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Indicator 2: Nativity
(Last Updated: August 2016)

In 2014, about 97 percent of U.S. children under age 18 were born within the United States. The percentages of Asian children (79 percent), Pacific Islander children (90 percent), and Hispanic children (94 percent) born within the United States were below the average of 97 percent for all children; in contrast, the percentages born within the United States for Black children (97 percent), White children and children of Two or more races (99 percent each), and American Indian/Alaska Native children (rounds to 100 percent) were above the average for all children.


Figure 2.1. Percentage of the population born within the United States, by race/ethnicity: 2004 and 2014

Figure 2.1. Percentage of the population born within the United States, by race/ethnicity: 2004 and 2014


1 Total includes respondents who wrote in some other race that was not included as an option on the questionnaire, and therefore could not be placed into any of the other groups.
NOTE: Born within the United States includes those born in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and the Northern Marianas, as well as those born abroad to U.S.-citizen parents. Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. Although rounded numbers are displayed, the figures are based on unrounded estimates.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Census Bureau, American Community Survey (ACS), 2004 and 2014. See Digest of Education Statistics 2015, table 101.30.


In 2014, about 87 percent of the U.S. population was born within the United States,1 compared with 88 percent in 2004. The percentage of the population born within the United States varied across racial/ethnic groups. For instance, in 2014, the percentages of Asian (33 percent), Hispanic (65 percent), and Pacific Islander (79 percent) people born within the United States were below the national average of 87 percent. The percentages of people who were Black (91 percent), of Two or more races (93 percent), White (96 percent), and American Indian/Alaska Native (99 percent) were above this average. The percentage of the population born within the United States was lower in 2014 than in 2004 for Black individuals (91 vs. 93 percent) and people of Two or more races (93 vs. 96 percent); in contrast, this percentage was higher in 2014 than in 2004 for Hispanic individuals (65 vs. 61 percent).


Figure 2.2. Percentage of the population under 18 years old born within the United States, by race/ethnicity: 2004 and 2014

Figure 2.2. Percentage of the population under 18 years old born within the United States, by race/ethnicity: 2004 and 2014


1 Total includes respondents who wrote in some other race that was not included as an option on the questionnaire, and therefore could not be placed into any of the other groups.
2 In 2004 and 2014, the American Indian/Alaska Native population under 18 years old born within the United States rounded to 100 percent.
NOTE: Born within the United States includes those born in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and the Northern Marianas, as well as those born abroad to U.S.-citizen parents. Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. Although rounded numbers are displayed, the figures are based on unrounded estimates.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Census Bureau, American Community Survey (ACS), 2004 and 2014. See Digest of Education Statistics 2015, table 101.30.


In 2014, about 97 percent of children under age 18 were born within the United States, compared with 96 percent in 2004. The percentages of Asian children (79 percent), Pacific Islander children (90 percent), and Hispanic children (94 percent) born within the United States in 2014 were below the average of 97 percent for all children; in contrast, the percentages born within the United States for Black children (97 percent),2 White children and children of Two or more races (99 percent each), and American Indian/Alaska Native children (rounds to 100 percent) were above the average for all children. The percentage of children born within the United States was 5 percentage points higher in 2014 than in 2004 for Hispanic children (94 vs. 89 percent); in contrast, this percentage was lower in 2014 than in 2004 for Black children (97 vs. 98 percent).


Figure 2.3 Percentage of the Hispanic population under 18 years old born within the United States, by subgroup: 2014

Figure 2.3 Percentage of the Hispanic population under 18 years old born within the United States, by subgroup: 2014


1 In 2014, the Puerto Rican population under 18 years old born within the United States rounded to 100 percent.
2 Includes other Central American subgroups not shown separately.
NOTE: Born within the United States includes those born in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and the Northern Marianas, as well as those born abroad to U.S.-citizen parents.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Census Bureau, American Community Survey (ACS), 2014. See Digest of Education Statistics 2015, table 101.30.


In 2014, about 94 percent of Hispanic children under age 18 were born in the United States. The percentages born within the United States were higher for the following Hispanic subgroups compared to the average for Hispanic children overall: Mexican (95 percent), Spaniard (96 percent), Panamanian (97 percent), and Puerto Rican (rounds to 100 percent), as well as the average for Other Hispanic children not included in other subgroups (96 percent). The percentages for Costa Rican and Nicaraguan children were not measurably different from the average for Hispanic children overall. The percentages for all other subgroups were lower than the Hispanic average and ranged from 72 percent for Venezuelan children to 91 percent for Ecuadorian children.


Figure 2.4. Percentage of the Asian population under 18 years old born within the United States, by subgroup: 2014

Figure 2.4. Percentage of the Asian population under 18 years old born within the United States, by subgroup: 2014


1 Includes Taiwanese.
2 In addition to the subgroups shown, also includes Sri Lankan.
3 Consists of Indonesian and Malaysian.
NOTE: Born within the United States includes those born in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and the Northern Marianas, as well as those born abroad to U.S.-citizen parents. Asian category excludes persons of Hispanic ethnicity. Although rounded numbers are displayed, the figures are based on unrounded estimates.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Census Bureau, American Community Survey (ACS), 2014. See Digest of Education Statistics 2015, table 101.30.


Among Asian children under age 18 in 2014, about 79 percent were born in the United States. The percentages were higher than the average for Asian children overall for the following Asian subgroups: Vietnamese (86 percent), Laotian (92 percent), Hmong (94 percent), and Cambodian (94 percent). The percentages for Filipino, Japanese, Asian Indian, and Pakistani children, as well as for Other Southeast Asian children not included in other subgroups were not measurably different from the average for Asian children overall. The percentages for all other subgroups were lower than the average and ranged from 33 percent for Bhutanese children to 77 percent for Chinese children.

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1 Consistent with the Census definition, born within the United States includes those born in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and the Northern Marianas, as well as those born abroad to U.S.-citizen parents.
2 Due to rounding, statistically significant differences may not always be apparent. The percentage of children under age 18 born within the United States was 96.6 percent overall and 97.4 percent for Black children.