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Education Statistics Quarterly
Vol 5, Issue 4, Topic: Postsecondary Education
Enrollment in Postsecondary Institutions, Fall 2001 and Financial Statistics, Fiscal Year 2001
By: Laura G. Knapp, Janice E. Kelly, Roy W. Whitmore, Shiying Wu, Burton Levine, and Seungho Huh
 
This article was originally published as the Summary of the E.D. TAB report of the same name. The universe data are from the NCES Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS).  
 
 

Introduction

This report presents findings from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) spring 2002 data collection, which included enrollment data for fall 2001, financial statistics for fiscal year 2001, and student financial aid data for the 2000–01 academic year. These data were collected through the IPEDS web-based data collection system.

IPEDS began collecting data in 1985 from all postsecondary institutions in the United States (the 50 states and the District of Columbia) and its outlying areas.1 For IPEDS, a postsecondary institution is defined as an organization that is open to the public and has as its primary mission the provision of postsecondary education. IPEDS defines postsecondary education as formal instructional programs with a curriculum designed primarily for students who are beyond the compulsory age for high school. This includes academic, vocational, and continuing professional education programs and excludes institutions that offer only avocational (leisure) and adult basic education programs.

Participation in IPEDS is a requirement for the 6,615 institutions that participated in Title IV federal student financial aid programs such as Pell Grants or Stafford Loans during the 2001–02 academic year.2 In addition, some of the 81 central and system offices included in IPEDS are required to respond to the Finance component of the survey if they have their own operating budgets (separate from the budgets of the individual campuses). Institutions that do not participate in Title IV programs may participate in the IPEDS data collection on a voluntary basis.

Tabulations in this report present data collected from the 6,615 Title IV institutions in spring 2002. Institutions provided enrollment, finance, student financial aid, and graduation rate data. Graduation rate data are not included in this report because the Title IV 4-year institutions were not required to provide these data in spring 2002.3

Characteristics of Enrolled Students

In fall 2001, Title IV institutions in the United States and its outlying areas enrolled 16.6 million students (table A). Of these, 86.5 percent were enrolled in undergraduate programs, 11.6 percent were enrolled in graduate programs, and 1.9 percent were enrolled in first-professional programs. The majority of students, 60.0 percent, were enrolled full time, while 40.0 percent were enrolled part time.

Women accounted for 56.6 percent of all postsecondary students enrolled in Title IV institutions in fall 2001. White, non-Hispanic students constituted 62.2 percent, and students in groups other than White constituted 28.5 percent of fall 2001 enrollment in Title IV institutions. The remaining enrollment in Title IV institutions was made up of students whose race/ethnicity was unknown and nonresident aliens (5.8 percent and 3.4 percent, respectively).

Table A. Enrollment in Title IV institutions, by student level, attendance status, gender, and race/ethnicity: United States and outlying areas, fall 2001

Student level, attendance status, gender, and race/ethnicity United States and outlying areas United States
Total students Percent Total students Percent
Total students 16,582,108 100.0 16,334,134 100.0
Student level
Undergraduate 14,346,797 86.5 14,120,740 86.4
Graduate 1,923,146 11.6 1,904,721 11.7
First-professional 1 312,165 1.9 308,673 1.9
Attendance status
Full time 9,942,376 60.0 9,745,598 59.7
Part time 6,639,732 40.0 6,588,536 40.3
Gender
Men 7,204,353 43.4 7,104,212 43.5
Women 9,377,755 56.6 9,229,922 56.5
Race/ethnicity
White, non-Hispanic 10,320,247 62.2 10,318,832 63.2
Black, non-Hispanic 1,839,470 11.1 1,837,837 11.3
Hispanic 1,767,347 10.7 1,534,051 9.4
Asian/Pacific Islander 964,606 5.8 955,322 5.8
American Indian/Alaska Native 153,845 0.9 153,826 0.9
Race/ethnicity unknown 967,345 5.8 965,690 5.9
Nonresident alien 569,248 3.4 568,576 3.5

1A first-professional student is one who is enrolled in any of the following degree programs: chiropractic, dentistry, law, medicine, optometry, osteopathic medicine, pharmacy, podiatry, theology, or veterinary medicine.

NOTE: Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. The outlying areas are American Samoa, the Federated States of Micronesia, Guam, the Marshall Islands, the Northern Marianas, Palau, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), Spring 2002.

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Characteristics of Students at Degree-Granting and Non-Degree-Granting Institutions4

During fall 2001, 16.3 million students attended Title IV institutions located within the United States (table B). Almost all of these students (15.9 million) attended degree-granting institutions, while about 406,000 students attended non-degree-granting institutions.

A majority of students attended school full time in both degree-granting and non-degree-granting institutions (59.3 percent and 73.4 percent, respectively); likewise, a majority of the students were women in both types of institutions (56.3 percent and 64.7 percent, respectively). However, the proportion of students attending degree-granting or non-degree-granting institutions differed by race/ethnicity. Table B shows that 63.5 percent of the students attending degree-granting institutions were White, non-Hispanic, compared to 48.9 percent of those attending non-degree-granting institutions. Looking at members of groups other than White, they accounted for 27.0 percent of all students at degree-granting institutions and 43.5 percent of the students at non-degree-granting institutions. The remainder were either students whose race/ethnicity was unknown or nonresident aliens.

Table B. Enrollment in Title IV institutions, by degree-granting status, level and control of institution, attendance status, gender, and race/ethnicity: United States, fall 2001

Level and control of institution, attendance status, gender, and race/ethnicity All institutions Degree-granting Non-degree granting
Total students Percent Total students Percent Total students Percent
Total students 16,334,134 100.0 15,927,987 100.0 406,147 100.0
Level of institution
4-year 9,678,426 59.3 9,677,408 60.8 1,018 0.3
2-year 6,352,269 38.9 6,250,579 39.2 101,690 25.0
Less-than-2-year 303,439 1.9 303,439 74.7
Control of institution
Public 12,370,079 75.7 12,233,156 76.8 136,923 33.7
Private not-for-profit 3,198,354 19.6 3,167,330 19.9 31,024 7.6
Private for-profit 765,701 4.7 527,501 3.3 238,200 58.6
Attendance status
Full time 9,745,598 59.7 9,447,502 59.3 298,096 73.4
Part time 6,588,536 40.3 6,480,485 40.7 108,051 26.6
Gender
Men 7,104,212 43.5 6,960,815 43.7 143,397 35.3
Women 9,229,922 56.5 8,967,172 56.3 262,750 64.7
Race/ethnicity
White, non-Hispanic 10,318,832 63.2 10,120,366 63.5 198,466 48.9
Black, non-Hispanic 1,837,837 11.3 1,756,684 11.0 81,153 20.0
Hispanic 1,534,051 9.4 1,460,088 9.2 73,963 18.2
Asian/Pacific Islander 955,322 5.8 937,953 5.9 17,369 4.3
American Indian/Alaska Native 153,826 0.9 149,764 0.9 4,062 1.0
Race/ethnicity unknown 965,690 5.9 938,523 5.9 27,167 6.7
Nonresident alien 568,576 3.5 564,609 3.5 3,967 1.0

Not applicable.

NOTE: Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), Spring 2002.

Undergraduate Enrollment by Age

During fall 2001, 13.7 million undergraduates attended Title IV degree-granting institutions located within the United States (table C). Of these, 62.6 percent were between 18 and 24 years old, the traditional age for college attendees. Only 3.5 percent were under 18 years old, while 10.2 percent were 25 to 29 years old, 18.3 percent were 30 to 49 years old, and 3.3 percent were 50 or older. Age was unknown for 2.0 percent of undergraduates.

Full-time students were more likely to be traditionally aged undergraduates than their part-time counterparts. Over 80 percent of full-time undergraduates, but only 34.7 percent of part-time undergraduates, were 18 to 24 years old. Considering institution control, undergraduates at private not-for-profit institutions were more likely to be of traditional age. Almost three-fourths of undergraduates at private not-for-profit institutions, 61.4 percent of undergraduates at public institutions, and 42.8 percent of undergraduates at private for-profit institutions were 18 to 24 years old.

Table C. Undergraduate enrollment in Title IV degree-granting institutions, by attendance status, control of institution, and age of student: United States, fall 2001

Age of student All students Full time Part time Public Private
Not-for-profit For-profit
Number enrolled
All institutions 13,715,610 8,327,640 5,387,970 10,985,871 2,257,718 472,021
Under 18 485,530 136,173 349,357 423,386 52,632 9,512
1819 3,353,652 2,867,445 486,207 2,597,804 687,469 68,379
2021 3,118,763 2,518,302 600,461 2,395,850 656,812 66,101
2224 2,107,903 1,323,528 784,375 1,748,470 292,045 67,388
2529 1,402,187 591,967 810,220 1,169,387 151,707 81,093
3034 890,776 289,489 601,287 733,249 103,115 54,412
3539 673,977 184,201 489,776 553,012 83,694 37,271
4049 944,442 217,791 726,651 785,657 116,202 42,583
5064 380,201 58,181 322,020 334,758 35,348 10,095
65 and over 78,655 3,912 74,743 75,337 2,828 490
Age unknown 279,524 136,651 142,873 168,961 75,866 34,697
Percent distribution
All institutions 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Under 18 3.5 1.6 6.5 3.9 2.3 2.0
1819 24.5 34.4 9.0 23.6 30.4 14.5
2021 22.7 30.2 11.1 21.8 29.1 14.0
2224 15.4 15.9 14.6 15.9 12.9 14.3
2529 10.2 7.1 15.0 10.6 6.7 17.2
3034 6.5 3.5 11.2 6.7 4.6 11.5
3539 4.9 2.2 9.1 5.0 3.7 7.9
4049 6.9 2.6 13.5 7.2 5.1 9.0
5064 2.8 0.7 6.0 3.0 1.6 2.1
65 and over 0.6 # 1.4 0.7 0.1 0.1
Age unknown 2.0 1.6 2.7 1.5 3.4 7.4

# Rounds to zero.

NOTE: Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), Spring 2002.

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Full-Time, First-Time Undergraduate Financial Aid Recipients5

IPEDS collects information on full-time, first-time degree/certificate-seeking undergraduates who receive financial aid. In fall 2000, there were nearly 2.0 million of these undergraduates in Title IV degree-granting institutions located in the United States (table D). About 70.3 percent of these students received financial aid during the 2000–01 academic year. The proportion of full-time, first-time degree/certificate-seeking undergraduates who received financial aid varied by institution level and control. About 56.5 percent of this cohort of undergraduates at public 2-year institutions and 71.3 percent at public 4-year institutions received financial aid, while larger proportions received aid at private institutions. At private not-for-profit institutions, 82.6 percent received aid—82.9 percent at 4-year institutions and 77.5 percent at 2-year institutions. At private for-profit institutions, 76.2 percent received aid—63.8 percent of full-time, first-time degree/certificate-seeking undergraduates in 4-year institutions compared to 84.3 percent in 2-year institutions.

Overall, the proportions of these undergraduates receiving financial aid did not change dramatically between 1999–2000 and 2000–01.6 The percentage of full-time, first-time degree/certificate-seeking undergraduates receiving financial aid rose from 69.0 percent in 1999–2000 to 70.3 percent in 2000–01. The largest difference was in private not-for-profit 2-year institutions, where the percentage of students receiving aid increased from 66.4 percent in 1999-2000 to 77.5 percent in 2000–01.

In addition to aggregate numbers of financial aid recipients, data were collected on four specific types of financial aid: federal grants, state and local government grants, institutional grants, and student loans. On average, 45.0 percent of full-time, first-time degree/certificate-seeking undergraduate financial aid recipients received one or more federal grants during the 2000–01 academic year (table E). This percentage varied somewhat by institutional control. Nearly 65 percent of these undergraduate aid recipients attending private for-profit institutions received federal grants, compared to 45.9 percent at public institutions and 34.4 percent at private not-for-profit institutions.

The proportions of full-time, first-time degree/certificate-seeking undergraduates receiving each type of aid varied by institutional control. Those aid recipients at public institutions were more likely to receive state and local grants than those attending private not-for-profit or private for-profit institutions (51.2 percent vs. 38.5 percent and 19.9 percent, respectively). Whereas students at 4-year private not-for-profit institutions were more likely (84.6 percent) to receive institutional grants than students at other types of institutions, 13.1 percent and 5.7 percent of students at 4-year and 2-year private for-profit institutions, respectively, received institutional grants. Full-time, first-time degree/certificate-seeking undergraduate students at private for-profit institutions were more likely than those attending public or private not-for-profit institutions to borrow money to attend college; 83.4 percent of these aid recipients at private for-profit institutions had student loans, compared to 46.9 percent at public institutions and 69.9 percent at private not-for-profit institutions.

Table D. Full-time, first-time degree/certificate-seeking undergraduate students enrolled and those receiving financial aid in Title IV degree-granting institutions, by control and level of institution: United States, academic years 1999–2000 and 2000–01

Control and level of institution Academic year 1999–20001 Academic year 2000–012
Number enrolled Number of financial aid recipients Percent receiving financial aid Number enrolled Number of financial aid recipients Percent receiving financial aid
Total students 1,815,469 1,253,022 69.0 1,976,600 1,390,527 70.3
 
Public 1,293,335 829,698 64.2 1,333,236 872,109 65.4
4-year 770,443 538,883 69.9 804,793 573,430 71.3
2-year 522,892 290,815 55.6 528,443 298,679 56.5
 
Private not-for-profit 422,828 344,740 81.5 439,369 363,044 82.6
4-year 405,426 333,179 82.2 419,499 347,638 82.9
2-year 17,402 11,561 66.4 19,870 15,406 77.5
 
Private for-profit 99,306 78,584 79.1 203,995 155,374 76.2
4-year 38,931 28,894 74.2 81,075 51,739 63.8
2-year 60,375 49,690 82.3 122,920 103,635 84.3

1The numbers shown reflect those institutions that reported having financial aid recipients in academic year 1999–2000.

2The numbers shown reflect those institutions that reported having financial aid recipients in academic year 2000–01.

NOTE: Student financial aid data are not imputed. The item response rates for all cells on this table range from 91.8 percent to 100.0 percent.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), Spring 2001 and Spring 2002.

Table E. Types and average amounts of financial aid received by full-time, first-time undergraduate students in Title IV degree-granting institutions, by control and level of institution: United States, academic year 2000–01

Control and level of institution Number of financial aid recipients Number receiving Percent receiving Average amount1 Number receiving Percent receiving Average amount1
 
Federal grants
State/local grants
Total students 1,390,527 625,443 45.0 $2,487 617,139 44.4 $2,039
 
Public 872,109 399,918 45.9 2,408 446,272 51.2 1,707
   4-year 573,430 213,814 37.3 2,569 293,958 51.3 2,068
   2-year 298,679 186,104 62.3 2,222 152,314 51.0 1,010
 
Private not-for-profit 363,044 124,925 34.4 2,880 139,918 38.5 2,999
   4-year 347,638 115,149 33.1 2,931 135,173 38.9 3,002
   2-year 15,406 9,776 63.5 2,272 4,745 30.8 2,898
 
Private for-profit 155,374 100,600 64.7 2,312 30,949 19.9 2,498
   4-year 51,739 29,249 56.5 2,296 9,671 18.7 2,897
   2-year 103,635 71,351 68.8 2,319 21,278 20.5 2,317
 
Institutional grants
Student loans2
Total students 1,390,527 614,405 44.2 $4,740 791,976 57.0 $3,765
 
Public 872,109 302,525 34.7 2,275 408,692 46.9 3,050
   4-year 573,430 238,454 41.6 2,616 327,676 57.1 3,212
   2-year 298,679 64,071 21.5 1,005 81,016 27.1 2,397
 
Private not-for-profit 363,044 299,198 82.4 7,368 253,724 69.9 4,020
   4-year 347,638 294,089 84.6 7,458 243,895 70.2 4,000
   2-year 15,406 5,109 33.2 2,175 9,829 63.8 4,514
 
Private for-profit 155,374 12,682 8.2 1,555 129,560 83.4 5,518
   4-year 51,739 6,758 13.1 1,621 46,794 90.4 5,750
   2-year 103,635 5,924 5.7 1,479 82,766 79.9 5,387

1Each average grant (or loan) value was calculated by dividing the total grants (or loans) awarded by the total number of recipients.

2Student loans include only loans made directly to students; federal loans to parents (PLUS) and other loans made directly to parents are not included.

NOTE: Student financial aid data are not imputed. The item response rates for all cells on this table range from 90.5 percent to 99.3 percent. The numbers shown reflect only those institutions that reported the number of recipients by types of financial aid and the average amounts received.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), Spring 2002.

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Revenues of Degree-Granting Institutions

The Finance component of the spring 2002 IPEDS collected information on the revenues and expenditures of Title IV institutions during fiscal year (FY) 2001. Revenue data were collected by source of revenue, such as tuition and fees and government appropriations, while expenditure data were collected by purpose of expenditure, including instruction, research, and public service.

As shown in table F, the largest source of revenues differed by level and control of institution. Public 4-year institutions received close to one-third (31.9 percent) of their revenues from government appropriations, while public 2-year institutions received over half (54.9 percent) of their revenues from government appropriations. Both public 4-year and public 2-year institutions received nearly one-fifth of their revenues from tuition and fees (17.8 percent and 19.5 percent, respectively).

Private not-for-profit 4-year institutions received 38.0 percent of their revenues from tuition and fees. Due to a poor investment market, the 4-year private not-for-profit institutions realized negative investment returns in FY 2001. In previous years, investment return provided an important source of funds for these institutions, whereas for FY 2001, they depended more on private gifts, grants, and contracts, and government grants and contracts (18.4 percent and 13.1 percent, respectively). In addition to revenues from tuition and fees (53.1 percent), the 2-year private not-for-profit institutions relied on government grants and contracts for 12.1 percent of their revenues and on private gifts, grants, and contracts for another 9.7 percent.

Private for-profit institutions, regardless of level, received the largest proportion of their revenues from tuition and fees. Four-year private for-profit institutions received 87.5 percent of their revenues from tuition and fees, and 2-year private for-profit institutions received 87.2 percent of their revenues from tuition and fees.

Table F. Revenues of Title IV degree-granting institutions, by level and control of institution and source of funds: United States, fiscal year 2001

Source of funds 4-year 2-year
Revenues (in thousands) Percent Revenues (in thousands) Percent
 
Public institutions1
Total revenues and investment return $145,182,096 100.0 $31,463,119 100.0
Tuition and fees 25,784,677 17.8 6,134,934 19.5
Government appropriations 46,305,760 31.9 17,265,480 54.9
Government grants and contracts 20,722,758 14.3 4,462,620 14.2
Private gifts, grants, and contracts 8,571,836 5.9 376,486 1.2
Endowment income/investment return 1,324,192 0.9 27,797 0.1
Sales and services of educational activities 4,759,931 3.3 228,442 0.7
Sales and services of auxiliary enterprises 14,804,051 10.2 1,697,784 5.4
Hospital revenue 16,759,921 11.5 0 0
Independent operations revenue 801,778 0.6 134,893 0.4
Other revenue2 5,347,193 3.7 1,134,683 3.6
 
Private not-for-profit institutions
Total revenues and investment return $81,568,928 100.0 $605,564 100.0
Tuition and fees 30,996,381 38.0 321,724 53.1
Government appropriations 770,523 0.9 8,912 1.5
Government grants and contracts 10,708,529 13.1 73,435 12.1
Private gifts, grants, and contracts 14,978,461 18.4 58,617 9.7
Contributions from affiliated entities 810,408 1.0 11,827 2.0
Investment return -3,623,323 -4.4 20,996 3.5
Sales and services of educational activities 3,452,731 4.2 15,949 2.6
Sales and services of auxiliary enterprises 8,703,316 10.7 39,294 6.5
Hospital revenue 7,125,648 8.7 694 0.1
Independent operations revenue 3,499,024 4.3 2,020 0.3
Other revenue2 4,147,227 5.1 52,096 8.6
Private for-profit institutions
Total revenues and investment return $2,952,254 100.0 $2,015,446 100.0
Tuition and fees 2,583,644 87.5 1,756,833 87.2
Government appropriations, grants, and contracts 141,801 4.8 132,901 6.6
Private grants and contracts 1,659 0.1 1,189 0.1
Investment income and investment gains (losses) 12,574 0.4 7,163 0.4
Sales and services of educational activities 40,081 1.4 23,311 1.2
Sales and services of auxiliary enterprises 106,327 3.6 66,660 3.3
Other revenue2 66,168 2.2 27,389 1.4

1Categories are combined for public institutions that use Government Accounting Standards Board (GASB) standards and public institutions that use Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) standards to prepare their financial statements.

2A change in the definition of "other revenue" resulted in a decrease in the proportion of revenues classified as "other revenue," relative to earlier E.D. TAB reports.

NOTE: Public and private institutions use different accounting standards; thus, the categories differ. When reporting standards for private not-for-profit institutions changed under statements 116 and 117 of the FASB, accounting for scholarships changed, requiring that most scholarships be netted against tuition revenue. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), Spring 2002.

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Footnotes

1The outlying areas are American Samoa, the Federated States of Micronesia, Guam, the Marshall Islands, the Northern Marianas, Palau, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands.

2Institutions participating in Title IV programs are accredited by an agency or organization recognized by the U.S. Department of Education, have a program of over 300 clock hours or 8 credit hours, have been in business for at least 2 years, and have a signed Program Participation Agreement (PPA) with the Office of Postsecondary Education (OPE), U.S. Department of Education.

3According to the regulations implementing the Student Right-to-Know Act, institutions offering athletically related student aid are required to report graduation rates beginning with the group of students who entered the institution between September 1, 1996, and August 31, 1997. Four-year institutions must start providing these data in the IPEDS spring 2003 data collection. All other institutions are required to respond as part of their Program Participation Agreement.

4Degree-granting institutions are those that grant associate's, bachelor's, master's, doctor's, or first-professional degrees. Non-degree-granting institutions award only certificates of completion; these institutions are primarily occupational/vocational schools awarding certificates in such programs as cosmetology, nursing, mechanics, aviation systems, computer and information sciences, dental assistant, and law enforcement.

5Financial aid, as used here, includes federal grants, state and local grants, institutional grants, and student loans; PLUS loans and other loans made directly to parents and college work-study programs are not included.

6Student financial aid data were not imputed; percentages are based on responding institutions only and may be subject to nonsampling error.


Data source: The NCES Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), Spring 2001 and 2002.

For technical information, see the complete report:

Knapp, L.G., Kelly, J.E., Whitmore, R.W., Wu, S., Levine, B., and Huh, S. (2003). Enrollment in Postsecondary Institutions, Fall 2001 and Financial Statistics, Fiscal Year 2001 (NCES 2004–155).

Author affiliations: L.G. Knapp, consultant; J.E. Kelly, R.W. Whitmore, S. Wu, B. Levine, and S. Huh, RTI International.

For questions about content, contact Aurora D'Amico (aurora.d'amico@ed.gov).

To obtain the complete report (NCES 2004–155), visit the NCES Electronic Catalog (http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch).


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