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|NCEE 2022007||The Effects of an Academic Language Program on Student Reading Outcomes
Helping English learners and economically disadvantaged students read as well as their more advantaged peers is a struggle for many schools. This study tested a promising program to improve fourth- and fifth-grade students' ability to understand the academic language used in school and support their reading achievement. The supplemental program included reading, speaking, and writing activities for students and training for teachers. About 60 schools were randomly assigned to implement the program for one school year or to continue using their typical strategies. The study compared the average reading performance of the two groups to assess the program's effectiveness.
|REL 2020030||Identifying North Carolina Students at Risk of Scoring below Proficient in Reading at the End of Grade 3
This study examines how students’ performance on North Carolina’s assessments taken from kindergarten to the beginning of grade 3 predicts reading proficiency at the end of grade 3. The study used longitudinal student-level achievement data for 2014/15–2017/18. The sample consisted of students in grade 3 who took the 2017/18 grade 3 end-of grade assessment in reading for the first time and had reading assessment data when they were in kindergarten in 2014/15. The analyses modeled associations between student performance on grade-level interim assessment measures and proficiency on the grade 3 end-of-grade assessment in reading using classification and regression tree analyses. The results indicated that less than 80 percent of students who failed the grade 3 state assessment were correctly identified as being at risk. The only exception to this finding was when a test better aligned to the end-of-grade state assessment was used as a predictor. These results suggest that more information is needed to use test score data from grades K–2 to reliably identify who is at risk of not being proficient on the grade 3 end-of-grade assessment. Educators may want to consider supplementing screening and progress monitoring assessments with informal, curriculum-based assessments that measure student vocabulary, syntax, and listening comprehension skills because research has identified these skills as important predictors of reading comprehension.
|WWC 2020010||Intervention Report Word Generation: English Language Learners
This What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) intervention report summarizes the research on the effectiveness of Word Generation for English learners. Word Generation is a supplemental program that aims to improve students’ reading comprehension by building students’ vocabulary, academic language, and perspective-taking skills through classroom discussion and debate. Word Generation consists of a series of interdisciplinary units with daily lessons focused on a high-interest topic to increase student engagement. Based on the research, the WWC found that implementing Word Generation may result in little or no change in the reading comprehension or English language proficiency of English learners in grades 4-7.
|REL 2020006||Adoption of, enrollment in, and teacher workload for the Expository Reading and Writing Curriculum in California high schools
The Expository Reading and Writing Curriculum (ERWC) is a college preparatory English language arts course designed to enhance the abilities of students through rhetorical analyses of compelling issues and interesting texts. In order to inform the organizations that support the infrastructure of the ERWC as they seek to make the ERWC more widely available across the state, this study was designed to explore the characteristics of schools that have adopted the ERWC, the characteristics of students enrolled in the course, and the teacher workloads for the course. The study was also intended to inform a wider audience of policymakers and educators who are interested in strengthening postsecondary readiness by expanding opportunities for high school students to take courses similar to the ERWC. This study used two data sources: 1) data collected by the Center for the Advancement of Reading and Writing at the California State University Chancellor’s Office, which includes all the schools that have adopted the ERWC, and 2) data from the California Department of Education, which includes data on all courses taught at California public schools and the demographic characteristics of the students enrolled in each course.
|REL 2015070||Summer Reading Camp Self-study Guide
This guide is designed to facilitate self-studies of planning and implementation of state-required summer reading camp programs for grade 3 students who scored at the lowest level on the state reading assessment. It provides a template for data collection and guiding questions for discussion that may improve instruction and increase the number of students meeting the grade-level standard by the end of the summer reading camp.
The guide is composed of a scoring guide and consensus rating form. The scoring guide includes guiding questions and potential sources of evidence. After completion of the scoring guide, a facilitator will guide the self-study team through a consensus rating process to come to agreement on the current status of implementation in the district or school and planning for next steps. The content of the scoring guide is based on eight areas that research indicates are important for summer reading camp implementation: teacher effectiveness and qualifications; student selection and enrollment; instructional time; content and instruction; assessment selection and data use; mentoring and/or paraprofessional use; learning environment; and communication with administration, staff, and parents.
|WWC IRD579||Spelling Mastery
Spelling Mastery is a Direct Instruction curriculum designed to explicitly teach spelling skills to students in grades 1-6 by using phonemic, morphemic, and whole-word strategies. The WWC identified seven studies that investigated the effects of Spelling Mastery on writing achievement for students with learning disabilities. Two of those studies meet WWC evidence standards without reservations and included 70 students with learning disabilities in grades 2 through 4 in three elementary schools or receiving instruction at a summer program. Based on these two studies, the WWC found that Spelling Mastery has potentially positive effects on writing for students with learning disabilities.
|WWC IRLST11||Student Team Reading and Writing
Student Team Reading and Writing is an integrated approach to reading and language arts for young adolescents. The program includes cooperative learning classroom processes that integrate reading, writing, and language arts instruction combined with a literature anthology for high-interest reading material. The WWC reviewed four studies that investigated the effects of student team reading and writing programs on improving adolescent literacy. Two studies were quasi-experimental designs that meet WWC evidence standards with reservations. The first study examined 3,986 students in five schools, and the second looked at 1,223 students in six schools in urban districts in Maryland. Based on these two studies, the WWC found student team reading and writing programs to have potentially positive effects on comprehension and no discernible effects on general literacy achievement for adolescent learners.
|WWC IRALCI10||Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition
Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition is a reading and writing program for students in grades 2 through 6. It has three principal elements: story-related activities, direct instruction in reading comprehension, and integrated language arts/writing. Based on its review of the research, the WWC found Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition to have potentially positive effects on comprehension and general literacy achievement for adolescent learners.
|WWC IRBRSF09||Intervention: Success for All
Success for All (SFA)® is a whole-school reform model that includes a reading, writing, and oral language development program for students in prekindergarten through eighth grade. Classroom reading instruction is delivered in daily 90-minute blocks to students grouped by reading ability. Immediate intervention with tutors who are certified teachers is given each day to those students who are having difficulty reading at the same level as their classmates.
This intervention report focuses on the reading component of SFA®, which is often implemented in the context of the SFA® whole-school reform program. Although the whole-school reform program has key components that are implemented in each school, school sites may vary considerably in the number of personnel used to implement SFA®, particularly tutors and family support staff. The reading curricula are essentially the same at all schools, with each school receiving the same training, coaching support, and materials. Ratings presented in this report are not disaggregated by the variations in implementation of whole-school reforms.
|REL 2009067||Five States' Efforts to Improve Adolescent Literacy
This report describes efforts by five states—Alabama, Florida, Kentucky, New Jersey, and Rhode Island—to improve adolescent literacy. Highlighting common challenges and lessons, the report examines how each state has engaged key stakeholders, set rigorous goals and standards, aligned resources to support adolescent literacy goals, built educator capacity, and used data to measure progress.
|WWC IRECECC09||Curiosity Corner
Curiosity Corner is an early childhood curriculum emphasizing children's language and literacy skills. It comprises two sets of 38 weekly thematic units—one for three-year-olds and one for four-year-olds. Program staff conduct daily lessons using sequential daily activities.
|WWC IRBRAR08||Accelerated Reader
The Accelerated Reader program is a guided reading intervention in which teachers are closely involved with student reading of text. It involves two components, the Accelerated Reader software and Accelerated Reader Best Classroom Practices (formerly called Reading Renaissance). The Accelerated Reader software is a computerized supplementary reading program. Accelerated Reader relies on independent reading practice as a way of managing student performance by providing students and teachers feedback from quizzes based on books the students read. Accelerated Reader Best Classroom Practices are a set of recommended principles on guided independent reading (or teachers’ direction of students’ interactions with text) that ensure Accelerated Reader is implemented with integrity.
|WWC 20084027||Improving Adolescent Literacy: Effective Classroom and Intervention Practices
This guide presents strategies that classroom teachers and specialists can use to increase the reading ability of adolescent students. The recommendations aim to help students gain more from their reading tasks, improve their motivation for and engagement in the learning process, and assist struggling readers who may need intensive and individualized attention.
|WWC IRBROCR08||Open Court Reading
Open Court Reading© is an elementary basal reading program for grades K-6 developed by SRA/McGraw-Hill. The program is designed to systematically teach decoding, comprehension, inquiry and investigation, and writing in a logical progression. Part 1 of each unit, Preparing to Read, focuses on phonemic awareness, sounds and letters, phonics, fluency, and word knowledge. Part 2, Reading and Responding, emphasizes reading for understanding with literature, comprehension, inquiry, and practical reading applications. Part 3, Language Arts, focuses on communication skills such as spelling and vocabulary; writing process strategies; English language conventions such as grammar, speaking, and penmanship; and basic computer skills.
|REL 2007014||English Language Proficiency Assessment in the Pacific Region
Using various approaches to identify English language learners, several Pacific Region jurisdictions are developing English language proficiency standards and assessments aligned with those standards. Others are working on content standards, including language arts, and have expressed interest in developing English language proficiency standards but lack formal assessment mechanisms.
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