Table 402. - Eighth-grade students' perceptions about mathematics achievement and hours spent on leisure activities, by country: 1994-95
 ```_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ |Students'self-perceptions about usually doing well in mathematics | Average hours each day Country |______________________________________________________________________________________________|___________________________________________________________________________ |Strongly disagree | Disagree | Agree | Strongly agree |Watching |Playing or |Doing |Playing |Reading |Playing |_______________________|_______________________|______________________|_______________________|TV or videos|talking |jobs at |sports |for |computer | | | | | | | | | |with |home | |enjoyment |games |Percent |Mean score |Percent |Mean score |Percent |Mean score |Percent |Mean score | |friends | | | | __________________________|__________|____________|__________|____________|__________|___________|___________|___________|____________|___________|___________|___________|___________|______________ 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 __________________________|__________|____________|__________|____________|__________|___________|___________|___________|____________|___________|___________|___________|___________|______________ Australia\1\ .............| 3 (0.3)| 457 (7.9) | 17 (0.7)| 487 (5.6) | 60 (0.8)| 530 (3.9)| 20 (0.9)| 586 (4.7)| 2.4 (0.05)| 1.4 (0.03)| 0.9 (0.02)| 1.6 (0.03)| 0.6 (0.02)| 0.6 (0.02) Austria\1\ ...............| 3 (0.4)| 512 (10.1)| 21 (1.1)| 508 (5.4) | 45 (1.2)| 535 (4.0)| 31 (1.4)| 572 (4.3)| 1.9 (0.06)| 2.9 (0.08)| 0.8 (0.03)| 1.9 (0.07)| 0.8 (0.03)| 0.6 (0.03) Belgium (Flemish) ........| 5 (0.4)| 512 (6.7) | 29 (1.0)| 548 (5.9) | 48 (1.1)| 567 (6.4)| 17 (0.9)| 609 (7.2)| 2.0 (0.05)| 1.6 (0.05)| 1.1 (0.03)| 1.8 (0.07)| 0.7 (0.03)| 0.5 (0.06) Belgium (French)\1\ ......| 3 (0.4)| 467 (7.8) | 19 (1.3)| 505 (5.4) | 48 (1.3)| 528 (3.8)| 29 (1.5)| 550 (5.0)| 1.9 (0.08)| 1.7 (0.10)| 0.8 (0.03)| 1.8 (0.04)| 0.8 (0.03)| 0.7 (0.03) Bulgaria\1\ ..............| --- --- | --- --- | --- --- | --- --- | --- --- | --- --- | --- --- | --- --- | --- --- | --- --- | --- --- | --- --- | --- --- | --- --- | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Canada ...................| 3 (0.3)| 480 (9.0) | 13 (0.6)| 480 (4.9) | 49 (1.1)| 514 (2.3)| 35 (1.1)| 570 (3.4)| 2.3 (0.04)| 2.2 (0.05)| 1.0 (0.02)| 1.9 (0.03)| 0.8 (0.02)| 0.5 (0.02) Colombia\1\ ..............| 2 (0.4)| --- --- | 17 (1.3)| 373 (3.7) | 51 (1.9)| 385 (4.6)| 30 (1.4)| 398 (5.3)| 2.2 (0.07)| 1.9 (0.06)| 2.3 (0.07)| 1.9 (0.06)| 0.9 (0.05)|\2\ 0.4 (0.06) Cyprus ...................| 5 (0.4)| 411 (7.6) | 18 (0.8)| 432 (3.7) | 46 (1.0)| 469 (2.6)| 31 (1.0)| 521 (4.4)| 2.3 (0.04)| 1.7 (0.04)| 1.0 (0.03)| 1.4 (0.04)| 0.8 (0.02)| 0.8 (0.03) Czech Republic ...........| 2 (0.3)| --- --- | 37 (1.4)| 516 (4.2) | 48 (1.4)| 584 (5.2)| 13 (1.0)| 640 (8.0)| 2.6 (0.05)| 2.9 (0.09)| 1.3 (0.04)| 1.9 (0.06)| 1.0 (0.03)| 0.6 (0.03) Denmark\1\ ...............| 1 (0.2)| --- --- | 8 (0.6)| 431 (7.0) | 53 (1.4)| 492 (3.0)| 38 (1.3)| 537 (4.0)| 2.2 (0.06)| 2.8 (0.07)| 1.1 (0.04)| 1.7 (0.06)| 0.7 (0.03)| 0.7 (0.03) | | | | | | | | | | | | | | England\1\ ...............| 1 (0.2)| --- --- | 6 (0.6)| 475 (8.3) | 69 (1.0)| 500 (3.0)| 24 (1.0)| 538 (5.8)| 2.7 (0.07)| 2.5 (0.06)| 0.8 (0.03)| 1.5 (0.05)| 0.7 (0.03)| 0.9 (0.05) France ...................| 6 (0.7)| 495 (6.1) | 26 (1.1)| 513 (4.0) | 46 (1.0)| 548 (3.4)| 22 (0.8)| 564 (5.1)| 1.5 (0.04)| 1.5 (0.05)| 0.9 (0.03)| 1.7 (0.04)| 0.8 (0.03)| 0.5 (0.02) Germany\1\ ...............| 7 (0.5)| 474 (7.1) | 24 (1.0)| 491 (5.2) | 33 (1.1)| 511 (5.1)| 36 (1.1)| 529 (5.3)| 1.9 (0.04)| 3.5 (0.07)| 0.9 (0.02)| 1.7 (0.04)| 0.7 (0.02)| 0.8 (0.04) Greece\1\ ................| 2 (0.3)| --- --- | 16 (0.7)| 454 (3.6) | 55 (0.8)| 481 (3.2)| 27 (0.8)| 515 (4.2)| 2.1 (0.04)| 1.5 (0.04)| 0.9 (0.03)| 1.8 (0.04)| 1.0 (0.03)| 0.7 (0.03) Hong Kong ................| 11 (0.9)| 536 (9.5) | 51 (1.2)| 577 (6.7) | 33 (1.2)| 620 (6.7)| 5 (0.5)| 643 (8.2)| 2.6 (0.05)| 1.2 (0.04)| 0.7 (0.02)| 0.9 (0.03)| 0.9 (0.02)| 0.8 (0.03) | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Hungary ..................| 3 (0.3)| 469 (11.7)| 25 (0.9)| 490 (4.2) | 57 (1.0)| 545 (3.4)| 15 (0.8)| 608 (4.8)| 3.0 (0.06)| 2.3 (0.05)| 2.0 (0.04)| 1.7 (0.04)| 1.2 (0.04)| 0.7 (0.03) Iceland ..................| 3 (0.6)| 421 (10.1)| 14 (1.4)| 447 (4.9) | 55 (1.6)| 486 (4.5)| 28 (1.8)| 519 (9.5)| 2.2 (0.05)| 3.1 (0.06)| 0.8 (0.03)| 1.8 (0.06)| 0.9 (0.06)| 0.7 (0.06) Iran, Islamic Republic ...| 1 (0.4)| --- --- | 8 (0.7)| 403 (4.3) | 62 (1.4)| 423 (2.6)| 29 (1.4)| 450 (3.7)| 1.8 (0.06)| 1.2 (0.04)| 1.8 (0.06)| 1.2 (0.09)| 1.1 (0.04)|\2\ 0.2 (0.02) Ireland ..................| 3 (0.3)| 475 (7.7) | 18 (1.0)| 492 (5.5) | 61 (0.9)| 530 (5.2)| 18 (1.0)| 572 (7.6)| 2.1 (0.03)| 1.5 (0.06)| 0.9 (0.03)| 1.4 (0.05)| 0.6 (0.02)| 0.5 (0.03) Israel\1\ ................| 2 (0.4)| --- --- | 12 (1.3)| 494 (10.1)| 45 (1.9)| 513 (6.2)| 41 (1.9)| 549 (8.3)| 3.3 (0.10)| 2.4 (0.08)| 1.2 (0.05)| 1.9 (0.09)| 1.0 (0.04)| 0.9 (0.04) | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Japan ....................| 10 (0.5)| 523 (3.7) | 45 (0.7)| 577 (2.3) | 40 (0.7)| 650 (2.5)| 4 (0.3)| 669 (7.8)| 2.6 (0.04)| 1.9 (0.04)| 0.6 (0.01)| 1.3 (0.03)| 0.9 (0.02)| 0.6 (0.02) Korea ....................| 9 (0.5)| 535 (5.7) | 53 (1.0)| 572 (3.0) | 32 (0.9)| 669 (3.0)| 6 (0.6)| 702 (5.7)| 2.0 (0.04)| 0.9 (0.03)| 0.5 (0.02)| 0.5 (0.02)| 0.8 (0.03)| 0.3 (0.02) Kuwait\1\ ................| 3 (0.7)| 364 (11.3)| 9 (0.9)| 382 (3.6) | 49 (1.7)| 386 (2.4)| 39 (2.1)| 405 (3.9)| 1.9 (0.07)| 1.5 (0.11)| 1.2 (0.08)| 1.5 (0.10)| 1.0 (0.04)| 0.7 (0.05) Latvia (Latvian-speaking | | | | | | | | | | | | | | schools\1\ ..............| 2 (0.3)| --- --- | 43 (1.2)| 471 (3.5) | 43 (1.2)| 505 (3.7)| 12 (0.8)| 542 (5.5)| 2.6 (0.05)| 2.1 (0.06)| 1.5 (0.04)| 1.2 (0.04)| 1.1 (0.03)| 0.7 (0.04) Lithuania\1\ .............| 5 (0.5)| 446 (7.5) | 46 (1.2)| 454 (3.4) | 38 (1.2)| 492 (4.3)| 11 (0.8)| 544 (6.0)| 2.8 (0.05)| 2.7 (0.06)| 1.2 (0.03)| 1.2 (0.04)| 1.0 (0.03)| 0.9 (0.04) | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Netherlands\1\ ...........| 4 (0.5)| 487 (12.4)| 21 (1.4)| 504 (7.1) | 43 (1.3)| 537 (8.4)| 32 (1.6)| 580 (7.3)| 2.5 (0.09)| 2.8 (0.08)| 0.9 (0.04)| 1.8 (0.06)| 0.6 (0.03)| 0.7 (0.04) New Zealand ..............| 2 (0.3)| --- --- | 13 (0.8)| 466 (6.1) | 62 (0.9)| 501 (4.5)| 22 (0.8)| 559 (5.5)| 2.5 (0.05)| 1.5 (0.04)| 0.9 (0.02)| 1.5 (0.04)| 0.8 (0.02)| 0.7 (0.03) Norway ...................| 3 (0.3)| 434 (7.4) | 18 (0.9)| 455 (3.2) | 58 (1.0)| 504 (2.2)| 21 (0.8)| 555 (4.4)| 2.5 (0.04)| 3.2 (0.06)| 1.1 (0.03)| 1.9 (0.05)| 0.7 (0.02)| 0.8 (0.03) Portugal .................| 7 (0.5)| 419 (3.6) | 37 (1.1)| 435 (2.3) | 42 (1.1)| 463 (2.5)| 14 (0.8)| 502 (5.2)| 2.0 (0.04)| 1.7 (0.05)| 1.0 (0.04)| 1.7 (0.04)| 0.7 (0.02)| 0.7 (0.03) Romania\1\ ...............| 6 (0.6)| 455 (12.0)| 25 (1.0)| 459 (4.6) | 49 (0.9)| 488 (4.3)| 20 (1.0)| 505 (6.3)| 1.9 (0.06)| 1.5 (0.06)| 1.9 (0.08)| 1.3 (0.05)| 1.3 (0.07)| 0.6 (0.05) | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Russian Federation .......| 2 (0.3)| --- --- | 37 (1.4)| 501 (7.1) | 43 (1.1)| 547 (5.1)| 18 (0.8)| 590 (4.9)| 2.9 (0.05)| 2.9 (0.05)| 1.5 (0.03)| 1.0 (0.03)| 1.3 (0.04)| 1.0 (0.04) Scotland\1\ ..............| 2 (0.3)| --- --- | 10 (0.8)| 455 (5.5) | 66 (1.3)| 491 (4.8)| 22 (1.3)| 553 (9.3)| 2.7 (0.05)| 2.8 (0.08)| 0.7 (0.02)| 1.9 (0.05)| 0.7 (0.02)| 1.0 (0.04) Singapore ................| 6 (0.4)| 587 (9.0) | 38 (1.2)| 624 (5.2) | 46 (1.1)| 659 (4.9)| 11 (0.6)| 677 (6.2)| 2.7 (0.05)| 1.5 (0.04)| 1.0 (0.03)| 0.7 (0.03)| 1.1 (0.02)| 0.6 (0.03) Slovak Republic ..........| 1 (0.2)| --- --- | 28 (1.1)| 496 (3.8) | 55 (1.1)| 555 (3.8)| 15 (0.7)| 619 (5.2)| 2.7 (0.05)| 2.9 (0.07)| 1.5 (0.05)| 1.8 (0.04)| 1.0 (0.03)| 0.6 (0.03) Slovenia\1\ ..............| 2 (0.3)| --- --- | 24 (1.1)| 497 (4.0) | 53 (1.0)| 538 (3.6)| 21 (0.9)| 602 (4.2)| 2.0 (0.04)| 1.7 (0.05)| 1.6 (0.05)| 1.6 (0.03)| 0.9 (0.02)| 0.6 (0.02) | | | | | | | | | | | | | | South Africa\1\ ..........| --- --- | --- --- | --- --- | --- --- | --- --- | --- --- | --- --- | --- --- | --- --- | --- --- | --- --- | --- --- | --- --- | --- --- Spain ....................| 5 (0.5)| 441 (4.6) | 23 (1.0)| 456 (2.6) | 45 (1.1)| 488 (2.6)| 27 (1.0)| 522 (3.4)| 1.8 (0.05)| 1.8 (0.06)| 1.1 (0.03)| 1.7 (0.04)| 0.6 (0.02)| 0.3 (0.02) Sweden ...................| 2 (0.3)| --- --- | 16 (0.7)| 475 (3.4) | 61 (0.9)| 517 (3.0)| 21 (0.8)| 565 (3.8)| 2.3 (0.04)| 2.3 (0.05)| 0.9 (0.02)| 1.6 (0.04)| 0.7 (0.02)| 0.6 (0.02) Switzerland\1\ ...........| 3 (0.4)| 497 (10.1)| 21 (0.9)| 528 (4.0) | 47 (0.9)| 541 (3.0)| 28 (1.1)| 575 (3.3)| 1.3 (0.03)| 2.4 (0.05)| 1.0 (0.03)| 1.8 (0.03)| 0.8 (0.02)| 0.4 (0.02) Thailand\1\ ..............| 2 (0.3)| --- --- | 38 (1.5)| 510 (5.1) | 45 (1.1)| 529 (6.6)| 15 (0.9)| 537 (7.4)| 2.1 (0.07)| 1.2 (0.03)| 1.6 (0.03)| 1.1 (0.02)| 1.0 (0.02)| 0.3 (0.02) | | | | | | | | | | | | | | United States ............| 3 (0.3)| 430 (5.1) | 11 (0.6)| 462 (4.8) | 52 (0.9)| 491 (4.3)| 34 (1.0)| 534 (5.9)| 2.6 (0.07)| 2.5 (0.06)| 1.2 (0.04)| 2.2 (0.05)| 0.7 (0.02)| 0.7 (0.03) __________________________|__________|____________|__________|____________|__________|___________|___________|___________|____________|___________|___________|___________|___________|______________```

 \1\Countries not meeting all International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement's sampling specifications. \2\Student response data available for 70 to 84 percent of students. ---Data not available or not applicable. NOTE.--Data are for 8th grade or equivalent in most countries. Standard errors appear in parentheses. SOURCE: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement, Mathematics Achievement in the Middle School Years: IEA's Third International Mathematics and Science Study, 1997, by Albert E. Beaton et al. Copyright @ 1996 Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA. (This table was prepared June 1997.)