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Education Statistics Quarterly
Vol 5, Issue 4, Topic: Postsecondary Education
Postsecondary Institutions in the United States: Fall 2002 and Degrees and Other Awards Conferred: 2001–02
By: Laura G. Knapp, Janice E. Kelly, Roy W. Whitmore, Shiying Wu, and Lorraine M. Gallego
 
This article was originally published as the Summary of the E.D. TAB report of the same name. The universe data are from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS).  
 
 

Introduction

This report presents findings from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) fall 2002 data collection, which included institutional characteristics data for the 2002–03 academic year and completions1 data covering the period July 1, 2001, through June 30, 2002. These data were collected through the IPEDS web-based data collection system.

Since 1985, IPEDS has collected data from postsecondary institutions in the United States (the 50 states and the District of Columbia) and its outlying areas.2 For IPEDS, a postsecondary institution is defined as an organization that is open to the public and has as its primary mission the provision of postsecondary education. IPEDS defines postsecondary education as formal instructional programs with a curriculum designed primarily for students who are beyond the compulsory age for high school. This includes academic, vocational, and continuing professional education programs and excludes institutions that offer only avocational (leisure) and adult basic education programs.

Participation in IPEDS was a requirement for the 6,508 institutions that participated in Title IV federal student financial aid programs such as Pell Grants or Stafford Loans during the 2002–03 academic year.3 Title IV schools are a widely varied group of institutions that include traditional colleges and universities, 2-year institutions, schools of cosmetology, and for-profit degree-granting institutions, among others. In addition, the 80 central and system offices listed in the IPEDS universe are expected to provide minimal data through a shortened version of the Institutional Characteristics component. Institutions that do not participate in Title IV programs may participate in the IPEDS data collection on a voluntary basis.

Tabulations in this report present selected data items collected from the 6,354 Title IV institutions in the United States and the 154 Title IV institutions in the outlying areas in fall 2002. Additional detailed information is available through the various IPEDS web tools.4 Institutions provided institutional characteristics and price data for the 2002–03 academic year and completions data (degrees and other formal awards conferred) for the 2001–02 academic year. This report presents data for all Title IV institutions.


Institutional Characteristics

The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) and other researchers use data from the Institutional Characteristics component of IPEDS to classify postsecondary institutions based on a variety of characteristics. Data on sector, level, control, and affiliation allow classification within general categories. More specific categories of institutions can be defined by using additional data, such as types of programs offered, levels of degrees and awards, accreditation, calendar system, admission requirements, student charges, and basic enrollment information.

Institutions were classified as degree-granting if they awarded at least one associate's or higher degree in academic year 2001–02. Of the 6,508 Title IV institutions, 4,251 institutions, or 65 percent of all Title IV institutions, granted a degree during this period (table A).

Institutions may be further classified by their highest level of offering (level) and control. Among the 4,168 Title IV degree-granting institutions located in the United States, 59 percent were classified as 4 years and above, meaning they offered a bachelor's or higher degree; the remaining 41 percent offered the associate's as the highest degree (figure 1). Considering the 2,186 Title IV institutions in the United States that award certificates only (non-degree-granting), 77 percent offered certificates for completing programs below the baccalaureate level of less than 2 years' duration (less than 2 years), another 21 percent offered certificates requiring at least 2 but less than 4 years of study, and 1 percent offered certificates at the post-baccalaureate level or higher and are classified with the 4-years-and-above institutions.

Further examination of the Title IV degree-granting institutions located in the United States indicates that 41 percent were public institutions, 40 percent were private not-for-profit institutions, and 19 percent were private for-profit institutions. Of the 2,186 non-degree-granting Title IV institutions located in the United States, 16 percent were public institutions, 12 percent were private not-for-profit institutions, and 73 percent were private for-profit institutions.


Table A. Title IV institutions, by geographic area, control of institution, degree-granting status, and level of institution: United States and outlying areas, academic year 2002–03
Degree-granting status and level of institution Total United States Outlying areas
Total Public Private Total Public Private
Not-for-profit For-profit Not-for-profit For-profit
All institutions 6,508 6,354 2,051 1,921 2,382 154 29 48 77
 
4 years and above 2,551 2,490 632 1,558 300 61 18 36 7
At least 2 but less than 4 years 2,194 2,170 1,155 251 764 24 11 3 10
Less than 2 years 1,763 1,694 264 112 1,318 69 0 9 60
 
Degree-granting 4,251 4,168 1,712 1,665 791 83 29 39 15
   4 years and above 2,527 2,466 631 1,538 297 61 18 36 7
   At least 2 but less than 4 years 1,724 1,702 1,081 127 494 22 11 3 8
   Less than 2 years
 
Non-degree-granting 2,257 2,186 339 256 1,591 71 0 9 62
   4 years and above 24 24 1 20 3 0 0 0 0
   At least 2 but less than 4 years 470 468 74 124 270 2 0 0 2
   Less than 2 years 1,763 1,694 264 112 1,318 69 0 9 60

Not applicable.

NOTE: Data are not imputed. The item response rates for all cells on this table are 100 percent. The outlying areas are American Samoa, the Federated States of Micronesia, Guam, the Marshall Islands, the Northern Marianas, Palau, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), Fall 2002.



Figure 1. Title IV institutions, by degree-granting status and level and control of institution: United States, academic year 2002–03
Figure 1. Title IV institutions, by degree-granting status and level and control of institution: United States, academic year 2002-03

NOTE: Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), Fall 2002.

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Completions

During the 2001–02 academic year, about 2.5 million degrees were awarded by Title IV degree-granting institutions located in the United States (table B). Of the total number of degrees awarded, 24 percent were associate's degrees, 52 percent were bachelor's degrees, 19 percent were master's degrees, 2 percent were doctoral degrees, and 3 percent were first-professional degrees.5

Control of institutions

Public institutions awarded two-thirds (65 percent) of all degrees from Title IV degree-granting institutions in the United States during the 2001–02 academic year, while private not-for-profit institutions awarded 30 percent and private for-profit institutions accounted for the remaining 5 percent (table C). Public and private not-for-profit institutions awarded more bachelor's degrees than any other type of degree. Bachelor's degrees accounted for 52 percent of all degrees awarded by public institutions and 56 percent of all degrees awarded by private not-for-profit institutions during 2001–02 (table B). Private for-profit institutions, on the other hand, were more likely to award associate's degrees. Associate's degrees accounted for 65 percent of the degrees awarded by private for-profit institutions during the 2001–02 academic year, while bachelor's degrees accounted for about 22 percent.

Gender and race/ethnicity of recipients

Women continued to earn more degrees than men in academic year 2001–02 (table C). Overall, about 58 percent of all degrees were awarded to women. Women earned more associate's, bachelor's, and master's degrees than men in 2001–02. They received 60 percent of the associate's degrees, 57 percent of the bachelor's degrees, and 59 percent of the master's degrees. While men earned more doctor's and first-professional degrees, 54 percent and 53 percent, respectively, women earned a higher percentage of these degrees in 2001–02 than in previous years (Knapp et al. 2003).

Over two-thirds (68 percent) of all degrees conferred during the 2001–02 academic year were awarded to White, non-Hispanic students; 22 percent were awarded to members of groups other than White; and 10 percent were awarded to nonresident aliens or individuals whose race/ethnicity was unknown (5 percent each). The majority of degrees at each level were awarded to White, non-Hispanic students: 67 percent of associate's degrees, 71 percent of bachelor's degrees, 62 percent of master's degrees, 57 percent of doctor's degrees, and 69 percent of first-professional degrees.

The proportion of degrees awarded to members of groups other than White students was highest at the associate's level, where they received 27 percent of these degrees. These students were also awarded 22 percent of bachelor's degrees, 17 percent of master's degrees, 14 percent of doctor's degrees, and 24 percent of first-professional degrees.

Although the proportion of degrees awarded to nonresident aliens varied by level, they received 13 percent of all master's degrees and 25 percent of all doctor's degrees, much higher proportions than any group other than White, non-Hispanic.

Table B. Number and percentage of degrees conferred by Title IV degree-granting institutions, by control of institution and level of degree: United States, academic year 2001–02

Level of degree Total Public Private not-for-profit Private for-profit
Total, all degrees 2,494,009 1,623,721 751,019 119,269
Percent of total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
 
Associate's degrees 595,133 471,660 45,761 77,712
Percent of total 23.9 29.0 6.1 65.2
 
Bachelor's degrees 1,291,900 841,180 424,322 26,398
Percent of total 51.8 51.8 56.5 22.1
 
Master's degrees 482,118 249,820 218,034 14,264
Percent of total 19.3 15.4 29.0 12.0
 
Doctor's degrees 44,160 27,622 15,882 656
Percent of total 1.8 1.7 2.1 0.6
 
First-professional degrees1 80,698 33,439 47,020 239
Percent of total 3.2 2.1 6.3 0.2

1First-professional degrees are awarded after completion of the academic requirements to begin practice in the following professions: chiropractic (D.C. or D.C.M.); dentistry (D.D.S. or D.M.D.); law (L.L.B. or J.D.); medicine (M.D.); optometry (O.D.); osteopathic medicine (D.O.); pharmacy (Pharm.D.); podiatry (D.P.M., D.P., or Pod.D.); theology (M.Div., M.H.L., B.D., or Ordination); or veterinary medicine (D.V.M.).

NOTE: Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), Fall 2002.

Table C. Degrees conferred by Title IV degree-granting institutions and percent distribution, by level of degree, control of institution, gender, and race/ethnicity: United States, academic year 2001–02

Control of institution, gender, and race/ethnicity Total degrees Associate's degrees Bachelor's degrees
Number Percent of total Number Percent of total Number Percent of total
All institutions 2,494,009 100.0 595,133 100.0 1,291,900 100.0
Control of institution
   Public 1,623,721 65.1 471,660 79.3 841,180 65.1
   Private not-for-profit 751,019 30.1 45,761 7.7 424,322 32.8
   Private for-profit 119,269 4.8 77,712 13.1 26,398 2.0
Gender
   Men 1,053,260 42.2 238,109 40.0 549,816 42.6
   Women 1,440,749 57.8 357,024 60.0 742,084 57.4
Race/ethnicity
   White, non-Hispanic 1,696,327 68.0 401,196 67.4 914,660 70.8
   Black, non-Hispanic 220,561 8.8 64,704 10.9 111,177 8.6
   Hispanic 162,176 6.5 57,604 9.7 79,029 6.1
   Asian/Pacific Islander 143,197 5.7 29,692 5.0 79,130 6.1
   American Indian/Alaska Native 18,441 0.7 6,565 1.1 8,743 0.7
   Race/ethnicity unknown 123,079 4.9 23,095 3.9 57,705 4.5
   Nonresident alien 130,228 5.2 12,277 2.1 41,456 3.2
Control of institution, gender, and race/ethnicity Master's degrees Doctor's degrees First-professional degrees1
Number Percent of total Number Percent of total Number Percent of total
All institutions 482,118 100.0 44,160 100.0 80,698 100.0
Control of institution
   Public 249,820 51.8 27,622 62.5 33,439 41.4
   Private not-for-profit 218,034 45.2 15,882 36.0 47,020 58.3
   Private for-profit 14,264 3.0 656 1.5 239 0.3
Gender
   Men 199,120 41.3 23,708 53.7 42,507 52.7
   Women 282,998 58.7 20,452 46.3 38,191 47.3
Race/ethnicity
   White, non-Hispanic 299,373 62.1 25,319 57.3 55,779 69.1
   Black, non-Hispanic 36,906 7.7 2,268 5.1 5,506 6.8
   Hispanic 20,450 4.2 1,352 3.1 3,741 4.6
   Asian/Pacific Islander 23,015 4.8 2,184 4.9 9,176 11.4
   American Indian/Alaska Native 2,405 0.5 175 0.4 553 0.7
   Race/ethnicity unknown 36,286 7.5 1,933 4.4 4,060 5.0
   Nonresident alien 63,683 13.2 10,929 24.7 1,883 2.3

1First-professional degrees are awarded after completion of the academic requirements to begin practice in the following professions: chiropractic (D.C. or D.C.M.); dentistry (D.D.S. or D.M.D.); law (L.L.B. or J.D.); medicine (M.D.); optometry (O.D.); osteopathic medicine (D.O.); pharmacy (Pharm.D.); podiatry (D.P.M., D.P., or Pod.D.); theology (M.Div., M.H.L., B.D., or Ordination); or veterinary medicine (D.V.M.).

NOTE: Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), Fall 2002.

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Tuition and Fees

The overall increase in tuition and fees charged by degree-granting institutions between 1997–98 and 2002–03 varied by institution level and student residency status (table D). Note that these are average institutional charges to all students; the numbers do not reflect average amounts paid by students because charges are not weighted by enrollment, nor is financial aid taken into consideration (Choy and Berker 2003). Average charges for undergraduate tuition and required fees at 4-year public institutions rose 32 percent for in-state students and 29 percent for out-of-state students between 1997–98 and 2002–03. During this same period, average undergraduate tuition and required fees increased 28 percent at 4-year private not-for-profit institutions, and 35 percent at 4-year private for-profit institutions.

Between 1997–98 and 2002–03, average tuition and required fees at 2-year public institutions increased 19 percent for in-state students and 15 percent for out- of-state students. Average undergraduate tuition and required fees increased 22 percent between 1997–98 and 2002–03 at 2-year private not-for-profit institutions, and 41 percent at 2-year private for-profit institutions.

Table D. Changes in average institutional charges for undergraduate tuition and required fees to full-time, full-year undergraduates at Title IV degree-granting institutions, by year of undergraduate tuition and required fees, level of institution, control of institution, and residency: United States, academic years 1997–98 and 2002–03

Control of institution and residency Undergraduate tuition and required fees
1997–98 2002–03 Percent change
4 years and above At least 2 but less than 4 years 4 years and above At least 2 but less than 4 years 4 years and above At least 2 but less than 4 years
 
Public institutions
  In-district
     Average charge $3,064 $1,401 $3,939 $1,675 28.6 19.5
     Median charge 2,838 1,296 3,702 1,680 30.4 29.6
 
  In-state
     Average charge 3,064 1,719 4,045 2,041 32.0 18.7
     Median charge 2,838 1,437 3,707 1,903 30.6 32.4
 
  All other
     Average charge 7,960 4,096 10,244 4,713 28.7 15.1
     Median charge 7,904 4,093 9,829 4,502 24.4 10.0
Private not-for-profit institutions
   Average charge 11,184 7,119 14,310 8,656 28.0 21.6
   Median charge 10,889 6,595 14,220 8,900 30.6 35.0
Private for-profit institutions
   Average charge 8,457 7,343 11,439 10,321 35.3 40.6
   Median charge 7,801 7,104 10,515 9,390 34.8 32.2

NOTE: Tuition data are not imputed. The item response rates for all cells on this table range from 88.9 percent to 100.0 percent. For public institutions, "in district" refers to the charges paid by a student who lives in the locality surrounding the institution, such as county; "all other" reflects out-of-state tuition and fees. Tuition and required fees are average institutional charges, not average amounts paid by students (i.e., charges are not weighted by enrollment).

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), Fall 1997 and Fall 2002.

Price of Attendance

Price of attendance is an estimate of the total amount an incoming undergraduate student should expect to pay to attend college. This price includes tuition and fees, books and supplies, room and board, and certain designated other expenses such as transportation. IPEDS collects price of attendance information for full-time, first-time, degree/certificate-seeking undergraduates from Title IV institutions. These estimates are the amounts provided by the institutions' financial aid offices and are used to determine a student's financial need.

Considering differences in price of attendance for full-time, first-time, degree/certificate-seeking undergraduates (referred to here as "undergraduates") by institutional control, 4-year private not-for-profit institutions were more expensive than either private for-profit or public institutions of the same level (table E). The average price of attendance for undergraduates attending 4-year private not-for-profit institutions in 2002–03 was $23,100 for those living on campus, $23,800 for those living off campus and not with family, and $18,000 for those living off campus with family. This was somewhat higher than the price for these same students at 4-year private for-profit institutions. Public 4-year institutions reported an average price of $12,500 for in-state undergraduates living on campus and $18,900 for out-of-state undergraduates living on campus during the 2002–03 academic year.

Two-year public institutions offered the lowest price of attendance overall during this same period, $8,600 for in-state students living on campus and $10,800 for out-of-state students living on campus. For the 2002–03 academic year, students attending private 2-year institutions paid higher prices. At private for-profit 2-year institutions, first-time students could expect to pay $19,100 if living on campus, while their counterparts at private not-for-profit institutions paid $16,300.

The average price of attendance for students living off campus and not with a family member was higher than for students living on campus, while students living with family paid less than all other categories of students across all types of institutions.

Table E. Average price of attendance for full-time, first-time, degree/certificate-seeking students at Title IV degree-granting institutions, by control of institution, residency, and level of institution: United States, academic year 2002–03

Control of institution, residency, and level of institution On-campus price Off-campus (not with family) price Off-campus (with family) price
Public institutions
  In-state
     4 years and above $12,548 $13,368 $7,656
     At least 2 but less than 4 years 8,566 9,883 5,186
 
  Out-of-state
     4 years and above 18,937 19,757 14,045
     At least 2 but less than 4 years 10,787 12,104 7,407
Private not-for-profit institutions
   4 years and above 23,094 23,847 18,007
   At least 2 but less than 4 years 16,338 18,630 12,631
Private for-profit institutions
   4 years and above 21,932 20,962 15,732
   At least 2 but less than 4 years 19,111 20,297 14,563

NOTE: Price of attendance includes tuition and fees, room and board charges, books and supplies, and other expenses.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), Fall 2002.

References

Choy, S.P., and Berker, A.M. (2003). How Families of Low- and Middle-Income Undergraduates Pay for College: Full-Time Dependent Students in 1999–2000 (NCES 2003–162). U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Available: http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch.

Knapp. L.G., Kelly, J.E., Whitmore, R.W., Wu, S., and Gallego, L.M. (2003). Postsecondary Institutions in the United States: Fall 2001 and Degrees and Other Awards Conferred: 2000–01 (NCES 2003–158). U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Available: http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch.

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Footnotes

1Completions include degrees (associate's, bachelor's, master's, doctor's, and first-professional), certificates (at all levels: undergraduate, graduate, and first-professional), and other formal awards (such as diplomas).

2The outlying areas are American Samoa, the Federated States of Micronesia, Guam, the Marshall Islands, the Northern Marianas, Palau, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands.

3Institutions participating in Title IV programs are accredited by an agency or organization recognized by the U.S. Department of Education, have a program of over 300 clock hours or 8 credit hours, have been in business for at least 2 years, and have a signed Program Participation Agreement (PPA) with the Office of Postsecondary Education (OPE), U.S. Department of Education.

4See http://nces.ed.gov/ipeds.

5First-professional degrees are awarded after completion of the academic requirements to begin practice in the following professions: chiropractic (D.C. or D.C.M.); dentistry (D.D.S. or D.M.D.); law (L.L.B. or J.D.); medicine (M.D.); optometry (O.D.); osteopathic medicine (D.O.); pharmacy (Pharm.D.); podiatry (D.P.M., D.P., or Pod.D.); theology (M.Div., M.H.L., B.D., or Ordination); or veterinary medicine (D.V.M.).


Data source: The NCES Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), Fall 2002.

For technical information, see the complete report:

Knapp, L.G., Kelly, J.E., Whitmore, R.W., Wu, S., and Gallego, L.M. (2003). Postsecondary Institutions in the United States: Fall 2002 and Degrees and Other Awards Conferred: 2001–02 (NCES 2004–154).

Author affiliations: L.G. Knapp, consultant; J.E. Kelly, R.W. Whitmore, S. Wu, and L.M. Gallego, RTI International.

For questions about content, contact Aurora D'Amico (aurora.d'amico@ed.gov).

To obtain the complete report (NCES 2004–154), visit the NCES Electronic Catalog (http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch).


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