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 Pub Number  Title  Date
WWC IRALRT10 Reciprocal Teaching
Reciprocal teaching is an interactive instructional practice that aims to improve students' reading comprehension by teaching strategies to obtain meaning from a text. Based on its review of the research, the WWC found reciprocal teaching to have mixed effects on comprehension for adolescent learners.
WWC IRALRP10 Reading Plus
Reading Plus is a web-based reading intervention that uses technology to provide individualized scaffolded silent reading practice for students in grade 3 and higher. Based on its review of the research, the WWC found Reading Plus to have potentially positive effects on comprehension for adolescent learners.
WWC IRALAV10 AVID (Advancement Via Individual Determination)
Advancement Via Individual Determination, or AVID, is a college-readiness program. Its primary goal is to prepare underserved and middle-achieving middle and high school students for enrollment in four-year colleges through increased access to and support in advanced courses. Based on its review of the research, the WWC found AVID to have no discernible effects on comprehension for adolescent learners.
WWC IRESMSF10 Scott Foresman–Addison Wesley Elementary Mathematics
This WWC Intervention Report reviews the research on Scott Foresman–Addison Wesley Elementary Mathematics, a core curriculum for students at all ability levels in prekindergarten through grade 6. The program focuses on developing questioning strategies and problem-solving skills and features embedded assessments and tailored exercises. The studies that meet WWC evidence standards included more than 2,800 elementary students from grades 1 through 5 in 49 schools. The schools were located in a mix of urban, suburban, and rural settings in Connecticut, Kentucky, Minnesota, Nevada, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Virginia, Washington, and Wyoming. Based on the review of the research, the WWC found Scott Foresman–Addison Wesley Elementary Mathematics to have mixed effects on mathematics achievement for elementary school students.
WWC IRELLRN10 Read Naturally
The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) examined the research on Read Naturally, a supplemental reading program designed to improve reading fluency. This review focuses on Read Naturally for English language learners. Using a combination of books, audiotapes, and computer software, Read Naturally, has three main strategies. The first involves repeated reading of text for developing oral reading fluency. The second uses teacher modeling, a process where students read along while listening to a recording of a fluent reader. The third strategy incorporates monitoring of student progress by teachers and the students themselves. Based on its review of the research, the WWC found no discernible effects in reading achievement and English language development for elementary school English language learners.
WWC IRSLDAP10 Alphabetic Phonics
Alphabetic Phonics is an ungraded, multisensory curriculum distributed by School Specialty Intervention that teaches the structure of the English language and can be taught to individuals or small groups of elementary or secondary school students. This phonetic program teaches reading, handwriting, spelling, verbal and written expression, and comprehension by simultaneously engaging students in visual, auditory, and kinesthetic learning. The What Works Clearinghouse review of the research on Alphabetic Phonics for students with disabilities identified 13 studies that were published or released between 1989 and 2009. No studies that fall within the scope of the Students with Learning Disabilities review protocol meet WWC evidence standards. The lack of studies meeting WWC evidence standards means that, at this time, the WWC is unable to draw any conclusions based on research about the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of Alphabetic Phonics for students with learning disabilities.
WWC IRMSMSM10 Intervention Report: Saxon Math
Saxon Math is a textbook series covering grades K-12 based on incremental development and continual review of mathematical concepts to give students time to learn and practice concepts throughout the year. The series is aligned with standards of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) and various states, and can be adapted for special education students in inclusion classrooms, pullout programs, or self-contained resource classrooms. Although content differs by course, the incremental, distributed approach of Saxon Math is the same, with mathematical concepts presented in a series of short "lessons" intended to gradually build understanding and previously-taught concepts practiced and assessed throughout the course. Developed in the early 1980s, Saxon Math included four middle school math textbooks used in the studies included in this intervention report. The series has been redesigned and now offers three textbooks for middle school grades. This report includes studies that investigate the potential impact of Saxon Math texts on math achievement of middle school students but does not include these revised texts.
NCEE 20104009 Middle School Mathematics Professional Development Impact Study: Findings After the First Year of Implementation
Results after one year of providing teachers math professional development (PD) indicate no improvement on their students' math achievement when compared to teachers who did not receive the study-provided PD. The Middle School Mathematics Professional Development Impact Study: Findings After the First Year of Implementation included 77 schools in 12 districts in 2007-2008. The PD, although purposely designed to be relevant to the curricula that teachers were using in their classrooms, focused primarily on developing teachers' capability to teach positive rational number topics effectively. America's Choice and Pearson Achievement Solutions were the two professional development providers, each operating in half the districts. Teachers who taught the core 7th grade mathematics class in the study schools were assigned by lottery to either receive the professional development or not. Teachers in all of the study schools continued to be eligible for district-provided PD.

Other key findings include:
  • Professional development for the teachers produced no statistically significant impact on their students' achievement in the areas covered by the training-ratio, proportion, fractions, percentages, decimals.
  • The training did have a statistically significant impact on one of three measures of teacher practice--"frequency with which teachers engaged in activities that elicited student thinking."
  • The training did not have a statistically significant impact on measured teacher knowledge.
  • The study's program was implemented as intended and on average resulted in an additional 55 hours of math professional development during the 2007-08 school year.
WWC QRHQ0330 WWC Quick Review of the Article "Are High-Quality Schools Enough to Close the Achievement Gap? Evidence from a Social Experiment in Harlem"
This What Works Clearinghouse Quick Review assesses the research reported in the article "Are High-Quality Schools Enough to Close the Achievement Gap? Evidence from a Social Experiment in Harlem." This study examined the effects on academic achievement of offering students enrollment in the Promise Academy charter middle school. The school is sponsored by the Harlem Children's Zone that combines reform-minded charter schools with a web of community services designed to provide a positive and supportive social environment outside of school.

The study analyzed data on about 470 New York City students who applied for enrollment in 2005 and 2006 as entering sixth graders. The number of applicants exceeded the school's capacity, so enrollment offers were granted by random lottery. The study measured effects by comparing the outcomes of students who were selected in the lottery and offered enrollment in the school to students who were not selected in the lottery. Student outcomes were measured in sixth, seventh, and eighth grades using standardized statewide math and English language arts (ELA) tests.

The study authors reported that students offered enrollment in the school had higher math test scores in sixth, seventh, and eighth grades than the students not offered enrollment. By the time they were tested in eighth grade, the effect size for the math test was 0.55. The WWC interprets this as equivalent to moving a student from the 50th to the 71st percentile. The study authors found no statistically significant differences in English language arts test scores in sixth or seventh grade, but a positive effect was found on the eighth grade test. The effect size was 0.19, which the WWC interprets as equivalent to moving a student from the 50th to the 58th percentile.

The Clearinghouse rated the research described in this report as consistent with WWC evidence standards. The study is that it is equivalent to a randomized controlled trial because the groups of students contracted in the study were formed by random lottery.
WWC IRMSPA10 Intervention: PLATO® Achieve Now
PLATO Achieve Now is a software-based curriculum for the elementary and middle school grades. Instructional content is delivered via the PlayStation Portable (PSP) system, allowing students to access learning materials in various settings. Software-based assessments are used to customize individual instruction, allowing students to learn at their own pace with content appropriate for their skill level. PLATO Achieve Now is aligned with the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics guidelines.
WWC QREBC0210 WWC Quick Review of the Article "Technology's Edge: The Educational Benefits of Computer-Aided Instruction"
The study examined whether the I CAN Learn computer-based curriculum is more effective than traditional classroom instruction at teaching pre-algebra and algebra concepts to middle- and high-school students.

The study included about 1,600 students in 15 high schools and two middle schools in three large urban school districts.

Math classrooms in each school were randomly assigned to use either the I CAN Learn program in a school computer lab or the traditional math curriculum in a regular classroom.

Students' math achievement was assessed on a 30-item pre-algebra and algebra test developed for this study and on standardized statewide math tests. The study assessed the program's effectiveness by comparing the test scores of the two instruction groups at the end of the school year.
WWC IRMMCM10 Connected Mathematics Project
The Connected Mathematics Project (CMP) is a problem-centered mathematics curriculum designed for all students in grades 6-8. Each grade level of the curriculum is a full-year program and covers numbers, algebra, geometry/measurement, probability, and statistics. The program seeks to make connections within mathematics, between mathematics and other subject areas, and to the real world. The curriculum is divided into a sequenced set of units, each organized around different mathematical topics. The four to seven lessons in a unit each contain one to five problems that the teacher and students explore in class. Additional problem sets, called Applications, Connections, and Extensions, in each lesson help students practice, apply, connect, and extend their understanding and skills. Each lesson culminates in a Mathematical Reflections activity. According to the developers, the CMP addresses National Council of Teachers of Mathematics standards.
WWC IRBRSF09 Intervention: Success for All
Success for All (SFA)® is a whole-school reform model that includes a reading, writing, and oral language development program for students in prekindergarten through eighth grade. Classroom reading instruction is delivered in daily 90-minute blocks to students grouped by reading ability. Immediate intervention with tutors who are certified teachers is given each day to those students who are having difficulty reading at the same level as their classmates.

This intervention report focuses on the reading component of SFA®, which is often implemented in the context of the SFA® whole-school reform program. Although the whole-school reform program has key components that are implemented in each school, school sites may vary considerably in the number of personnel used to implement SFA®, particularly tutors and family support staff. The reading curricula are essentially the same at all schools, with each school receiving the same training, coaching support, and materials. Ratings presented in this report are not disaggregated by the variations in implementation of whole-school reforms.
WWC IRMMCT09 Intervention: Cognitive Tutor® Algebra I
The Cognitive Tutor ® Algebra I curriculum, published by Carnegie Learning, is an approach that combines algebra textbooks with interactive software. The software is developed around an artificial intelligence model that identifies strengths and weaknesses in each individual student's mastery of mathematical concepts. It then customizes prompts to focus on areas where the student is struggling and sends the student to new problems that address those specific concepts.
WWC 20094060 Assisting Students Struggling with Mathematics: Response to Intervention (RtI) for Elementary and Middle Schools
Assisting Students Struggling with Mathematics: Response to Intervention (RtI) for Elementary and Middle Schools Taking early action may be key to helping students struggling with mathematics. The eight recommendations in this guide are designed to help teachers, principals, and administrators use Response to Intervention for the early detection, prevention, and support of students struggling with mathematics.
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