Table 121. - Percent of students at or above selected mathematics proficiency levels,\1\ by sex, race/ethnicity, control of school, and age: and age: 1978 to 1996
 ```________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Sex, | 9-year-olds\2\ | 13-year-olds\3\ | 17-year-olds\3\ race/ |_____________________________________________|___________________________________________|_____________________________________________ ethni- | Simple |Beginning |Numerical |Moderately |Beginning |Numerical |Moderately|Multi-step|Beginning |Numerical |Moderately |Multi-step city, | arith- | skills |operations|complex | skills |operations|complex |problem |skills |operations|complex |problem con- | metic | and | and |procedures | and | and |procedures|solving | and | and |procedures |solving trol, | facts\4\ | under- |beginning | and | under- |beginning | and | and |under- |beginning | and | and and | | stand- |problem |reasoning\7\| stand- |problem | reason- |algebra\8\|standing\5\|problem | reason- |algebra\8\ year | | ing\5\ |solving\6\| | ing\5\ |solving\6\| ing\7\ | | |solving\6\| ing\7\ | ________|__________|__________|__________|____________|__________|__________|__________|__________|___________|__________|___________|__________ 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 ________|__________|__________|__________|____________|__________|__________|__________|__________|___________|__________|___________|__________ Total | | | | | | | | | | | | 1978 ...|96.7 (0.3)|70.4 (0.9)|19.6 (0.7)| 0.8 (0.1)|94.6 (0.5)|64.9 (1.2)|18.0 (0.7)| 1.0 (0.2)| 99.8 (0.1)|92.0 (0.5)|51.5 (1.1)| 7.3 (0.4) 1982 ...|97.1 (0.3)|71.4 (1.2)|18.8 (1.0)| 0.6 (0.1)|97.7 (0.4)|71.4 (1.2)|17.4 (0.9)| 0.5 (0.1)| 99.9 (0.0)|93.0 (0.5)|48.5 (1.3)| 5.5 (0.4) 1986 ...|97.9 (0.3)|74.1 (1.2)|20.7 (0.9)| 0.6 (0.2)|98.6 (0.2)|73.3 (1.6)|15.8 (1.0)| 0.4 (0.1)| 99.9 --- |95.6 (0.5)|51.7 (1.4)| 6.5 (0.5) 1990 ...|99.1 (0.2)|81.5 (1.0)|27.7 (0.9)| 1.2 (0.3)|98.5 (0.2)|74.7 (1.0)|17.3 (1.0)| 0.4 (0.1)|100.0 --- |96.0 (0.5)|56.1 (1.4)| 7.2 (0.6) 1992 ...|99.0 (0.2)|81.4 (0.8)|27.8 (0.9)| 1.2 (0.3)|98.7 (0.3)|77.9 (1.1)|18.9 (1.0)| 0.4 (0.2)|100.0 --- |96.6 (0.5)|59.1 (1.3)| 7.2 (0.6) 1994 ...|99.0 (0.2)|82.0 (0.7)|29.9 (1.1)| 1.3 (0.4)|98.5 (0.3)|78.1 (1.1)|21.3 (1.4)| 0.6 (0.2)|100.0 --- |96.5 (0.5)|58.6 (1.4)| 7.4 (0.8) 1996 ...|99.1 (0.2)|81.5 (0.8)|29.7 (1.0)| 1.6 (0.3)|98.8 (0.2)|78.6 (0.9)|20.6 (1.2)| 0.6 (0.1)|100.0 --- |96.8 (0.4)|60.1 (1.7)| 7.4 (0.8) | | | | | | | | | | | | Male | | | | | | | | | | | | 1978 ...|96.2 (0.5)|68.9 (1.0)|19.2 (0.6)| 0.7 (0.2)|93.9 (0.5)|63.9 (1.3)|18.4 (0.9)| 1.1 (0.2)| 99.9 (0.1)|93.0 (0.5)|55.1 (1.2)| 9.5 (0.6) 1982 ...|96.5 (0.5)|68.8 (1.3)|18.1 (1.1)| 0.6 (0.1)|97.5 (0.6)|71.3 (1.4)|18.9 (1.2)| 0.7 (0.2)|100.0 --- |93.9 (0.6)|51.9 (1.5)| 6.9 (0.7) 1986 ...|98.0 (0.5)|74.0 (1.4)|20.9 (1.1)| 0.7 (0.3)|98.5 (0.3)|73.8 (1.8)|17.6 (1.1)| 0.5 (0.2)| 99.9 --- |96.1 (0.6)|54.6 (1.8)| 8.4 (0.9) 1990 ...|99.0 (0.3)|80.6 (1.0)|27.5 (1.0)| 1.3 (0.4)|98.2 (0.3)|75.1 (1.8)|19.0 (1.2)| 0.5 (0.2)| 99.9 --- |95.8 (0.8)|57.6 (1.4)| 8.8 (0.8) 1992 ...|99.0 (0.3)|81.9 (1.0)|29.4 (1.2)| 1.4 (0.3)|98.8 (0.4)|78.1 (1.6)|20.7 (1.1)| 0.5 (0.2)|100.0 --- |96.9 (0.6)|60.5 (1.8)| 9.1 (0.7) 1994 ...|99.1 (0.3)|82.3 (0.9)|31.5 (1.6)| 1.4 (0.4)|98.3 (0.4)|78.9 (1.5)|23.9 (1.6)| 0.8 (0.3)|100.0 --- |97.3 (0.6)|60.2 (2.1)| 9.3 (1.0) 1996 ...|99.1 (0.2)|82.5 (1.1)|32.7 (1.7)| 2.0 (0.5)|98.7 (0.3)|79.8 (1.4)|23.0 (1.6)| 0.8 (0.2)|100.0 --- |97.0 (0.7)|62.7 (1.8)| 9.5 (1.3) | | | | | | | | | | | | Female | | | | | | | | | | | | 1978 ...|97.2 (0.3)|72.0 (1.1)|19.9 (1.0)| 0.8 (0.2)|95.2 (0.5)|65.9 (1.2)|17.5 (0.7)| 0.9 (0.2)| 99.7 (0.1)|91.0 (0.6)|48.2 (1.3)| 5.2 (0.7) 1982 ...|97.6 (0.3)|74.0 (1.3)|19.6 (1.1)| 0.5 (0.1)|98.0 (0.3)|71.4 (1.3)|15.9 (1.0)| 0.4 (0.2)| 99.9 (0.0)|92.1 (0.6)|45.3 (1.4)| 4.1 (0.4) 1986 ...|97.8 (0.4)|74.3 (1.3)|20.6 (1.3)| 0.6 (0.3)|98.6 (0.3)|72.7 (1.9)|14.1 (1.3)| 0.3 (0.1)|100.0 --- |95.1 (0.7)|48.9 (1.7)| 4.7 (0.6) 1990 ...|99.1 (0.3)|82.3 (1.3)|27.9 (1.3)| 1.0 (0.3)|98.9 (0.2)|74.4 (1.3)|15.7 (1.0)| 0.2 (0.1)|100.0 --- |96.2 (0.8)|54.7 (1.8)| 5.6 (0.8) 1992 ...|99.0 (0.3)|80.9 (1.1)|26.3 (1.5)| 1.0 (0.4)|98.6 (0.2)|77.7 (1.1)|17.2 (1.4)| 0.3 --- |100.0 --- |96.3 (0.8)|57.7 (1.6)| 5.2 (0.8) 1994 ...|98.9 (0.3)|81.7 (0.9)|28.3 (1.3)| 1.1 (0.4)|98.7 (0.3)|77.3 (1.0)|18.7 (1.4)| 0.5 (0.3)|100.0 --- |96.0 (0.6)|57.2 (1.4)| 5.5 (0.9) 1996 ...|99.1 (0.4)|80.7 (0.9)|26.7 (1.1)| 1.2 (0.4)|98.8 (0.3)|77.4 (1.1)|18.4 (1.5)| 0.5 (0.2)|100.0 --- |96.7 (0.6)|57.6 (2.2)| 5.3 (0.8) | | | | | | | | | | | | White, | | | | | | | | | | | | non-His-| | | | | | | | | | | | panic | | | | | | | | | | | | 1978 ...|98.3 (0.2)|76.3 (1.0)|22.9 (0.9)| 0.9 (0.2)|97.6 (0.3)|72.9 (0.9)|21.4 (0.7)| 1.2 (0.2)|100.0 --- |95.6 (0.3)|57.6 (1.1)| 8.5 (0.5) 1982 ...|98.5 (0.3)|76.8 (1.2)|21.8 (1.1)| 0.6 (0.1)|99.1 (0.1)|78.3 (0.9)|20.5 (1.0)| 0.6 (0.1)|100.0 --- |96.2 (0.3)|54.7 (1.4)| 6.4 (0.5) 1986 ...|98.8 (0.2)|79.6 (1.3)|24.6 (1.0)| 0.8 (0.3)|99.3 (0.3)|78.9 (1.7)|18.6 (1.2)| 0.4 (0.1)|100.0 --- |98.0 (0.4)|59.1 (1.7)| 7.9 (0.7) 1990 ...|99.6 (0.2)|86.9 (0.9)|32.7 (1.0)| 1.5 (0.4)|99.4 (0.1)|82.0 (1.0)|21.0 (1.2)| 0.4 (0.2)|100.0 --- |97.6 (0.3)|63.2 (1.6)| 8.3 (0.7) 1992 ...|99.6 (0.1)|86.9 (0.7)|32.4 (1.0)| 1.4 (0.3)|99.6 (0.2)|84.9 (1.1)|22.8 (1.3)| 0.4 (0.2)|100.0 --- |98.3 (0.4)|66.4 (1.4)| 8.7 (0.9) 1994 ...|99.6 (0.2)|87.0 (0.8)|35.3 (1.3)| 1.5 (0.4)|99.3 (0.2)|85.5 (0.9)|25.6 (1.6)| 0.7 (0.3)|100.0 --- |98.4 (0.4)|67.0 (1.4)| 9.4 (1.1) 1996 ...|99.6 (0.1)|86.6 (0.8)|35.7 (1.4)| 2.0 (0.4)|99.6 (0.2)|86.4 (1.0)|25.4 (1.5)| 0.8 (0.2)|100.0 --- |98.7 (0.4)|68.7 (2.2)| 9.2 (1.0) | | | | | | | | | | | | Black, | | | | | | | | | | | | non-His-| | | | | | | | | | | | panic | | | | | | | | | | | | 1978 ...|88.4 (1.0)|42.0 (1.4)| 4.1 (0.6)| 0.0 --- |79.7 (1.5)|28.7 (2.1)| 2.3 (0.5)| 0.0 --- | 98.8 (0.3)|70.7 (1.7)|16.8 (1.6)| 0.5 (0.2) 1982 ...|90.2 (1.0)|46.1 (2.4)| 4.4 (0.8)| 0.0 --- |90.2 (1.6)|37.9 (2.5)| 2.9 (1.0)| 0.0 --- | 99.7 (0.2)|76.4 (1.5)|17.1 (1.5)| 0.5 (0.3) 1986 ...|93.9 (1.4)|53.4 (2.5)| 5.6 (0.9)| 0.1 --- |95.4 (0.9)|49.0 (3.7)| 4.0 (1.4)| 0.1 --- |100.0 --- |85.6 (2.5)|20.8 (2.8)| 0.2 --- 1990 ...|96.9 (0.9)|60.0 (2.8)| 9.4 (1.7)| 0.1 --- |95.4 (1.1)|48.7 (3.6)| 3.9 (1.6)| 0.1 --- | 99.9 --- |92.4 (2.2)|32.8 (4.5)| 2.0 (1.0) 1992 ...|96.6 (1.1)|59.8 (2.8)| 9.6 (1.4)| 0.1 --- |95.0 (1.4)|51.0 (2.7)| 4.0 (0.7)| 0.1 --- |100.0 --- |89.6 (2.5)|29.8 (3.9)| 0.9 --- 1994 ...|97.4 (1.0)|65.9 (2.6)|11.1 (1.7)| 0.0 --- |95.6 (1.6)|51.0 (3.9)| 6.4 (2.4)| 0.3 --- |100.0 --- |90.6 (1.8)|29.8 (3.4)| 0.4 --- 1996 ...|97.3 (0.8)|65.3 (2.4)|10.0 (1.2)| 0.1 --- |96.2 (1.3)|53.7 (2.6)| 4.8 (1.1)| 0.1 --- |100.0 --- |90.6 (1.3)|31.2 (2.5)| 0.9 --- | | | | | | | | | | | | Hispan- | | | | | | | | | | | | ic | | | | | | | | | | | | 1978 ...|93.0 (1.2)|54.2 (2.8)| 9.2 (2.5)| 0.2 --- |86.4 (0.9)|36.0 (2.9)| 4.0 (1.0)| 0.1 --- | 99.3 (0.4)|78.3 (2.3)|23.4 (2.7)| 1.4 (0.6) 1982 ...|94.3 (1.2)|55.7 (2.3)| 7.8 (1.7)| 0.0 --- |95.9 (0.9)|52.2 (2.5)| 6.3 (1.0)| 0.0 --- | 99.8 --- |81.4 (1.9)|21.6 (2.2)| 0.7 (0.4) 1986 ...|96.4 (1.3)|57.6 (2.9)| 7.3 (2.8)| 0.1 --- |96.9 (1.4)|56.0 (5.0)| 5.5 (1.1)| 0.2 --- | 99.4 --- |89.3 (2.5)|26.5 (4.5)| 1.1 --- 1990 ...|98.0 (0.8)|68.4 (3.0)|11.3 (3.5)| 0.2 --- |96.8 (1.1)|56.7 (3.3)| 6.4 (1.7)| 0.1 --- | 99.6 --- |85.8 (4.2)|30.1 (3.1)| 1.9 (0.8) 1992 ...|97.2 (1.3)|65.0 (2.9)|11.7 (2.5)| 0.1 --- |98.1 (0.7)|63.3 (2.7)| 7.0 (1.2)| 0.0 --- |100.0 --- |94.1 (2.2)|39.2 (4.9)| 1.2 --- 1994 ...|97.2 (1.2)|63.5 (3.1)| 9.7 (1.8)| 0.0 --- |97.1 (1.3)|59.2 (2.2)| 6.4 (1.8)| 0.0 --- |100.0 --- |91.8 (3.6)|38.3 (5.5)| 1.4 --- 1996 ...|98.1 (0.7)|67.1 (2.1)|13.8 (2.3)| 0.2 --- |96.2 (0.8)|58.3 (2.3)| 6.7 (1.2)| 0.0 --- | 99.9 --- |92.2 (2.2)|40.1 (3.5)| 1.8 --- | | | | | | | | | | | | Public | | | | | | | | | | | | 1978 ...|96.4 (0.3)|68.8 (0.9)|18.5 (0.7)| 0.7 (0.2)|94.1 (0.5)|63.3 (1.2)|17.0 (0.8)| 0.9 (0.2)| 99.8 (0.1)|91.7 (0.5)|50.6 (1.2)| 7.0 (0.4) 1982 ...|96.8 (0.4)|69.4 (1.2)|17.3 (0.9)| 0.5 (0.1)|97.5 (0.4)|69.7 (1.3)|16.4 (1.0)| 0.5 (0.1)| 99.9 (0.0)|92.5 (0.6)|46.9 (1.3)| 5.2 (0.4) 1986 ...|97.7 (0.3)|72.7 (1.4)|19.1 (1.1)| 0.6 (0.2)|98.5 (0.3)|72.9 (1.7)|15.6 (1.0)| 0.4 (0.1)| 99.9 --- |95.5 (0.5)|50.7 (1.6)| 6.1 (0.5) 1990 ...|99.0 (0.2)|80.5 (1.1)|26.8 (1.0)| 1.1 (0.3)|98.4 (0.2)|73.3 (1.2)|16.7 (1.1)| 0.3 (0.1)|100.0 --- |95.8 (0.6)|55.0 (1.3)| 6.5 (0.5) 1992 ...|98.8 (0.3)|79.7 (0.9)|26.1 (0.9)| 1.1 (0.3)|98.5 (0.3)|76.3 (1.2)|18.0 (1.0)| 0.3 (0.2)|100.0 --- |96.3 (0.6)|56.9 (1.2)| 6.7 (0.7) 1994 ...|98.9 (0.3)|80.6 (0.8)|27.9 (1.2)| 1.1 (0.4)|98.5 (0.3)|76.7 (1.2)|20.0 (1.4)| 0.6 (0.2)|100.0 --- |96.2 (0.5)|56.2 (1.3)| 6.4 (0.7) 1996 ...|99.0 (0.2)|80.7 (0.8)|28.3 (1.1)| 1.5 (0.3)|98.6 (0.2)|77.2 (0.9)|19.2 (1.3)| 0.6 (0.1)|100.0 --- |96.7 (0.5)|59.0 (1.8)| 7.1 (0.7) | | | | | | | | | | | | Private | | | | | | | | | | | | 1978 ...|99.0 --- |83.3 (1.9)|28.4 (2.0)| 1.2 (0.4)|99.0 (0.4)|80.8 (1.7)|26.9 (1.8)| 1.4 (0.4)|100.0 --- |97.1 (0.6)|67.7 (3.3)|12.9 (2.7) 1982 ...|99.0 (0.4)|84.3 (2.1)|28.6 (2.6)| 1.0 (0.6)|99.5 (0.3)|85.1 (1.6)|26.3 (3.1)| 1.0 (0.3)|100.0 --- |98.1 (0.5)|66.3 (2.4)| 8.2 (1.4) 1986 ...|98.7 (0.8)|81.8 (2.3)|28.9 (2.7)| 1.1 (0.6)|98.9 (0.6)|81.9 (3.3)|22.0 (6.8)| 0.1 --- |100.0 --- |99.4 --- |75.1 (10.6)|16.3 (9.1) 1990 ...|99.7 --- |89.3 (1.8)|35.2 (3.3)| 1.8 (1.2)|99.7 --- |87.0 (2.0)|23.2 (2.5)| 0.7 (0.4)|100.0 --- |98.2 (1.2)|71.0 (7.9)|15.7 (5.3) 1992 ...|99.8 (0.1)|92.2 (1.2)|38.6 (2.7)| 1.9 (0.7)|99.9 --- |89.7 (2.1)|25.9 (3.7)| 0.7 (0.4)|100.0 --- |99.5 --- |79.5 (3.7)|12.2 (2.7) 1994 ...|99.8 --- |92.3 (1.3)|44.4 (4.0)| 2.2 (0.8)|98.7 --- |88.5 (2.6)|30.7 (3.7)| 1.0 --- |100.0 --- |98.8 (0.6)|75.7 (4.3)|14.5 (3.5) 1996 ...|99.6 --- |87.1 (1.5)|38.7 (3.0)| 2.1 (1.1)|99.6 --- |89.3 (3.5)|31.6 (4.8)| 1.0 (0.6)|100.0 --- |98.5 (0.8)|71.5 (6.4)|10.4 (4.0) ________|__________|__________|__________|____________|__________|__________|__________|__________|___________|__________|___________|__________```

 \1\As measured by the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). \2\Virtually no students were able to perform multi-step problems and algebra. \3\Virtually all students knew simple arithmetic facts. Data are only for students enrolled in school. \4\Scale score of 150 or above. \5\Scale score of 200 or above. \6\Scale score of 250 or above. \7\Scale score of 300 or above. \8\Scale score of 350 or above. ---Data not available or not applicable. NOTE.--Standard errors appear in parentheses. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Assessment of Educational Progress, NAEP 1996 Trends in Academic Progress, prepared by Educational Testing Service. (This table was prepared September 1997.)