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|NCES 2017147||Best Practices for Determining Subgroup Size in
Accountability Systems While Protecting Personally
Identifiable Student Information
The Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) of 2015 (Public Law 114-95) requires each state to create a plan for its statewide accountability system. In particular, ESSA calls for state plans that include strategies for reporting education outcomes by grade for all students and for economically disadvantaged students, students from major racial and ethnic groups, students with disabilities, and English learners. In their plans, states must specify a single value for the minimum number of students needed to provide statistically sound data for all students and for each subgroup, while protecting personally identifiable information (PII) of individual students. This value is often referred to as the "minimum n-size."
Choosing a minimum n-size is complex and involves important and difficult trade-offs. For example, the selection of smaller minimum n-sizes will ensure that more students' outcomes are included in a state's accountability system, but smaller n-sizes can also increase the likelihood of the inadvertent disclosure of PII. Similarly, smaller minimum n-sizes enable more complete data to be reported, but they may also affect the reliability and statistical validity of the data.
To inform this complex decision, Congress required the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) of the U.S. Department of Education to produce and widely disseminate a report on "best practices for determining valid, reliable, and statistically significant minimum numbers of students for each of the subgroups of students" (Every Student Succeeds Act of 2015 (ESSA 2015), Public Law 114-95). Congress also directed that the report describe how such a minimum number "will not reveal personally identifiable information about students." ESSA prohibits IES from recommending any specific minimum number of students in a subgroup (Section 9209).
IES produced this report to assist states as they develop accountability systems that (1) comply with ESSA; (2) incorporate sound statistical practices and protections; and (3) meet the information needs of state accountability reporting, while still protecting the privacy of individual students.
As presented in this report, the minimum n-size refers to the lowest statistically defensible subgroup size that can be reported in a state accountability system. Before getting started, it is important to understand that the minimum n-size a state establishes and the privacy protections it implements will directly determine how much data will be publicly reported in the system.
|NCES 2017012||NATES 2013: Nonresponse Bias Analysis Report
The 2013 National Adult Training and Education Survey (NATES) was a pilot study that tested the feasibility of using address-based sampling and a mailed questionnaire to collect data on the education, training, and credentials of U.S. adults. This report presents study findings related to nonresponse bias. Nonresponse adjustments corrected for bias on key outcome measures, but not for many background variables. Auxiliary data were found to be of potential use in correcting this bias.
|NCES 2016332||NCES-Barron's Admissions Competitiveness Index Data Files: 1972, 1982, 1992, 2004, , 2008, 2014
The NCES−Barron’s Admissions Competitiveness Index Data Files: 1972, 1982, 1992, 2004, 2008, 2014 (NCES 2015-332) contain the Barron’s college admissions competitiveness selectivity ratings for 1972, 1982, 1992, 2004, 2008, 2014 along with the NCES Higher Education Information System (HEGIS) FICE ID and Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) UNITID codes and the Office of Postsecondary Education OPEID codes of each postsecondary institution included. Also included are the city and state of each institution included in the Barron’s lists. The years selected correspond to the years that students in the longitudinal studies (NLS-72, HS&B, NELS:88, ELS-2000,HSLS:09, and BPS) initially attended the 4-year postsecondary institutions. Each of the six NCES−Barron’s index files is available in a separate worksheet in an Excel workbook file that is in Excel 1997–2003 compatible format.
|NCES 2016151||Public-Use Data Files and Documentation (FRSS 107): Programs and Services for High School English Learners
This file contains data from a fast-response survey titled "Programs and Services for High School English Learners." This survey provides the first nationally representative data on programs and services for high school English learners (ELs). NCES released the results of this survey in the First Look report “Programs and Services for High School English Learners in Public School Districts: 2015 –16” (NCES 2016-150).
Questionnaires and cover letters were mailed to the superintendent of each sampled district in September 2015. The letter stated the purpose of the study and requested that the questionnaire be completed by the person(s) in the district most knowledgeable about programs and services for English learners at the high school level. Respondents were asked to respond for the current 2015–16 school year. Respondents were offered options of completing the survey on paper or online. Telephone follow-up for survey nonresponse and data clarification was initiated in October 2015 and completed in February 2016. The weighted response rate was 89 percent.
Respondents reported about programs and services for high school ELs, including instructional approaches, newcomer programs, online or computer-based programs, and programs or services (e.g., tutoring) designed specifically for high school ELs.
|NCES 2017015||Student Reports of Bullying: Results From the 2015 School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey
These Web Tables use data from the 2015 School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) to show the relationship between bullying victimization and other variables of interest such as the reported presence of gangs, guns, drugs, and alcohol at school; select security measures; student criminal victimization; and personal fear, avoidance behaviors, fighting, and weapon-carrying at school.
|NCES 2017004||Split-Half Administration of the 2015 School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey
The 2015 School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) administration contained an embedded, randomized split-half experiment to compare two versions of an updated series of questions on bullying. This report outlines the development, methodology, and results of the split-half experiment.
|NCES 2016037||Student Victimization in U.S. Schools: Results From the 2011 School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey
This document reports data from the 2011 School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS).1 The Web Tables show the extent to which students with different personal characteristics report being the victims of crime at school. Estimates include responses by student characteristics: student sex, race/ethnicity, grade, and household income.
|NCES 2016014||Digest of Education Statistics, 2015
The 51st in a series of publications initiated in 1962, the Digest's purpose is to provide a compilation of statistical information covering the broad field of education from prekindergarten through graduate school. The Digest contains data on a variety of topics, including the number of schools and colleges, teachers, enrollments, and graduates, in addition to educational attainment, finances, and federal funds for education, libraries, and international comparisons.
|NCES 2017048||Performance of U.S. 15-Year-Old Students in Science, Reading, and Mathematics Literacy in an International Context: First Look at PISA 2015
This report provides international comparisons of student performance in science, reading, and mathematics literacy from the PISA 2015 assessment. In 2015, 70 education systems, including the United States, participated in PISA. In addition, Massachusetts, North Carolina, and Puerto Rico participated in PISA separately from the nation.
The report includes average scores in the three subject areas; score gaps across the three subject areas between the top (90th percentile) and low performing (10th percentile) students; the percentages of students reaching selected PISA proficiency levels; and trends in U.S. performance in the three subjects over time.
Additional findings from PISA 2015 are available on the NCES PISA website at http://nces.ed.gov/surveys/pisa/pisa2015/.
|NCES 2017420||Use of Private Loans by Postsecondary Students: Selected Years 2003–04 through 2011–12
This Statistics in Brief examines the use of private education loans by both undergraduate and graduate students in the 2003–04, 2007–08, and 2011–12 academic years. The data used in this study are nationally representative of U.S. postsecondary students and are drawn from three administrations of the National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS)—NPSAS:04, NPSAS:08, and NPSAS:12.
|NCES 2017414||New American Undergraduates: Enrollment Trends and Age at Arrival of Immigrant and Second-Generation Students
This Statistics in Brief profiles the demographic and enrollment characteristics of New Americans (undergraduates who are immigrants or children of immigrants). Based on data from the 2011–12 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:12), the report examines how the proportions of immigrants (first generation) and children of immigrants (second generation) in postsecondary education have changed over time and compares the demographic characteristics, academic preparation, and postsecondary enrollment of these New Americans with other undergraduates (third generation or higher). The core analysis compares the demographic characteristics, academic preparation, and enrollment characteristics of New American students with a focus on Asian and Hispanic undergraduates. The report also examines immigrant students’ age at arrival in the United States and its association with their academic preparation and enrollment.
|NCES 2017002||Highlights from TIMSS and TIMSS Advanced 2015: Mathematics and Science Achievement of U.S. Students in Grades 4 and 8 and in Advanced Courses at the End of High School in an International Context
The Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2015 is the sixth administration of this international comparative study since 1995 when first administered. TIMSS is used to compare over time the mathematics and science knowledge and skills of fourth- and eighth-graders. TIMSS is designed to align broadly with mathematics and science curricula in the participating countries. The results, therefore, suggest the degree to which students have learned mathematics and science concepts and skills likely to have been taught in school. In 2015, TIMSS was administered in 49 IEA member countries and 6 other education systems at grade 4, and in 38 IEA member countries and 6 other education systems at grade 8.
TIMSS Advanced assesses the advanced mathematics and physics knowledge and skills of students at the end of high school who have taken courses in advanced mathematics and physics. TIMSS Advanced 2015 represents only the second administration in which the United States has participated since the first administration in 1995, and is designed to align broadly with the advanced mathematics and physics curricula in the participating countries. The results, therefore, suggest the degree to which students have learned the advanced mathematics and physics concepts and skills likely to have been taught in school. Nine countries participated in TIMSS Advanced 2015.
The focus of the report is on the performance of U.S. students relative to their peers in other countries on TIMSS and TIMSS Advanced 2015, and, for TIMSS results, on changes in achievement since 2011 and 1995. For a number of participating countries and education systems, changes in achievement can be documented over the last 20 years, from 1995 to 2015. This report also describes the characteristics of students who participated in the advanced mathematics and physics assessments at the end of high school, and describes the performance of males and females in these subjects. In addition, it includes achievement in Florida, a U.S. state that participated in TIMSS both as part of the U.S. national sample of public and private schools as well as individually with state-level samples of public schools.
In addition to numerical scale results, TIMSS also includes international benchmarks. The TIMSS international benchmarks provide a way to interpret the scale scores by describing the types of knowledge and skills students demonstrate at different levels along the TIMSS scale.
Additional tables with TIMSS and TIMSS Advanced results will be available on the NCES website at http://nces.ed.gov/timss/timss15.asp.
|NCES 2016145||Student Victimization in U.S. Schools: Results From the 2013 School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey
This report uses data from the 2013 School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) to examine student criminal victimization and the characteristics of crime victims and nonvictims. It also provides findings on student reports of the presence of gangs and weapons and the availability of drugs and alcohol at school, student reports of bullying and cyberbullying, and fear and avoidance behaviors of crime victims and nonvictims at school.
|NCES 2016112REV||Postsecondary Institutions and Price of Attendance in 2015-16; Degrees and Other Awards Conferred: 2014-15; and 12-Month Enrollment: 2014-15: First Look (Provisional Data)
This First Look is a revised version of the preliminary report released on July 14, 2016. It includes fully edited and imputed data from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) fall 2015 collection, which included three survey components: Institutional Characteristics for the 2015-16 academic year, Completions covering the period July 1, 2014, through June 30, 2015, and data on 12-Month Enrollment for the 2014-15 academic year.
|NCES 2016107||Employment Status of Postsecondary Completers in 2009: Examination of Credential Level and Occupational Credentials
This Data Point uses data from the 2009 follow-up to the 2004 Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study to examine the rates of employment among students who do and do not earn a postsecondary credential, and among those who earn a credential in an occupational versus academic field. The Data Point also looks at the percent of students who get a job related to their field of study.