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Staff Qualifications and Development

States have long been concerned with ensuring the qualifications of teachers and other educational staff. The tables in this section focus on certification and licensure standards for teachers and administrators, teacher induction/mentoring programs, and teacher professional development opportunities. Additional national information about K-12 school staffing is available from the NCES Schools and Staffing Survey.

Data Tables

Table 3.1 Test requirements for initial certification of elementary and secondary teachers, by type of test and state: 2017 and 2018
Table 3.2 State initial licensure requirements for teacher education in subject area taught, written teacher assessments, and clinical training experiences, by state: 2011–12
Table 3.3 States with charter school caps, automatic exemptions, required teacher certification, and identification of special education responsibilities for charter schools, by state: 2017–18
Table 3.4 State standards and requirements for administrator licensure, by state: 2018  Updated!
Table 3.5 Use of technology and capacity to use technology, by state: 2008–09
Table 3.6 State policies regarding teaching of English Language Learner (ELL) students, by state: 2008–09
Table 3.7 Requirements for participation in state-funded induction programs and mentoring programs for beginning teachers, whether standards exist for mentors, or reduced-workload policies for first-year teachers, by state: 2011–12
Table 3.8 State encouragement and support for teacher professional development and incentives for earning National Board Certification, by state: 2011–12
Table 3.9 State policies for evaluating teacher performance, by state: 2011–12
Table 3.10 State requires parental notification of out-of-field teachers and states with a ban or cap on the number of out-of-field teachers, by state: 2011–12
Table 3.11 Accountability for effectiveness of teacher education programs, by state: 2011–12
Table 3.12 States providing incentives for teachers and administrators to work in targeted schools, by state: 2011–12
Table 3.13 State standards and requirements for arts education endorsement, licensure and certification, by state: 2012 and 2018 
Table 3.14 Types of training and support states provide to guide teachers and principals through the transition to the Common Core State Standards/College- and Career- Ready Standards, by state: 2013
Table 3.15 State prekindergarten standards and teacher qualifications, by state: 2016–17