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Table 4.2. Early childhood school readiness definitions, assessments, and interventions for children not meeting expectations, by state: 2020

State State has a statutory
definition of school readiness
State has developed
language regarding the
assessment of readiness
for kindergarten students
State has programs and
interventions for students
scoring below grade level on
kindergarten-grade 3
   United States2 17 31 41  
Alabama No No Yes  
Alaska No Yes No  
Arizona No No Yes  
Arkansas No Yes Yes  
California No Yes Yes  
Colorado Yes Yes Yes  
Connecticut Yes Yes Yes  
Delaware Yes Yes Yes  
District of Columbia Yes Yes Yes  
Florida Yes Yes Yes  
Georgia No No Yes  
Hawaii Yes No No  
Idaho No No Yes  
Illinois Yes Yes Yes  
Indiana No Yes Yes  
Iowa No Yes Yes  
Kansas No No Yes  
Kentucky Yes Yes Yes  
Louisiana Yes Yes No  
Maine No No Yes 3
Maryland Yes Yes Yes  
Massachusetts No Yes No  
Michigan No Yes Yes  
Minnesota Yes Yes Yes  
Mississippi Yes Yes Yes  
Missouri No No Yes  
Montana No No No  
Nebraska No Yes No  
Nevada No Yes Yes  
New Hampshire No No No  
New Jersey No No No  
New Mexico No Yes Yes  
New York No Yes Yes  
North Carolina Yes Yes Yes  
North Dakota No Yes Yes  
Ohio No Yes Yes  
Oklahoma No Yes Yes  
Oregon Yes Yes No  
Pennsylvania No No No  
Rhode Island No Yes Yes  
South Carolina Yes Yes Yes  
South Dakota No No Yes  
Tennessee No No Yes  
Texas Yes No Yes  
Utah No Yes Yes  
Vermont No No Yes  
Virginia No No Yes  
Washington No Yes Yes 4
West Virginia Yes No Yes  
Wisconsin No No Yes  
Wyoming No No Yes  
1 The interventions that states identified for students in grades K-3 ranged from extended instructional time to individualized reading programs.
2 National total reflects the number of "Yes" responses for the column.
3 Maine school districts are required to provide interventions to students in grades K-12 to support them in meeting academic standards and requirements. Interventions must be timely and based on ongoing formative assessments and progress.
4 In Washington, superintendents are required to develop a list of intervention strategies to support student reading skills and provide that list of interventions to the state department of education.
NOTE: The information in this table was collected from state statutes, rules and regulations. A profile was sent to each state for review and modification, as needed. A "No" response means the information is not specified in statute or regulation.
SOURCE: Education Commission of the States, 50-State Comparison: State Kindergarten-Through-Third-Grade Policies, retrieved March 23, 2022 from