Last Updated: August 2023  Suggested Citation
The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) assesses student performance in reading, mathematics, and science at grades 4, 8, and 12 in both public and private schools across the nation. NAEP reading scale scores range from 0 to 500 for all grades. NAEP mathematics scale scores range from 0 to 500 for grades 4 and 8 and from 0 to 300 for grade 12. NAEP science scores range from 0 to 300 for all three grades. Even though some scale scores within each subject have the same range, the scale scores were derived separately and, therefore, scores cannot be compared across grades.^{12} This construct looks at the performance of students in reading, mathematics, and science—by race/ethnicity, sex, school poverty level, English learner (EL) status, disability status, and by state when available—as well as changes in performance over time. Although each NAEP administration includes a different group of students (e.g., students who are in grade 4 in 2019 and students who are in grade 4 in 2022), changes in performance over time can be viewed as an indirect measure of learning growth as it allows for measurement of the increases and decreases in the performance of specific subgroups over time. This indicator also includes information from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS) that provides direct measures of students’ learning growth in reading, mathematics, and science—from the time they entered kindergarten in fall 2010 through spring 2016, when most students were in fifth grade.

At grade 4, the average reading score in 2022 was highest for Asian students (241), followed by White students (227). The average reading score was lowest for Black (199) and American Indian/Alaska Native (197) students in 2022.
From 2011 through 2022,^{13} the average reading scores for Asian and White 4thgrade students were higher than those of their peers of other racial/ethnic groups. In addition, the achievement gaps^{14} between Asian students and students of other groups generally grew larger over time. For instance,
In contrast, the achievement gaps between White students and students of other racial/ethnic groups in 2022 was generally not measurably different from the corresponding gaps in 2019 or 2011. The only exceptions were the following:
NAEP scores can also be disaggregated by the poverty level of the school students attended. However, findings by school poverty level should be interpreted with caution, due to the relatively higher rate at which school poverty data are missing.^{16}
Figure 7. Average National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) reading scale scores of 4thgrade students, by selected characteristics: 2019 and 2022
^{1}Students with disabilities include those with an Individualized Education Program (IEP) and those with a 504 plan.
^{2}The nonresponse rate for free or reducedprice lunch was greater than 15 percent but not greater than 50 percent.
NOTE: Includes students in public, private, Bureau of Indian Education, and Department of Defense Education Activity schools. The reading scale scores range from 0 to 500. Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. Although rounded numbers are displayed, the figures are based on unrounded data.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 2019 and 2022 Reading Assessments, NAEP Data Explorer. See Digest of Education Statistics 2022, tables 221.10 and 221.12.
NAEP results also permit statelevel comparisons of the reading achievement of 4th and 8thgrade students in public schools.^{17} The national average reading score for 4thgrade public school students decreased from 219 in 2019 to 216 in 2022. Among the 50 states and the District of Columbia, reading scores in 2022 for 4thgrade public school students
In 2022, the average reading score was 235 for 4thgrade students in Department of Defense Education Activity (DoDEA) public schools. This score was not measurably different from the score in 2019.
Figure 8. Change in average National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) reading scale scores of 4th and 8thgrade public school students, by state or jurisdiction: 2019 to 2022
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 2019 and 2022 Reading Assessments, NAEP Data Explorer. See Digest of Education Statistics 2022, tables 221.40 and 221.60.
At grade 8, the 2022 patterns in average reading scores by race/ethnicity were similar to those observed for grade 4. At grade 8, the average reading score was highest for Asian students (283) in 2022, followed by White students (268). The average reading score was lowest for American Indian/Alaska Native students (246) and Black students (244) in 2022.
From 2011 through 2022, the average NAEP reading scores for Asian and White 8thgrade students were generally higher than the scores of their peers of other racial/ethnic groups. In addition, the 2022 achievement gaps between Asian students and students of other groups were generally larger than in 2011. For instance,
In contrast, although the WhiteBlack and WhiteHispanic achievement gaps were smaller in 2022 than in 2019, only the WhiteHispanic gap was smaller in 2022 than in 2011:
The narrowing of the WhiteBlack and WhiteHispanic achievement gaps from 2019 to 2022 was primarily driven by the decline in the average reading score of White 8thgrade students (from 272 in 2019 to 268 in 2022), while the reading score of their peers of other racial/ethnic groups did not change measurably during this period.
NAEP scores can also be disaggregated by the poverty level of the school students attended. However, findings by school poverty level should be interpreted with caution, due to the relatively higher rate at which school poverty data are missing.^{18}
Figure 9. Average National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) reading scale scores of 8thgrade students, by selected characteristics: 2019 and 2022
^{1}Students with disabilities include those with an Individualized Education Program (IEP) and those with a 504 plan.
^{2}The nonresponse rate for free or reducedprice lunch was greater than 15 percent but not greater than 50 percent.
NOTE: Includes students in public, private, Bureau of Indian Education, and Department of Defense Education Activity schools. The reading scale scores range from 0 to 500. Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. Although rounded numbers are displayed, the figures are based on unrounded data.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 2019 and 2022 Reading Assessments, NAEP Data Explorer. See Digest of Education Statistics 2022, tables 221.10 and 221.12.
At grade 8, the national average reading score for public school students decreased from 262 in 2019 to 259 in 2022. Among the 50 states and the District of Columbia, reading scores in 2022 for 8thgrade public school students
In 2022, the average reading score was 282 for 8thgrade students in DoDEA public schools. This was an increase from the score in 2019 (280).
The most recent reading assessments for grade 12 students were conducted in 2019, before the pandemic. At grade 12, the average NAEP reading score in 2019 was highest for Asian students (299), students of Two or more races (295), and White students (295). The average reading scores of students in these racial/ethnic groups were higher than those for Pacific Islander students (278), Hispanic students (274), and American Indian/Alaska Native students (272). The reading score was lowest for Black students (263).
Since 2013,^{19} the average NAEP reading score has been generally higher for 12thgrade students who were Asian, White, and of Two or more races than for their peers of other racial/ethnic groups. Additionally, the 2019 achievement gaps between these three groups and other groups were generally not measurably different when compared with the corresponding achievement gaps in 2015 or 2013. The only exceptions were as follows:
These growing achievement gaps were driven in part by a decline in the average reading score of Black 12thgrade students (from 268 in 2013 to 263 in 2019).
NAEP scores can also be disaggregated by the poverty level of the school students attended. However, findings by school poverty level should be interpreted with caution, due to the relatively higher rate at which school poverty data are missing. ^{20}
Figure 10. Average National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) reading scale scores of 12thgrade students, by selected characteristics: 2015 and 2019
^{‡}Reporting standards not met. Either there are too few cases for a reliable estimate or the coefficient of variation (CV) is 50 percent or greater
^{1}Students with disabilities include those with an Individualized Education Program (IEP) and those with a 504 plan.
^{2}The nonresponse rate for free or reducedprice lunch in 2019 was greater than 15 percent but not greater than 50 percent.
NOTE: Includes students in public, private, Bureau of Indian Education, and Department of Defense Education Activity schools. The reading scale scores range from 0 to 500. Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. Although rounded numbers are displayed, the figures are based on unrounded data.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 2015 and 2019 Reading Assessments, NAEP Data Explorer. See Digest of Education Statistics 2022, tables 221.10 and 221.12.
Findings in the reading portion of this indicator come from Reading Performance in the Condition of Education. For more information see tables 221.10, 221.12, 221.40, and 221.60 from the Digest of Education Statistics 2022.
At grade 4, the average NAEP mathematics score in 2022 was highest for Asian students (259), followed by White students (246). The average mathematics score was lowest for Black students (217) in 2022.
From 2011 through 2022,^{21} the average NAEP mathematics scores for Asian and White 4thgrade students were generally higher than those of their peers of other racial/ethnic groups.^{22} In addition, the achievement gaps between Asian and White students and students of other groups were generally larger in 2022 than in 2011.^{23,24} For instance,
In contrast, the achievement gap between Asian and White students and students of other racial/ethnic groups in 2022 was generally not measurably different from the corresponding gap in 2019. The only exceptions were the following:
NAEP scores can also be disaggregated by the poverty level of the school students attended. However, findings by school poverty level should be interpreted with caution, due to the relatively higher rate at which school poverty data are missing. ^{26}
Figure 11. Average National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) mathematics scale scores of 4thgrade students, by selected characteristics: 2019 and 2022
^{1}Students with disabilities include those with an Individualized Education Program (IEP) and those with a 504 plan.
^{2}The nonresponse rate for free or reducedprice lunch was greater than 15 percent but not greater than 50 percent.
NOTE: Includes students in public, private, Bureau of Indian Education, and Department of Defense Education Activity schools. The 4thgrade mathematics scale scores range from 0 to 500. Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. Although rounded numbers are displayed, the figures are based on unrounded data.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 2019 and 2022 Mathematics Assessments, NAEP Data Explorer. See Digest of Education Statistics 2022, tables 221.10 and 221.12.
NAEP results also permit statelevel comparisons of the mathematics achievement of 4th and 8thgrade students in public schools.^{27} The national average mathematics score for 4thgrade public school students decreased from 240 in 2019 to 235 in 2022. Among the 50 states and the District of Columbia, mathematics scores in 2022 for 4thgrade public school students
In 2022, the average 4thgrade mathematics score was 178 for students in Puerto Rico public schools, which was lower than it was in 2019 (185). In Department of Defense Education Activity (DoDEA) public schools, the average 4thgrade mathematics score in 2022 was 250, which was not measurably different from the score in 2019.
Figure 12. Change in average National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) mathematics scale scores of 4th and 8thgrade public school students, by state or jurisdiction: 2019 to 2022
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 2019 and 2022 Mathematics Assessments, NAEP Data Explorer. See Digest of Education Statistics 2022, tables 222.50 and 222.60
At grade 8, the 2022 patterns in average mathematics scores by race/ethnicity were similar to those observed for grade 4. At grade 8, the average mathematics score was highest for Asian students (306) in 2022, followed by White students (285). The average mathematics score was lowest for Black students (253) in 2022.
From 2011 through 2022, the average NAEP mathematics scores for Asian and White 8thgrade students were higher than those of their peers of other racial/ethnic groups. In addition, the achievement gaps between Asian students and students of other groups were generally larger in 2022 than in 2011, although the achievement gap in 2022 was not measurably different from the gap in 2019.^{28} For instance,
In contrast, the 2022 achievement gaps between White students and students of other racial/ethnic groups with lower average scores were generally not measurably different from the corresponding gaps in 2019 or 2011. The only exception was the gap between White students and students of Two or more races, which was larger in 2022 (8 points) than in 2011 (5 points).
NAEP scores can also be disaggregated by the poverty level of the school students attended. However, findings by school poverty level should be interpreted with caution, due to the relatively higher rate at which school poverty data are missing. ^{29}
Figure 13. Average National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) mathematics scale scores of 8thgrade students, by selected characteristics: 2019 and 2022
^{1}Students with disabilities include those with an Individualized Education Program (IEP) and those with a 504 plan.
^{2}The nonresponse rate for free or reducedprice lunch was greater than 15 percent but not greater than 50 percent.
NOTE: Includes students in public, private, Bureau of Indian Education, and Department of Defense Education Activity schools. The 8thgrade mathematics scale scores range from 0 to 500. Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. Although rounded numbers are displayed, the figures are based on unrounded data.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 2019 and 2022 Mathematics Assessments, NAEP Data Explorer. See Digest of Education Statistics 2022, tables 222.10 and 222.12.
At grade 8, the national average NAEP mathematics score for public school students decreased from 281 in 2019 to 273 in 2022. Among the 50 states and the District of Columbia, mathematics scores in 2022 for 8thgrade public school students
In 2022, the average 8thgrade mathematics score was 216 for students in Puerto Rico public schools, which was lower than it was in 2019 (222). In DoDEA public schools, the average 8thgrade mathematics score in 2022 was 292, which was not measurably different from the score in 2019.
The most recent NAEP mathematics assessments for grade 12 students were conducted in 2019, before the pandemic. At grade 12, the average mathematics score in 2019 was highest for Asian students (175), followed by White students (159) and students of Two or more races (157). The average mathematics scores of students in these racial/ethnic groups were higher than those for Hispanic students (138), American Indian/Alaska Native students (136), Pacific Islander students (135), and Black students (128).
Since 2013,^{30} the average NAEP mathematics score was generally highest for 12thgrade students who were Asian and White. Generally speaking, however, the achievement gaps between these two racial/ethnic groups and other groups in 2019 did not differ measurably compared with the corresponding achievement gaps in 2015 or 2013. The only exceptions were the following:
These growing achievement gaps were primarily driven by declines in the average mathematics scores of Black 12thgrade students (from 132 in 2013 to 128 in 2019) and Pacific Islander 12thgrade students (from 151 in 2013 to 135 in 2019).
NAEP scores can also be disaggregated by the poverty level of the school students attended. However, findings by school poverty level should be interpreted with caution, due to the relatively higher rate at which school poverty data are missing.^{31}
Figure 14. Average National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) mathematics scale scores of 12thgrade students, by selected characteristics: 2015 and 2019
^{‡}Reporting standards not met. Either there are too few cases for a reliable estimate or the coefficient of variation (CV) is 50 percent or greater.
^{1}Students with disabilities include those with an Individualized Education Program (IEP) and those with a 504 plan.
^{2}The nonresponse rate for free or reducedprice lunch in 2019 was greater than 15 percent but not greater than 50 percent.
NOTE: Includes students in public, private, Bureau of Indian Education, and Department of Defense Education Activity schools. The 12thgrade mathematics scale scores range from 0 to 300. Assessment was not conducted for grade 12 in 2022. Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. Although rounded numbers are displayed, the figures are based on unrounded data.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 2015 and 2019 Mathematics Assessments, NAEP Data Explorer. See Digest of Education Statistics 2022, tables 222.10 and 222.12.
Findings in the math portion of this indicator come from Mathematics Performance in the Condition of Education. For more information see tables 222.10, 222.12, 222.50, and 222.60 from the Digest of Education Statistics 2022.
The most recent science assessments were conducted in 2019, before the pandemic.
At grade 4:
At grade 8:
At grade 12:
Science Achievement Gaps:
Figure 15. Average National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) science scale scores of 4th, 8th, and 12thgrade students, by race/ethnicity: 2009, 2011, 2015, and 2019
— Not available.
^{1} Students who identified with two or more race categories (e.g., White and Black) were classified as “other” and reported as part of the “unclassified” category prior to 2011; from 2011 on, they have been classified as “Two or more races.”
NOTE: Includes public and private schools. Scale ranges from 0 to 300 for all grades, but scores cannot be compared across grades. Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. Assessment was not conducted for grades 4 and 12 in 2011. Although rounded numbers are displayed, the figures are based on unrounded data.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 2009, 2011, 2015, and 2019, Science Assessment, NAEP Data Explorer. See Digest of Education Statistics 2021, table 223.10.
At grade 4:
At grade 8:
At grade 12:
Since 2009, the average science scores for English learner (EL) students have been lower than the scores of their nonEL peers.
In 2019, students in highpoverty schools had lower average science scores than students in midhigh poverty, midlow poverty, and lowpoverty schools.^{34}
Findings in the science portion of this indicator come from Science Performance in the Condition of Education. For more information see table 223.10 from Digest of Education Statistics 2021.
The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 2010–11 (ECLSK:2011) assessed children’s skills in reading, mathematics, and science in kindergarten through grade 3. Trained assessors conducted individually administered, twostage adaptive assessments (with the exception of the spring kindergarten science assessment, which was a nonadaptive onestage assessment) in which assessors asked children questions related to images presented on a small easel and entered the children’s responses into a study computer. This construct examines learning growth using reading and mathematics assessments that were administered in the fall and spring of kindergarten through grade 2 and in the spring of grade 3, as well as science assessments were administered in the spring of kindergarten, in the fall and spring of grades 1 and 2, and in the spring of grade 3.^{35} Possible scores on the assessments range from 0 to 141 in reading, 0 to 135 in mathematics, and 0 to 87 in science.^{36}
Students who were living in poverty and who did not have a parent who completed high school at the time they entered kindergarten tended to score lower in reading, mathematics, and science over each of their first four years of school compared to their peers who had neither risk factor at kindergarten entry.
This pattern persisted in the spring data collections in kindergarten, first grade, second grade, and third grade.
Figure 16. Average reading scale scores of fall 2010 firsttime kindergartners, by time of assessment and risk factors related to parent education and poverty: Fall 2010 through spring 2014
NOTE: Estimates weighted by W7C17P_7T170. Scores on the reading assessments reflect performance on questions measuring basic skills (print familiarity, letter recognition, beginning and ending sounds, rhyming words, and word recognition); vocabulary knowledge; and reading comprehension, including identifying information specifically stated in text (e.g., definitions, facts, and supporting details), making complex inferences from texts, and considering the text objectively and judging its appropriateness and quality. Possible scores for the reading assessment range from 0 to 141. Estimates pertain to a sample of children who were enrolled in kindergarten for the first time in the 2010–11 school year. Most of the children were in first grade in 2011–12, second grade in 2012–13, and third grade in 2013–14, but some of the children were in other grades. In 2013–14, for example, 6 percent of the children were not in third grade (e.g., were in second grade, fourth grade, or ungraded classrooms). Information on risk factors and student and family characteristics are based on data collected during the kindergarten year. Parents’ highest level of education is the highest level of education achieved by either of the parents or guardians in a twoparent household, by the only parent in a singleparent household, or by any guardian in a household with no parents. Poverty status is based on preliminary U.S. Census income thresholds for 2010, which identify incomes determined to meet household needs, given family size and composition. For example, a family of three with one child was below the poverty threshold if its income was less than $17,552 in 2010.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 2010–11 (ECLSK:2011), Kindergarten–Third Grade RestrictedUse Data File. See Digest of Education Statistics 2016, table 220.40.
In mathematics, while students who had neither risk factor scored highest at each data collection, differences in scores among the other risk factor groups varied by grade level.
Figure 17. Average mathematics scale scores of fall 2010 firsttime kindergartners, by time of assessment and risk factors related to parent education and poverty: Fall 2010 through spring 2014
NOTE: Estimates weighted by W7C17P_7T170. Scores on the mathematics assessments reflect performance on questions on number sense, properties, and operations; measurement; geometry and spatial sense; data analysis, statistics, and probability (measured with a set of simple questions assessing children’s ability to read a graph); and prealgebra skills such as identification of patterns. Possible scores for the mathematics assessment range from 0 to 135. Estimates pertain to a sample of children who were enrolled in kindergarten for the first time in the 2010–11 school year. Most of the children were in first grade in 2011–12, second grade in 2012–13, and third grade in 2013–14, but some of the children were in other grades. In 2013–14, for example, 6 percent of the children were not in third grade (e.g., were in second grade, fourth grade, or ungraded classrooms). Information on risk factors and student and family characteristics are based on data collected during the kindergarten year. Parents’ highest level of education is the highest level of education achieved by either of the parents or guardians in a twoparent household, by the only parent in a singleparent household, or by any guardian in a household with no parents. Poverty status is based on preliminary U.S. Census income thresholds for 2010, which identify incomes determined to meet household needs, given family size and composition. For example, a family of three with one child was below the poverty threshold if its income was less than $17,552 in 2010.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 2010–11 (ECLSK:2011), Kindergarten–Third Grade RestrictedUse Data File. See Digest of Education Statistics 2016, table 220.41.
Differences in science scores among the risk factor groups also varied by grade level.
Similar to the pattern observed in mathematics, average science scores in the spring data collections for second and third grade were highest for students who had neither risk factor and lowest for students who had both risk factors; no measurable differences were observed between the average scores for students who had either of the single risk factors.
Figure 18. Average science scale scores of fall 2010 firsttime kindergartners, by time of assessment and risk factors related to parent education and poverty: Spring 2011 through spring 2014
NOTE: Estimates weighted by W7C17P_7T170. Science was not assessed in the fall of kindergarten. Scores on the science assessment reflect performance on questions on physical sciences, life sciences, environmental sciences, and scientific inquiry. Possible scores for the science assessment range from 0 to 87. Estimates pertain to a sample of children who were enrolled in kindergarten for the first time in the 2010–11 school year. Most of the children were in first grade in 2011–12, second grade in 2012–13, and third grade in 2013–14, but some of the children were in other grades. In 2013–14, for example, 6 percent of the children were not in third grade (e.g., were in second grade, fourth grade, or ungraded classrooms). Information on risk factors and student and family characteristics are based on data collected during the kindergarten year. Parents’ highest level of education is the highest level of education achieved by either of the parents or guardians in a twoparent household, by the only parent in a singleparent household, or by any guardian in a household with no parents. Poverty status is based on preliminary U.S. Census income thresholds for 2010, which identify incomes determined to meet household needs, given family size and composition. For example, a family of three with one child was below the poverty threshold if its income was less than $17,552 in 2010. Although rounded numbers are displayed, the figures are based on unrounded estimates.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 2010–11 (ECLSK:2011), Kindergarten–Third Grade RestrictedUse Data File. See Digest of Education Statistics 2016, table 220.42.
Findings in the learning growth section of this indicator come from Risk Factors and Academic Outcomes in Kindergarten Through Third Grade in the Condition of Education. For more information see tables 220.40, 220.41, and 220.42 from the Digest of Education Statistics 2016.
^{12}For more information on NAEP, including the history of the assessment, sampling procedures, and the transition from paperbased assessments to digitally based assessments, please see https://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/.
^{13}This indicator presents grades 4 and 8 trend analyses for race/ethnicity since 2011, when NAEP began reporting separate data for Asian students, Pacific Islander students, and students of Two or more races.
^{14}Throughout this indicator, score differences (gaps) are calculated using unrounded data and, therefore, may differ from values calculated using the rounded scores presented.
^{15}Students with disabilities include those with an Individualized Education Program (IEP) and those with a 504 plan.
^{16}Nonresponse for this variable was greater than 15 percent but not greater than 50 percent.
^{17}NAEP results serve as a common metric for all states and are not comparable to results from assessments administered by state education agencies.
^{18}Nonresponse for this variable was greater than 15 percent but not greater than 50 percent.
^{19}In 2013, NAEP began reporting separate data at the 12thgrade level for Asian students, Pacific Islander students, and students of Two or more races. Thus, this indicator presents grade 12 trend analyses for race/ethnicity since 2013.
^{20}Nonresponse for this variable was greater than 15 percent but not greater than 50 percent.
^{21}This indicator presents grades 4 and 8 trend analyses for race/ethnicity since 2011, when NAEP began reporting separate data for Asian students, Pacific Islander students, and students of Two or more races.
^{22}The only exception was 2019, when the average mathematics score for Pacific Islander students was not measurably different from the score for White students.
^{23}The only exception was the WhiteAmerican Indian/Alaska Native scale score gap, which was not measurably different between 2011 and 2022.
^{24}Throughout this indicator, score differences (gaps) are calculated using unrounded data and, therefore, may differ from values calculated using the rounded scores presented.
^{25}Students with disabilities include those with an Individualized Education Program (IEP) and those with a 504 plan.
^{26}Nonresponse for this variable was greater than 15 percent but not greater than 50 percent.
^{27}NAEP results serve as a common metric for all states and are not comparable to results from assessments administered by state education agencies.
^{28}The only exception was the AsianPacific Islander scale score gap, which was not measurably different between 2011 and 2022.
^{29}Nonresponse for this variable was greater than 15 percent but not greater than 50 percent.
^{30}In 2013, NAEP began reporting separate data at the 12thgrade level for Asian students, Pacific Islander students, and students of Two or more races. Thus, this indicator presents grade 12 trend analyses for race/ethnicity since 2013.
^{31}Nonresponse for this variable was greater than 15 percent but not greater than 50 percent.
^{32}Students who identified with two or more race categories (e.g., White and Black) were classified as “other” and reported as part of the “unclassified” category prior to 2011; from 2011 on, they have been classified as “Two or more races.”
^{33}In 2011, NAEP began reporting separate data for Asian students, Pacific Islander students, and students of Two or more races. However, the 2011 NAEP science assessment only collected data for grade 8.
^{34}Highpoverty schools are defined as schools where 76 to 100 percent of the students are eligible for free or reducedprice lunch (FRPL); midhigh poverty schools are schools where 51 to 75 percent of the students are eligible for FRPL; midlow poverty schools are schools where 26 to 50 percent of the students are eligible for FRPL; and lowpoverty schools are schools where 25 percent or less of the students are eligible for FRPL.
^{35}Although assessment data were also collected in the fall of grades 1 and 2, results are not included in here because the assessments were only administered to a subsample of ECLSK:2011 students.
^{36}Estimates pertain to a sample of children who were enrolled in kindergarten for the first time in the 2010–11 school year. Most of the children were in first grade in 2011–12, second grade in 2012–13, and third grade in 2013–14, but some of the children were in other grades. In 2013–14, for example, 6 percent of the children were not in third grade (e.g., were in second grade, fourth grade, or ungraded classrooms). Due to the study’s large sample size, many differences (no matter how substantively minor) are statistically significant. In this indicator, mean score differences are considered substantively meaningful if they are at least onefifth of a standard deviation in size. Therefore, mean score differences are reported only if they are statistically significant at the p < .05 level and are at least onefifth of a standard deviation in size.
^{37}The fall kindergarten reading score for the full ECLSK:2011 sample has a mean of 51 and a standard deviation (SD) of 11.1. Scale score gaps that are greater than or equal to 2.2 points (0.2 of an SD) are considered substantively meaningful for the purposes of this analysis. For example, the scale score gap between students who had neither risk factor (54 points) and those who had both risk factors (45 points) was 0.8 SD.
^{38}The fall kindergarten mathematics score for the full ECLSK:2011 sample has a mean of 33 and a standard deviation (SD) of 11.4. Scale score gaps that are greater than or equal to 2.3 points (0.2 of an SD) are considered substantively meaningful for the purposes of this analysis. For example, the scale score gap between students who had neither risk factor (37 points) and those who had both risk factors (26 points) was 1.0 SD.
^{39}The spring kindergarten science score for the full ECLSK:2011 sample has a mean of 31 and a standard deviation (SD) of 6.9. Scale score gaps that are greater than or equal to 1.4 points (0.2 of an SD) are considered substantively meaningful for the purposes of this analysis. For example, the scale score gap between students who had neither risk factor (33 points) and those who had both risk factors (25 points) was 1.2 SD.
Suggested Citation
National Center for Education Statistics. (2023). Performance on Tests. Education in Equity Dashboard. U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences. Retrieved [date], from [URL].