Table 394. Mathematics test scores of 9-year-olds in educational systems participating in the International Assessment of Educational Progress: 1991

 ``` ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- | | | | | Average percent correct | Percentile scores | Topic averages | Process averages |--------------------------------|-----------------------------------------------------------------|-------------------------------------------------------|----------------------------------- | | | | | | | | | | | | |Data | | | | Country | | | | | | | | | |Numbers | | |analysis, | | | | | | | | | | | | | | and |Measure- | |statistics,|Algebra |Conceptual |Procedural |Problem | Total | Male | Female | 1 | 5 | 10 | 90 | 95 | 99 |operations|ment |Geometry | and | and |under- |knowledge\2\|solving\3\ | | | | | | | | | | | | |probability|functions |standing\1\| | ------------------------|----------|----------|----------|----------|----------|----------|----------|----------|----------|----------|----------|----------|-----------|----------|-----------|------------|---------- 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 ------------------------|----------|----------|----------|----------|----------|----------|----------|----------|----------|----------|----------|----------|-----------|----------|-----------|------------|---------- | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | IAEP average............|63.3 --- | --- --- | --- --- | --- --- | --- --- | --- --- | --- --- | --- --- | --- --- |61.2 --- |67.2 --- |63.9 --- |67.6 --- |61.8 --- | 63.2 --- | 66.7 --- |58.5 --- | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Populations | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | (comprehensive) | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Korea.................. |74.8 (0.6)|77.2 (0.7)|72.4 (0.8)|26.2 (0.9)|41.0 (3.7)|50.8 (4.7)|93.4 (0.0)|95.1 (0.0)|98.4 (0.0)|74.6 (0.6)|73.0 (0.8)|75.4 (0.7)|79.3 (0.6) |72.1 (0.7)| 75.0 (0.6)| 78.7 (0.6)|68.8 (0.6) Hungary.................|68.2 (0.6)|68.2 (0.8)|68.2 (0.8)|20.4 (2.3)|33.3 (1.5)|40.7 (1.2)|90.2 (2.5)|93.4 (0.0)|98.4 (0.0)|67.5 (0.7)|71.6 (0.7)|68.6 (0.7)|63.4 (0.8) |72.4 (0.8)| 68.2 (0.6)| 70.8 (0.7)|64.4 (0.7) Taiwan..................|68.1 (0.8)|68.4 (0.8)|67.8 (0.9)|19.2 (1.6)|32.1 (4.6)|41.0 (1.8)|91.8 (1.7)|95.1 (0.0)|98.4 (0.0)|67.1 (0.8)|69.3 (0.8)|69.2 (0.8)|72.8 (0.8) |64.2 (0.8)| 68.5 (0.8)| 76.1 (0.8)|55.7 (0.8) (Former) Soviet Union\4\|65.9 (1.3)|66.4 (1.2)|65.4 (1.4)|20.0 (0.6)|30.8 (1.0)|37.7 (0.7)|90.2 (0.7)|93.4 (2.3)|98.4 (0.0)|65.7 (1.3)|71.3 (1.0)|64.4 (1.3)|60.1 (1.5) |67.8 (1.3)| 63.0 (1.3)| 72.0 (1.2)|61.7 (1.4) Israel\5\ ..............|64.4 (0.7)|66.0 (0.8)|62.7 (0.9)|21.3 (0.4)|30.4 (2.8)|38.6 (3.1)|86.9 (2.1)|91.8 (0.0)|96.7 (0.0)|63.6 (0.8)|69.9 (0.7)|58.8 (0.9)|63.9 (1.0) |66.8 (0.7)| 62.6 (0.8)| 68.3 (0.8)|61.6 (0.8) Spain\6\ ...............|61.9 (1.0)|61.9 (1.3)|61.8 (1.1)|18.8 (0.6)|26.8 (1.8)|32.8 (2.0)|86.9 (0.0)|90.2 (2.4)|96.7 (0.0)|61.3 (1.1)|60.8 (0.8)|60.1 (1.1)|69.3 (1.1) |58.3 (1.1)| 60.8 (1.0)| 66.1 (1.0)|57.3 (1.1) Ireland.................|60.0 (0.8)|59.9 (0.9)|60.1 (1.1)|16.0 (3.3)|24.6 (0.4)|31.2 (1.5)|85.0 (3.9)|90.2 (0.0)|95.1 (0.0)|58.0 (0.9)|64.2 (0.8)|57.9 (0.9)|65.2 (0.8) |59.4 (1.0)| 59.3 (0.8)| 63.9 (0.8)|55.5 (0.9) Canada\7\ ..............|59.9 (0.5)|59.9 (0.7)|60.0 (0.6)|19.6 (1.6)|28.3 (2.5)|35.7 (1.5)|83.6 (0.0)|88.5 (0.0)|93.4 (2.8)|55.0 (0.6)|65.4 (0.5)|64.7 (0.6)|72.3 (0.5) |56.4 (0.6)| 60.4 (0.5)| 61.1 (0.6)|57.4 (0.5) United States...........|58.4 (1.0)|58.7 (1.1)|58.0 (1.2)|18.0 (1.1)|24.6 (0.0)|29.5 (2.1)|83.6 (0.0)|90.2 (2.3)|96.7 (1.6)|54.3 (1.1)|63.2 (1.0)|56.9 (1.0)|72.8 (1.1) |55.3 (1.0)| 59.7 (1.0)| 59.5 (1.1)|54.5 (1.0) Slovenia................|55.8 (0.6)|55.8 (0.7)|55.9 (0.7)|18.9 (0.8)|27.7 (1.8)|34.0 (0.8)|79.3 (0.3)|84.5 (0.0)|93.1 (0.0)|52.7 (0.6)|62.4 (0.6)|63.1 (0.8)|54.2 (0.8) |57.8 (0.6)| 56.3 (0.6)| 57.6 (0.6)|52.3 (0.7) | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Populations | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | (with exclusions or | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | low participation) | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Italy\8\ ...............|67.8 (0.9)|69.5 (1.0)|65.9 (1.1)|23.0 (2.0)|34.4 (1.6)|42.6 (0.3)|90.2 (1.7)|93.4 (4.9)|98.4 (0.0)|67.3 (0.9)|73.3 (0.9)|64.6 (1.1)|71.1 (0.9) |60.8 (1.3)| 67.8 (0.9)| 72.5 (0.9)|60.6 (1.1) Scotland................|65.7 (0.9)|65.8 (1.1)|65.6 (1.1)|23.0 (0.1)|32.8 (0.0)|39.3 (2.8)|89.8 (4.6)|93.3 (2.7)|96.7 (4.6)|62.1 (1.0)|71.3 (0.9)|68.5 (0.8)|73.9 (0.8) |63.1 (1.2)| 66.3 (0.8)| 67.9 (1.0)|61.8 (0.8) England.................|59.5 (1.9)|58.5 (1.5)|60.3 (2.9)|17.2 (2.1)|26.7 (1.6)|32.8 (0.5)|86.9 (2.5)|91.8 (3.3)|96.7 (0.0)|53.6 (2.1)|67.2 (1.6)|67.0 (1.5)|70.4 (1.7) |56.9 (2.1)| 60.7 (1.7)| 59.2 (2.0)|57.9 (1.9) Portugal................|55.5 (0.9)|56.8 (1.1)|54.2 (1.1)|16.7 (1.9)|26.2 (0.5)|31.6 (0.8)|81.7 (2.6)|86.9 (0.0)|93.4 (1.6)|54.4 (1.1)|58.3 (0.7)|55.6 (1.2)|57.1 (1.0) |54.6 (1.0)| 55.7 (0.9)| 59.5 (1.1)|49.2 (1.0) | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Populations (Canadian) | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Quebec-French...........|64.5 (0.7)|65.1 (0.8)|64.0 (0.8)|23.0 (0.0)|32.8 (0.6)|40.7 (4.5)|85.3 (0.0)|88.5 (1.3)|95.1 (0.0)|59.1 (0.8)|68.1 (0.7)|72.8 (0.7)|76.8 (0.7) |63.6 (0.8)| 64.6 (0.6)| 66.2 (0.9)|62.0 (0.8) Quebec-English..........|62.5 (0.8)|62.9 (0.9)|62.0 (1.0)|18.0 (0.0)|29.5 (0.4)|36.1 (1.7)|86.9 (0.9)|90.2 (0.0)|96.7 (0.0)|58.5 (0.9)|69.1 (0.7)|64.1 (0.9)|73.2 (0.7) |57.5 (0.8)| 63.5 (0.8)| 63.9 (0.8)|58.7 (0.8) British Columbia........|61.9 (0.5)|61.8 (0.7)|62.0 (0.6)|18.2 (1.3)|29.5 (2.3)|36.1 (3.1)|85.3 (0.0)|90.2 (0.2)|96.7 (0.0)|58.7 (0.6)|67.4 (0.5)|62.4 (0.5)|72.3 (0.6) |56.5 (0.5)| 62.1 (0.4)| 63.7 (0.6)|59.1 (0.6) New Brunswick-English...|59.8 (0.7)|60.3 (0.9)|59.3 (0.9)|17.5 (3.5)|26.7 (0.0)|33.9 (3.6)|83.6 (0.0)|88.5 (5.5)|95.1 (0.0)|56.1 (0.8)|66.0 (0.7)|63.1 (1.0)|69.3 (0.8) |54.6 (0.7)| 61.2 (0.7)| 61.1 (0.8)|55.7 (0.7) Ontario-English.........|56.8 (0.7)|56.3 (0.9)|57.2 (0.9)|18.0 (0.0)|24.6 (2.4)|31.2 (1.5)|81.1 (4.6)|85.7 (3.1)|93.4 (0.0)|52.0 (0.8)|63.3 (0.7)|60.0 (0.9)|69.5 (0.7) |52.2 (0.7)| 57.6 (0.7)| 57.6 (0.8)|54.3 (0.7) Ontario-French..........|54.5 (0.6)|54.7 (0.7)|54.3 (0.6)|18.0 (2.7)|26.3 (0.4)|31.2 (0.0)|77.1 (1.0)|82.0 (0.0)|90.2 (5.3)|48.2 (0.6)|60.0 (0.7)|61.7 (0.7)|67.6 (0.7) |55.1 (0.6)| 55.9 (0.6)| 54.4 (0.6)|52.4 (0.7) ------------------------|----------|----------|----------|----------|----------|----------|----------|----------|---------------------|----------|----------|-----------|----------|-----------|------------|----------```

1 Conceptual understanding questions analyzed students' abilities in understanding of mathematical facts and concepts.

2 Procedural knowledge tasks required students to apply knowledge and concepts in solving routine problems using procedures taught in the classroom.

3 Problem solving questions required the student to apply several skills to a unique situation. These tasks usually involved multiple steps.

4 Schools in 14 republics, where instruction is in Russian.

5 Schools where instruction is in Hebrew.

6 Schools where instruction is in Spanish, in all regions except Cataluna.

7 Four provinces.

8 Emilia-Romagna province only.

---Data not available.

NOTE.--Standard errors appear in parentheses.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, International Assessment of Educational Progress, "Learning Mathematics," by Educational Testing Service. (This table was prepared February 1992.)