, existing concurrently
with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during
the developmental period, that adversely affects a child's
Orthopedic impairment means a severe orthopedic
impairment that adversely affects a child's educational
performance. The term includes impairments caused by a congenital
anomaly (e.g., clubfoot, absence of some member), impairments
caused by disease (e.g., poliomyelitis, bone tuberculosis),
and impairments from other causes (e.g., cerebral palsy,
amputations, and fractures or burns that cause contractures).
Emotional disturbance is defined as follows:
- A condition exhibiting one or more of the following
characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked
degree that adversely affects a child's educational performance:
- An inability to learn that cannot be explained by
intellectual, sensory, or health factors.
- An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal
relationships with peers and teachers.
- Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under
- A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression.
- A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears
associated with personal or school problems.
- The term includes schizophrenia. The term does not apply
to children who are socially maladjusted, unless it is
determined that they have an emotional disturbance.
Developmental delay programs are for children aged
3 through 9 who are experiencing developmental delays, as
defined by the state and as measured by appropriate diagnostic
instruments and procedures, in one or more of the following
areas: physical development, cognitive development, communication
development, social or emotional development, or adaptive
Specific learning disability is defined as follows:
- The term means a disorder in one or more of the basic
psychological processes involved in understanding or in
using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself
in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read,
write, spell, or do mathematical calculations, including
conditions such as perceptual disabilities, brain injury,
minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental
- The term does not include learning problems that are
primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities;
of mental retardation; of emotional disturbance; or of
environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage.
Multiple disabilities means concomitant impairments
(e.g., mental retardation-blindness, mental retardation-orthopedic
impairment), the combination of which causes such severe
educational needs that the student cannot be accommodated
in special education programs solely for one of the impairments.
The term does not include deaf-blindness.
Hearing impairment means impairment in hearing,
whether permanent or fluctuating, that adversely affects
a child's educational performance but that is not included
under the definition of deafness in this chapter.
Other health impairment means having limited strength,
vitality, or alertness, including a heightened alertness
to environmental stimuli, that results in limited alertness
with respect to the educational environment, that is due
to chronic or acute health problems such as asthma, attention
deficit disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,
diabetes, epilepsy, a heart condition, hemophilia, lead
poisoning, leukemia, nephritis, rheumatic fever, and sickle
cell anemia; and adversely affects a child's educational
Visual impairment, including blindness, means impairment
in vision that, even with correction, adversely affects
a child's educational performance. The term includes both
partial sight and blindness.
Autism means a developmental disability significantly
affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social
interaction, generally evident before age 3, that adversely
affects a child's educational performance. Other characteristics
often associated with autism are engagement in repetitive
activities and stereotyped movements, resistance to environmental
change or change in daily routines, and unusual responses
to sensory experiences. The term does not apply if a child's
educational performance is adversely affected primarily
because the child has an emotional disturbance, as previously
defined in this chapter.
Deaf-blindness means concomitant hearing and visual
impairments, the combination of which causes such severe
communication and other developmental and educational needs
that the child cannot be accommodated in special education
programs solely for children with deafness or children with
Traumatic brain injury means an acquired injury
to the brain caused by an external physical force, resulting
in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial
impairment, or both, that adversely affects a child's educational
performance. The term applies to open or closed head injuries
resulting in impairments in one or more areas, such as cognition;
language; memory; attention; reasoning; abstract thinking;
judgment; problem-solving; sensory, perceptual, and motor
abilities; psychosocial behavior; physical functions; information
processing; and speech. The term does not apply to brain
injuries that are congenital or degenerative or to brain
injuries induced by birth trauma.
Speech or language impairment means a communication
disorder, such as stuttering, impaired articulation, language
impairment, or voice impairment, that adversely affects
a child's educational performance.
Gifted and talented behavior consists of behaviors
that reflect an interaction among three basic clusters of
human traits: above average general and/or specific abilities,
high levels of task commitment, and high levels of creativity.
Individuals capable of developing gifted behavior are those
possessing or capable of developing this composite set of
traits and applying them to any potentially valuable area
of human performance. Persons who manifest or are capable
of developing an interaction among the three clusters require
a wide variety of educational opportunities and services
that are not ordinarily provided through regular instructional
programs (Renzulli and Reis 1997).
||Vocational and Technical Programs. Activities delivered
through traditional comprehensive and vocational-technical high
schools or recognized charter schools that prepare students
to meet challenging academic standards as well as industry skill
standards while preparing students for broad-based careers and
further education beyond high school in the following 16 career
- Agriculture and Natural Resources. Activities that
prepare students for a wide range of agriculturally related
careers from veterinarian to underground mine mechanic.
- Architecture and Construction. Activities that
prepare students for careers in the construction industry
such as plumber, painter, construction manager, and architect.
- Arts, A/V Technology and Communication. Activities
that prepare students for careers in arts and communication,
including writing, editing, radio and television broadcasting,
acting, and music.
- Business and Administration. Activities that prepare
students for careers in business-related areas, such as
administrative support, accounting, management, and supervision.
- Education and Training. Activities that prepare
students for careers in education, such as teacher, librarian,
coach, and counselor.
- Finance. Activities that prepare students for careers
in the financial services industry, including insurance
services, financial analysis, and banking.
- Government and Public Administration. Activities
that prepare students for public service careers, such as
legislator, urban planner, city manager, and parks/recreation
- Health Science. Activities that prepare students
for careers in the health services industry, including nursing,
medicine, physical therapy, pharmacy, and medical support.
- Hospitality and Tourism. Activities that prepare
students for careers in the hospitality and tourism industry,
such as travel agent, food preparation worker, hotel manager,
- Human Services. Activities that prepare students
for careers in community services, such as social worker,
religious worker, recreation worker, and clergy.
- Information Technology. Activities that prepare
students for careers in the information technology services
area, including working with databases, designing software,
and programming and repairing computers.
- Law and Public Safety. Activities that prepare
students for careers in legal and protective services, such
as correction officer, police officer, lawyer, and judge.
- Manufacturing. Activities that prepare students
for careers in traditional industries such as steel and
textiles or cutting-edge industries such as aerospace and
- Retail/Wholesale Sales and Service. Activities
that prepare students for careers in the sales and service
industry, such as marketing/public relations manager, real
estate agent, hairdresser, retail salesperson, and telemarketer.
- Scientific Research and Engineering. Activities
that prepare students for careers in science and engineering,
including chemical, civil, and mechanical engineering; biological
and chemical sciences; surveying; and astronomy.
- Transportation, Distribution, and Logistics. Activities
that prepare students for careers in the transportation
industry, such as aircraft mechanic, railroad conductor,
school bus driver, truck driver, and ship pilot.
||Other Instructional Programs-Elementary/Secondary. Activities
that provide students in prekindergarten*
through K-12 with learning experiences not included in the Program
codes 100-300 or 500-900. Examples of such programs follow:
- Bilingual-English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL).
Activities for students from homes where the English
language is not the primary language spoken.
- Alternative (and At Risk) Education Programs. Activities
for students assigned to alternative campuses, centers,
or classrooms designed to provide improved behavior modification
and/or an enhanced learning experience. Typically, alternative
education programs are designed to meet the needs of students
that cannot be addressed in a traditional classroom setting.
||Non-Public School Programs. Activities for students
attending a school established by an agency other than the state,
a subdivision of the state, or the federal government, which
usually is supported primarily by other than public funds. The
services consist of such activities as those involved in providing
instructional services, attendance and social work services,
health services, and transportation services for non-public
||Adult/Continuing Education Programs. Activities that
develop knowledge and skills to meet immediate and long-range
educational objectives of adults who, having completed or interrupted
formal schooling, have accepted adult roles and responsibilities.
Programs include activities to foster the development of fundamental
tools of learning; prepare students for a postsecondary career;
prepare students for postsecondary education programs; upgrade
occupational competence; prepare students for a new or different
career; develop skills and appreciation for special interests;
or enrich the aesthetic qualities of life. Adult basic education
programs are included in this category.
||Community/Junior College Education Programs. Activities
for students attending an institution of higher education that
usually offers the first two years of college instruction. If
the school district is responsible for providing this program,
all costs of the program should be coded here.
Community Services Programs. Activities that are
not directly related to the provision of educational services
in a school district. These include such services as community
recreation programs, civic activities, public libraries, programs
of custody and care of children, and community welfare activities
provided by the district for the community as a whole or for
some segment of the community.
Community Recreation. Activities concerned with
providing recreation for the community as a whole or for
some segment of the community. Included are such staff activities
as organizing and supervising playgrounds, swimming pools,
and similar programs.
Civic Services. Activities concerned with providing
services to civic affairs or organizations. This program
area includes services to parent-teacher association meetings,
public forums, lectures, and civil defense planning.
Public Library Services. Activities pertaining
to the operation of public libraries by a school district
or the provision of library services to the general public
through the school library. Included are such activities
as budgeting, planning, and augmenting the library's collection
in relation to the community and informing the community
of public library resources and services.
Custody and Child Care Services. Activities pertaining
to the provision of programs for the custodial care of children
in residential day schools or child-care centers that are
not part of, or directly related to, the instructional program
and where the attendance of the children is not included
in the attendance figures for the district.
Welfare Activities. Activities pertaining to the
provision of personal needs of individuals who have been
designated as needy by an appropriate governmental entity.
These needs include stipends for school attendance; salaries
paid to students for work performed (whether for the school
district or for an outside concern); and funds for clothing,
food, or other personal needs.
Other Community Services. Activities provided to
the community that cannot be classified under the other
program 800 codes.
||Co-curricular and Extra-curricular Activities. Activities
that add to a student's educational experience but are not related
to educational activities. These activities typically include
events and activities that take place outside the traditional
classroom. Some examples of such activities are student government,
athletics, band, choir, clubs, and honors societies.
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refers to all programs and ages preceding kindergarten, including
infant and early childhood programs.