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Digest of Education Statistics
2023 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest


Table 503.40.Percentage of 16- to 64-year-old undergraduate students who were employed, by attendance status, hours worked per week, and selected characteristics: 2010, 2015, and 2022
[Standard errors appear in parentheses]
Year and selected characteristicFull-time undergraduatesPart-time undergraduates
Percent of all full-time undergraduatesPercent employedPercent of all part-time undergraduatesPercent employed
Total employed1Hours worked per week2Total employed1Hours worked per week2
Less than 10110 to 1920 to 3435 or moreLess than 10110 to 1920 to 3435 or more
12345678910111213
2010
     Total 100.0 (†) 41.1 (0.90) 4.9 (0.32) 9.9(0.44) 16.4(0.65) 9.9(0.49) 100.0(†)74.5 (1.40) 4.2(0.54) 5.3(0.63) 22.1(1.19) 42.9(1.53)
 
Sex
 
  Male45.2(0.77)39.6(1.24)4.1(0.46)9.1(0.66)16.6(0.93)9.8(0.69)42.8(1.27)77.0(1.90)4.1(0.84)4.3(0.79)21.6(1.74)47.0(2.36)
  Female54.8(0.77)42.4(1.17)5.5(0.47)10.6(0.64)16.3(0.85)10.1(0.69)57.2(1.27)72.7(1.80)4.3(0.75)6.1(0.87)22.5(1.71)39.8(1.90)
 
Race/ethnicity
  American Indian/Alaska Native0.8(0.17)23.0!(7.60)(‡)(‡)(‡)15.4!(7.37)0.7!(0.20)(‡)(‡)(‡)(‡)(‡)
  Asian6.6(0.34)31.1(2.91)3.9(1.10)8.8(1.63)12.4(1.94)5.9!(1.83)3.0(0.50)69.0(8.23)(‡)(‡)25.7(6.46)35.4(7.45)
  Black14.9(0.65)36.6(2.44)3.4(0.90)6.9(1.19)13.6(1.59)12.7(1.52)16.3(1.17)75.7(2.91)4.7!(1.42)3.5!(1.55)21.9(3.19)45.6(3.46)
  Hispanic13.5(0.51)39.0(2.16)2.5(0.70)6.5(1.09)18.4(1.81)11.6(1.47)21.0(1.23)73.0(3.02)3.2!(1.08)4.5(1.22)25.3(3.12)40.0(3.35)
  Pacific Islander0.4!(0.12)(‡)(‡)(‡)(‡)(‡)(‡)(‡)(‡)(‡)(‡)(‡)
  White62.2(0.79)44.1(1.15)5.8(0.44)11.6(0.62)17.2(0.90)9.4(0.58)57.4(1.52)75.7(1.70)4.6(0.75)5.8(0.86)21.0(1.59)44.3(1.97)
  Two or more races1.6(0.22)39.6(6.95)8.5!(3.64)10.2!(3.85)15.6!(4.78)(‡)1.6(0.41)65.9(9.24)(‡)(‡)23.6!(9.38)26.7!(10.90)
 
Age
  16 to 2479.0(0.66)39.9(1.05)5.2(0.38)11.2(0.55)17.5(0.81)6.1(0.47)42.2(1.24)72.0(2.16)4.1(0.88)8.9(1.22)29.4(2.09)29.6(2.23)
  25 to 298.7(0.45)47.0(2.66)2.8(0.78)8.6(1.65)13.8(1.78)21.8(2.09)19.7(1.05)79.2(2.51)4.3(1.28)3.1!(1.12)20.0(2.49)51.7(3.39)
  30 to 397.6(0.39)45.4(3.16)3.9!(1.18)3.1!(0.93)12.8(1.91)25.7(2.64)20.0(1.05)76.0(2.82)3.4!(1.08)2.5!(0.95)15.6(2.16)54.4(3.10)
  40 to 493.3(0.29)43.6(4.43)3.7!(1.44)3.4!(1.50)10.8(2.61)25.7(4.05)11.9(0.85)72.6(3.52)4.9!(1.48)2.7!(1.07)11.3(2.36)53.7(3.88)
  50 to 641.5(0.19)43.7(5.89)7.3!(3.46)(‡)(‡)28.3(4.96)6.1(0.62)76.6(4.43)5.9!(2.35)(‡)20.6(4.73)48.0(5.95)
 
Level of institution
  2-year31.3(0.81)39.0(1.46)2.5(0.49)10.0(0.83)16.5(1.17)9.9(0.79)50.7(1.44)73.0(1.77)4.7(0.78)5.8(0.98)23.4(1.76)39.2(2.17)
  4-year68.7(0.81)42.1(1.09)5.9(0.43)9.9(0.58)16.3(0.71)9.9(0.63)49.3(1.44)76.1(1.88)3.8(0.72)4.8(0.88)20.7(1.49)46.8(2.22)
 
Householder status3
  Non-householder73.6(0.71)38.2(1.04)4.9(0.40)10.5(0.51)16.3(0.76)6.6(0.45)46.4(1.38)71.6(2.03)4.1(0.88)6.6(1.04)29.3(1.88)31.7(2.04)
  Householder26.4(0.71)49.3(1.60)4.9(0.67)8.4(0.90)16.7(1.14)19.3(1.25)53.6(1.38)77.1(1.68)4.3(0.77)4.2(0.83)15.9(1.33)52.6(2.01)
 
Presence of own children under 18 
   in household4
  Child or children present12.7(0.56)38.4(2.11)4.1(0.90)5.3(0.95)10.9(1.39)18.2(1.71)29.6(1.32)73.0(2.49)4.9(0.99)3.9(0.92)14.4(1.72)49.8(2.59)
  No children present87.3(0.56)41.5(0.94)5.0(0.36)10.6(0.48)17.2(0.71)8.7(0.47)70.4(1.32)75.2(1.49)3.9(0.62)5.9(0.77)25.3(1.50)40.0(1.78)
Presence of spouse in household
  Spouse present10.6(0.47)44.7(2.47)4.2(0.89)4.6(1.11)14.4(1.71)21.4(1.97)31.3(1.45)73.6(2.46)4.3(0.95)3.4(0.89)13.9(1.53)52.1(2.69)
  No spouse present589.4(0.47)40.7(0.95)4.9(0.34)10.6(0.48)16.6(0.69)8.6(0.46)68.7(1.45)75.0(1.49)4.2(0.68)6.2(0.80)25.8(1.42)38.8(1.68)
Presence of spouse and own 
   children under 18
  Spouse and children both present6.5(0.39)38.6(2.83)3.0!(0.96)4.0(1.09)11.6(2.11)20.0(2.16)18.9(1.14)71.5(3.26)3.8!(1.15)3.7!(1.11)12.1(1.87)51.9(3.27)
  Spouse only, no children present4.2(0.31)54.1(3.63)6.1(1.78)5.6!(1.97)18.7(2.84)23.7(3.53)12.3(1.00)76.8(3.29)5.0(1.48)3.0!(1.28)16.6(2.93)52.2(4.33)
  Children only, no spouse present6.2(0.41)38.2(3.20)5.1(1.49)6.6(1.54)10.1(1.82)16.4(2.44)10.7(0.88)75.7(3.32)6.7!(2.06)4.3!(1.57)18.5(3.10)46.1(3.91)
  Neither spouse nor children 
     present
83.2(0.62)40.9(0.96)4.9(0.37)10.9(0.50)17.1(0.73)8.0(0.45)58.1(1.51)74.8(1.62)3.7(0.71)6.5(0.89)27.2(1.55)37.4(1.92)
 
2015
     Total100.0(†)42.8(0.92)5.3(0.38)10.7(0.54)16.5(0.68)10.3(0.57)100.0(†)78.2(1.36)3.1(0.56)6.1(0.76)24.6(1.53)44.4(1.73)
 
Sex
  Male45.9(0.81)40.4(1.35)4.1(0.51)10.1(0.77)15.4(0.98)10.9(0.93)43.6(1.64)78.7(2.04)3.0(0.85)4.4(0.91)24.9(2.18)46.5(2.46)
  Female54.1(0.81)44.8(1.22)6.4(0.55)11.2(0.74)17.4(0.89)9.8(0.74)56.4(1.64)77.7(1.81)3.1(0.70)7.4(1.15)24.4(1.79)42.8(2.18)
 
Race/ethnicity
  American Indian/Alaska Native0.6(0.15)51.6(10.87)(‡)(‡)39.0(10.16)(‡)0.7(0.18)(‡)(‡)(‡)(‡)(‡)
  Asian7.8(0.43)25.3(2.88)4.6!(1.46)9.6(1.83)6.6(1.47)4.6(1.26)3.9(0.63)79.2(6.85)(‡)(‡)24.6(6.57)46.3(8.37)
  Black13.8(0.58)42.5(2.70)5.6(1.16)8.3(1.42)14.4(1.81)14.2(1.73)16.4(1.09)70.0(4.43)3.7!(1.83)(‡)20.1(3.59)44.6(4.05)
  Hispanic17.5(0.65)40.4(2.15)4.1(0.76)9.5(1.32)16.8(1.80)9.9(1.35)25.5(1.23)79.7(2.93)2.3!(0.98)6.6(1.56)32.6(3.47)38.1(3.34)
  Pacific Islander0.3(0.09)(‡)(‡)(‡)(‡)(‡)0.6!(0.24)(‡)(‡)(‡)(‡)(‡)
  White57.7(0.80)45.8(1.18)5.7(0.45)11.7(0.74)18.1(0.94)10.3(0.69)51.5(1.49)80.3(1.68)3.3(0.75)7.2(1.10)22.5(1.80)47.2(2.19)
  Two or more races2.3(0.29)41.7(7.14)6.7!(3.01)14.9(4.26)11.2!(3.59)8.9!(3.23)1.5(0.30)(‡)(‡)(‡)(‡)(‡)
 
Age
  16 to 2482.0(0.63)39.4(1.04)5.5(0.46)11.4(0.64)16.4(0.79)6.1(0.53)44.1(1.57)74.5(2.45)3.5(0.98)8.5(1.32)32.7(2.78)29.7(2.26)
  25 to 298.2(0.43)58.7(3.15)4.2(1.08)9.9(1.68)17.8(2.33)26.7(2.78)20.9(1.36)80.2(2.92)2.2!(0.92)3.5!(1.32)17.7(2.59)56.9(3.22)
  30 to 396.1(0.38)59.5(2.87)7.3(1.60)5.3(1.36)16.8(2.72)30.2(3.09)19.1(1.16)84.5(2.47)3.2!(1.24)5.8(1.49)18.8(2.96)56.7(3.52)
  40 to 492.3(0.23)56.8(5.22)(‡)4.8!(2.16)13.1(3.47)37.2(4.94)10.5(0.84)81.9(3.45)(‡)3.4!(1.53)19.1(3.70)58.0(4.27)
  50 to 641.4(0.18)49.9(7.04)(‡)(‡)15.0!(4.96)30.8(6.43)5.4(0.71)70.8(6.06)(‡)(‡)15.9(4.67)47.0(6.74)
 
Level of institution
  2-year25.5(0.80)45.8(1.78)2.9(0.55)11.3(1.08)20.9(1.36)10.6(1.12)47.4(1.63)75.8(1.81)2.2!(0.70)7.6(1.34)26.9(2.28)39.2(2.36)
  4-year74.5(0.80)41.7(1.06)6.2(0.47)10.5(0.63)14.9(0.78)10.2(0.64)52.6(1.63)80.3(1.87)3.9(0.83)4.7(0.83)22.6(1.82)49.1(2.14)
 
Householder status3
  Non-householder74.4(0.70)38.4(1.11)5.5(0.48)10.8(0.67)15.6(0.77)6.5(0.56)52.1(1.71)74.4(2.14)2.7(0.73)7.7(1.13)29.3(2.17)34.7(2.19)
  Householder25.6(0.70)55.4(1.72)4.9(0.65)10.2(0.94)18.9(1.43)21.4(1.41)47.9(1.71)82.3(1.73)3.5(0.83)4.3(0.92)19.5(1.99)55.0(2.54)
 
Presence of own children under 18 
   in household4
  Child or children present9.9(0.49)55.2(2.74)4.7(1.09)7.7(1.29)15.6(2.00)27.3(2.34)26.5(1.36)80.0(2.43)3.3!(1.04)3.7(1.08)18.5(2.51)54.5(3.19)
  No children present90.1(0.49)41.4(1.00)5.4(0.43)11.0(0.59)16.6(0.73)8.4(0.58)73.5(1.36)77.5(1.64)3.0(0.68)6.9(0.90)26.8(1.81)40.8(1.93)
Presence of spouse in household
  Spouse present8.7(0.53)59.5(2.87)6.0(1.26)4.7(1.11)15.4(2.00)33.5(2.84)27.9(1.40)83.2(2.17)4.1(1.17)4.5(1.15)17.0(2.53)57.7(3.43)
  No spouse present591.3(0.53)41.2(0.99)5.3(0.41)11.3(0.60)16.6(0.71)8.1(0.55)72.1(1.40)76.2(1.68)2.7(0.64)6.7(0.93)27.6(1.82)39.3(1.94)
Presence of spouse and own 
   children under 18
  Spouse and children both present5.3(0.39)55.4(3.59)6.3(1.67)3.6!(1.16)12.4(2.30)33.2(3.43)16.8(1.17)81.1(2.83)3.8!(1.44)3.8!(1.36)16.4(3.01)57.1(4.00)
  Spouse only, no children present3.4(0.34)65.8(4.49)5.5!(1.96)6.3!(2.10)20.0(3.85)34.0(4.48)11.1(1.01)86.5(3.10)4.7!(1.91)5.6!(1.90)17.8(3.59)58.4(4.91)
  Children only, no spouse present4.5(0.34)55.0(4.05)2.8!(1.35)12.6(2.41)19.3(3.17)20.3(3.17)9.6(0.93)78.3(4.48)(‡)3.6!(1.79)22.2(4.48)50.0(5.11)
  Neither spouse nor children 
     present
86.7(0.58)40.4(1.02)5.4(0.44)11.2(0.61)16.4(0.74)7.4(0.55)62.5(1.59)75.9(1.84)2.7(0.71)7.2(1.02)28.4(1.98)37.6(2.05)
 
2022
     Total 100.0 (†) 41.7 (1.10) 5.3 (0.49) 9.5 (0.63) 16.6 (0.80) 10.3 (0.70) 100.0 (†) 78.4 (1.82) 2.4 (0.68) 4.2 (0.90) 22.4 (1.82) 49.4 (2.03)
 
Sex
  Male44.0(0.80)40.2(1.58)5.3(0.82)9.0(0.87)15.3(1.14)10.6(1.02)39.7(2.23)80.3(3.26)(‡)2.7!(1.25)22.8(2.71)52.6(3.77)
  Female56.0(0.80)42.9(1.35)5.3(0.65)9.9(0.81)17.6(1.04)10.0(0.90)60.3(2.23)77.2(2.16)2.6!(0.78)5.2(1.27)22.1(2.32)47.4(2.52)
 
Race/ethnicity
  American Indian/Alaska Native0.4!(0.13)(‡)(‡)(‡)(‡)(‡)1.0!(0.41)(‡)(‡)(‡)(‡)(‡)
  Asian8.9(0.55)25.7(2.91)3.4!(1.09)7.8(2.04)11.9(1.99)2.6!(1.05)3.6(0.77)(‡)(‡)(‡)(‡)(‡)
  Black13.9(0.67)44.0(3.10)5.2(1.45)6.8(1.75)17.3(2.28)14.7(2.31)13.8(1.53)82.1(4.91)(‡)(‡)16.8(4.77)56.6(6.59)
  Hispanic20.0(0.86)45.7(2.55)3.3(0.81)9.9(1.38)17.5(1.95)15.0(1.81)30.7(2.00)78.4(3.38)(‡)4.7!(1.73)23.5(3.51)49.4(3.98)
  Pacific Islander0.4!(0.16)(‡)(‡)(‡)(‡)(‡)(‡)(‡)(‡)(‡)(‡)(‡)
  White53.7(1.09)42.3(1.48)6.5(0.68)10.7(0.85)16.1(1.12)8.9(0.79)47.8(2.28)77.0(2.74)2.7!(0.89)3.9!(1.24)22.1(2.67)48.2(2.97)
  Two or more races2.7(0.34)42.3(6.83)(‡)(‡)31.4(7.60)(‡)2.9(0.82)(‡)(‡)(‡)(‡)(‡)
 
Age
  16 to 2485.4(0.68)38.9(1.20)5.4(0.52)10.6(0.73)16.7(0.89)6.3(0.59)46.0(2.13)75.6(3.19)2.2!(0.87)6.3(1.71)32.3(3.23)34.8(3.30)
  25 to 296.9(0.51)55.7(3.96)5.2!(1.83)3.6!(1.58)16.5(2.91)30.5(3.74)20.2(1.80)82.0(3.32)2.8!(1.34)(‡)18.1(3.70)59.3(4.40)
  30 to 394.9(0.41)60.7(4.51)5.1!(1.74)(‡)18.5(3.69)34.9(4.25)20.5(1.94)82.3(3.39)(‡)(‡)13.7(3.02)63.4(4.71)
  40 to 492.0(0.27)57.8(6.56)(‡)(‡)9.9!(4.06)40.7(6.52)8.1(1.08)79.5(5.52)(‡)(‡)8.9!(3.90)63.8(6.55)
  50 to 640.8(0.18)(‡)(‡)(‡)(‡)(‡)5.3(0.84)73.6(7.87)(‡)(‡)(‡)63.6(8.22)
 
Level of institution
  2-year21.6(1.04)47.6(2.39)4.9(1.27)7.5(1.29)19.5(1.75)15.8(1.62)43.7(2.14)76.2(2.85)1.9!(0.84)4.3!(1.43)25.0(3.00)45.0(3.05)
  4-year78.4(1.04)40.1(1.24)5.5(0.53)10.0(0.77)15.8(0.90)8.8(0.68)56.3(2.14)80.2(2.28)2.8!(0.93)4.2(1.09)20.4(2.21)52.9(2.63)
 
Householder status3
  Non-householder78.3(0.91)37.9(1.30)4.6(0.53)9.6(0.71)16.4(0.96)7.2(0.65)53.2(2.13)73.8(2.82)1.7!(0.69)5.2(1.47)28.9(2.83)38.1(3.08)
  Householder21.7(0.91)55.5(2.11)7.8(1.21)9.0(1.22)17.4(1.58)21.4(1.82)46.8(2.13)83.7(2.10)3.2!(1.16)3.2!(1.21)15.0(2.31)62.4(2.88)
 
Presence of own children under 18 
   in household4
  Child or children present6.2(0.46)59.8(3.91)8.9(2.42)2.9!(1.37)16.1(3.01)31.9(3.91)21.9(1.70)77.7(4.02)4.1!(1.68)4.4!(2.02)13.2(2.93)56.0(4.49)
  No children present93.8(0.46)40.5(1.17)5.1(0.47)9.9(0.68)16.6(0.82)8.9(0.71)78.1(1.70)78.7(2.15)1.9!(0.60)4.2(1.06)24.9(2.19)47.6(2.38)
Presence of spouse in household
  Spouse present6.6(0.48)54.0(3.80)6.7(1.69)3.2!(1.40)13.8(2.64)30.3(3.72)25.9(2.05)80.3(3.42)3.4!(1.46)(‡)15.0(3.17)59.8(4.11)
  No spouse present593.4(0.48)40.8(1.19)5.2(0.50)9.9(0.67)16.8(0.84)8.9(0.67)74.1(2.05)77.8(2.16)2.1!(0.64)5.0(1.19)25.0(2.21)45.8(2.52)
Presence of spouse and own 
   children under 18
  Spouse and children both present3.5(0.35)59.0(4.85)7.7!(2.70)(‡)13.3(3.71)37.5(5.05)14.6(1.58)77.4(4.77)5.1!(2.48)(‡)14.1(3.76)54.8(5.32)
  Spouse only, no children present3.2(0.37)48.6(5.98)5.6!(2.19)6.2!(2.93)14.3(3.77)22.4(5.30)11.3(1.36)84.0(4.77)(‡)(‡)16.1(4.46)66.4(5.72)
  Children only, no spouse present2.7(0.34)60.8(6.50)10.4!(4.33)(‡)19.7(4.98)24.7(5.40)7.3(1.17)78.3(7.22)(‡)(‡)11.4!(4.40)58.4(7.78)
  Neither spouse nor children 
     present
90.7(0.59)40.2(1.22)5.1(0.49)10.0(0.70)16.7(0.84)8.4(0.67)66.8(2.02)77.8(2.39)2.1
!
(0.69)4.8(1.25)26.4(2.38)44.4(2.68)
†Not applicable.
!Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent.
‡Reporting standards not met. Either there are too few cases for a reliable estimate or the coefficient of variation (CV) is 50 percent or greater.
1Includes those who were employed but not at work during the survey week.
2"Hours worked per week" refers to the number of hours worked at all jobs during the survey week.
3Householders are persons in whose name the housing unit is owned or rented. Never-married students living away from home in college dormitories are not considered householders.
4Own children are never-married sons and daughters of the student, including stepchildren and adopted children.
5Refers to all students who do not live with a spouse, including students who are single, divorced, separated, or widowed.
NOTE: Students were classified as full time if they were taking at least 12 hours of classes during an average school week and as part time if they were taking fewer hours. Data are based on sample surveys of the civilian noninstitutionalized population, which excludes persons in the military and persons living in institutions (e.g., prisons or nursing facilities). Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. Some data have been revised from previously published figures.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Census Bureau, Current Population Survey (CPS), October, 2010, 2015, and 2022. (This table was prepared July 2023.)

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