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Digest of Education Statistics
2022 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest


Table 331.95.Percentage of undergraduate degree/certificate completers who ever received loans and average cumulative amount borrowed, by degree level, selected student characteristics, and institution control: Selected academic years, 1999-2000 through 2019-20
[Standard errors appear in parentheses]
Degree level, selected student
characteristic, and institution
control
1999–2000 2011–12 2015–16 2019–20
Loans to students Parent PLUS
Loans1
Loans to students Parent PLUS
Loans1
Loans to students Parent PLUS
Loans1
Loans to students Parent PLUS
Loans1
Total loans to
students
Federal
loans to students
Total loans to
students
Federal
loans to students
Nonfederal
loans
Total loans to
students
Federal
loans to students
Nonfederal
loans
Total loans to
students
Federal
loans to students
Nonfederal
loans
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Percent of completers who ever received loans
   Total, all completers  52.5 (0.75) 50.5 (0.74) 7.2 (0.27) 61.6 (0.62) 58.6 (0.62) 24.8 (0.50) 10.5 (0.40) 61.8 (0.55) 59.7 (0.56) 10.4 (0.27) 10.3 (0.24) 55.1 (0.62) 53.3 (0.63) 12.6 (0.49) 10.0 (0.39)

Certificate below associate's level

43.5


(2.64)

39.6


(2.57)

3.3


(0.55)

66.3


(1.71)

63.8


(1.79)

23.4


(1.25)

7.9


(0.83)

67.7


(1.76)

65.9


(1.88)

9.2


(0.71)

7.2


(0.65)

63.7


(1.42)

61.5


(1.47)

15.6


(1.24)

8.2


(0.86)
  Gender
    Male  39.3 (3.48) 35.9 (3.55) 3.4 (0.81) 58.0 (2.93) 55.9 (3.00) 21.5 (2.01) 8.7 (1.67) 57.4 (3.21) 55.9 (3.25) 7.7 (0.86) 8.4 (1.25) 45.7 (3.34) 43.2 (3.41) 10.7 (1.65) 7.7 (1.41)
    Female  46.7 (3.12) 42.5 (2.95) 3.3 (0.68) 70.0 (1.90) 67.2 (1.96) 24.2 (1.50) 7.6 (0.93) 73.6 (1.75) 71.6 (1.87) 10.0 (0.93) 6.6 (0.76) 74.3 (1.67) 72.1 (1.82) 18.5 (1.54) 8.6 (1.07)
    Nonbinary2 --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) (†) (†) (†) (†)
  Institution control
    Public  27.1 (2.64) 22.2 (2.26) 0.9 ! (0.39) 36.2 (3.17) 31.8 (3.18) 10.5 (1.81) 1.8 ! (0.74) 44.6 (2.43) 43.0 (2.47) 4.3 (0.96) 3.4 (0.82) 33.5 (2.48) 30.6 (2.47) 5.0 (0.84) 4.2 (1.08)
    Private nonprofit  53.2 (7.86) 49.8 (7.91) 9.8 ! (3.05) 76.1 (5.06) 73.3 (5.80) 23.1 (4.84) (†) 80.1 (3.50) 76.4 (4.97) 11.9 (2.42) 6.4 ! (2.07) 74.8 (8.96) 72.5 (9.59) 17.6 ! (8.40) (†)
    Private for-profit  86.3 (1.60) 85.0 (1.75) 8.5 (1.33) 85.9 (1.73) 84.6 (1.92) 32.2 (1.64) 12.0 (1.27) 87.5 (1.58) 85.7 (1.89) 13.3 (1.11) 11.0 (0.98) 90.3 (1.00) 88.5 (1.31) 25.0 (2.24) 11.1 (1.18)

Associate's degree

38.9


(1.59)

36.9


(1.65)

4.3


(0.54)

49.8


(1.09)

46.1


(1.03)

18.7


(0.83)

5.0


(0.44)

48.1


(1.04)

46.2


(1.04)

5.8


(0.46)

5.1


(0.42)

39.0


(1.43)

37.5


(1.43)

7.1


(0.66)

4.3


(0.52)
  Gender
    Male  37.9 (2.76) 36.0 (2.82) 5.8 (1.28) 46.2 (1.75) 42.1 (1.73) 18.6 (1.05) 6.0 (0.75) 41.9 (1.48) 39.8 (1.46) 5.3 (0.72) 5.4 (0.72) 35.6 (1.99) 33.9 (1.96) 7.4 (1.05) 3.8 (0.67)
    Female  39.4 (2.04) 37.4 (2.11) 3.5 (0.80) 52.3 (1.41) 48.9 (1.29) 18.9 (1.13) 4.3 (0.47) 52.5 (1.25) 50.8 (1.28) 6.1 (0.58) 4.9 (0.49) 41.3 (1.82) 39.8 (1.79) 7.0 (0.76) 4.7 (0.65)
    Nonbinary2 --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) 33.7 ! (16.53) 33.5 ! (16.55) (†) (†)
  Race/ethnicity
    American Indian/Alaska Native  (†) (†) (†) 64.6 (11.14) 64.6 (11.14) (†) (†) 67.2 (10.02) 63.3 (10.20) 19.0 ! (8.22) (†) 38.0 ! (14.28) 38.0 ! (14.28) (†) (†)
    Asian  16.9 ! (5.79) 16.3 ! (5.73) (†) 26.1 (4.11) 23.0 (3.93) 9.9 (2.87) 6.1 ! (2.18) 26.7 (3.28) 22.1 (3.07) 6.2 ! (1.95) 2.5 ! (0.88) 24.1 (3.36) 22.3 (3.13) 5.9 ! (2.15) 2.6 ! (1.06)
    Black  44.5 (4.38) 42.3 (4.26) 2.8 ! (1.06) 66.2 (2.62) 60.8 (2.67) 22.1 (2.06) 3.2 (0.93) 66.7 (2.41) 65.6 (2.48) 5.4 (1.03) 4.2 (0.72) 60.0 (3.11) 59.3 (3.10) 7.7 (1.51) 6.0 (1.49)
    Hispanic  41.3 (5.26) 39.5 (5.00) 7.2 ! (2.98) 44.6 (2.34) 40.7 (2.28) 15.8 (1.60) 5.9 (1.18) 35.4 (1.89) 34.0 (1.86) 3.6 (0.70) 4.1 (0.73) 32.1 (2.32) 30.5 (2.29) 6.1 (0.89) 3.4 (0.71)
    Pacific Islander  (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) 47.3 (11.14) 41.7 (11.28) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†)
    White  39.5 (2.04) 37.4 (2.03) 4.5 (0.76) 49.2 (1.52) 45.7 (1.54) 19.8 (1.11) 5.0 (0.54) 50.2 (1.60) 48.4 (1.63) 6.4 (0.66) 6.1 (0.67) 40.6 (1.63) 38.9 (1.57) 7.7 (0.92) 5.2 (0.84)
    Other3 (†) (†) (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†)
    Two or more races  (†) (†) (†) 52.1 (6.13) 51.5 (5.97) 21.9 (5.24) 6.2 ! (2.47) 47.1 (5.10) 45.5 (5.18) 6.4 ! (2.55) 4.6 ! (1.95) 38.5 (5.84) 37.1 (5.86) 8.2 ! (2.77) (†)
  Dependency status
    Dependent  36.7 (2.91) 35.6 (2.89) 8.9 (1.38) 41.3 (1.57) 38.6 (1.54) 16.2 (1.10) 7.9 (0.79) 34.9 (1.57) 33.2 (1.50) 4.4 (0.51) 5.3 (0.59) 23.9 (1.54) 22.2 (1.39) 5.6 (0.81) 4.2 (0.63)
    Independent  40.1 (1.87) 37.6 (2.04) 1.7 (0.50) 54.7 (1.39) 50.4 (1.34) 20.2 (1.01) 3.3 (0.48) 55.4 (1.29) 53.4 (1.35) 6.5 (0.65) 5.0 (0.59) 51.0 (1.93) 49.6 (1.92) 8.3 (0.99) 4.5 (0.66)
  Institution control
    Public  32.6 (1.66) 30.6 (1.69) 1.9 (0.48) 42.1 (1.28) 38.1 (1.17) 14.9 (0.87) 3.2 (0.40) 40.9 (1.15) 38.8 (1.15) 4.8 (0.49) 3.9 (0.47) 32.8 (1.08) 31.2 (1.04) 4.9 (0.55) 3.1 (0.41)
    Private nonprofit  45.7 (5.92) 43.0 (5.63) 11.1 ! (3.83) 86.9 (5.23) 84.8 (6.80) 43.2 (6.75) 12.5 ! (4.28) 83.9 (3.01) 83.1 (3.26) 11.9 (3.49) 9.0 (1.99) 77.3 (6.45) 76.6 (6.46) 19.9 (4.25) 18.7 (4.64)
    Private for-profit  92.5 (1.29) 91.6 (1.20) 22.4 (3.49) 88.3 (1.77) 86.4 (1.87) 37.2 (1.93) 14.1 (1.63) 88.3 (1.16) 87.8 (1.15) 10.6 (0.86) 12.4 (1.02) 92.8 (1.96) 91.3 (2.07) 27.0 (4.38) 10.8 (2.30)

Bachelor's degree

62.2


(0.70)

61.0


(0.70)

10.2


(0.40)

69.0


(0.75)

66.3


(0.72)

29.8


(0.79)

15.5


(0.68)

68.9


(0.62)

66.7


(0.64)

13.8


(0.33)

14.6


(0.36)

61.0


(0.86)

59.2


(0.86)

14.6


(0.73)

13.3


(0.55)
  Gender
    Male  61.4 (1.00) 60.2 (1.01) 10.6 (0.56) 67.0 (1.39) 63.9 (1.37) 29.4 (1.20) 15.1 (1.00) 65.7 (0.85) 63.3 (0.86) 13.3 (0.53) 14.8 (0.57) 54.4 (1.55) 51.9 (1.54) 14.2 (0.90) 12.7 (0.88)
    Female  62.8 (0.94) 61.6 (0.92) 9.8 (0.54) 70.5 (0.94) 68.2 (0.92) 30.1 (1.04) 15.9 (0.92) 71.4 (0.71) 69.3 (0.75) 14.2 (0.44) 14.4 (0.46) 66.1 (1.07) 64.7 (1.08) 14.8 (0.96) 13.4 (0.65)
    Nonbinary2 --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) 51.8 (12.32) 51.6 (12.34) 17.2 ! (7.00) 21.2 ! (8.09)
  Race/ethnicity
    American Indian/Alaska Native  75.2 (6.58) 71.8 (6.80) 3.8 ! (1.73) 61.5 (11.92) 60.2 (12.04) 19.5 ! (8.06) (†) 76.1 (5.87) 69.9 (6.68) 14.4 (4.23) 6.9 ! (2.22) 75.1 (9.30) 64.8 (12.14) (†) (†)
    Asian  50.2 (2.43) 49.0 (2.55) 4.3 (0.85) 47.2 (3.22) 42.7 (3.02) 20.5 (2.49) 7.8 (1.70) 45.1 (2.04) 41.4 (1.98) 10.6 (1.02) 8.7 (1.19) 40.8 (3.05) 39.3 (3.11) 10.0 (2.20) 6.9 (1.35)
    Black  80.5 (1.81) 80.0 (1.82) 13.9 (1.66) 84.2 (1.78) 82.0 (1.92) 33.2 (2.37) 16.9 (1.83) 84.9 (1.17) 83.8 (1.20) 10.6 (1.03) 16.7 (1.23) 82.9 (2.36) 81.4 (2.43) 11.1 (1.57) 25.9 (2.31)
    Hispanic  68.7 (1.86) 67.1 (2.00) 11.7 (1.69) 71.9 (2.42) 69.2 (2.32) 30.0 (2.08) 15.1 (1.82) 66.6 (1.57) 64.7 (1.59) 10.2 (0.80) 11.8 (0.94) 62.1 (2.06) 60.4 (2.13) 12.8 (1.30) 11.3 (1.22)
    Pacific Islander  66.7 (6.35) 66.7 (6.35) 19.1 (5.45) (†) (†) (†) (†) 89.4 (4.56) 80.7 (8.09) 18.3 ! (8.05) 14.1 ! (5.77) 49.9 ! (16.37) 41.8 ! (16.34) (†) (†)
    White  60.7 (0.87) 59.5 (0.85) 10.2 (0.45) 67.5 (0.94) 64.8 (0.92) 30.2 (1.03) 16.0 (0.87) 69.4 (0.69) 67.1 (0.70) 15.5 (0.45) 15.7 (0.44) 60.9 (1.04) 59.1 (1.03) 16.7 (0.82) 12.6 (0.73)
    Other3 53.5 (6.22) 53.1 (6.19) 6.3 ! (2.25) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†)
    Two or more races  55.0 (5.12) 52.7 (5.48) 7.6 (1.95) 81.0 (3.68) 78.7 (3.94) 31.7 (4.43) 21.0 (4.63) 72.9 (2.35) 70.1 (2.60) 17.5 (2.58) 17.1 (2.01) 63.9 (4.12) 62.5 (3.97) 13.2 (2.70) 17.9 (3.28)
  Dependency status
    Dependent  59.2 (0.95) 58.0 (0.92) 14.4 (0.63) 64.9 (1.09) 61.6 (1.06) 29.8 (1.02) 21.0 (0.96) 65.9 (0.69) 63.4 (0.70) 15.9 (0.43) 18.9 (0.54) 56.2 (1.05) 54.1 (1.06) 15.1 (0.82) 15.1 (0.76)
    Independent  65.9 (0.92) 64.8 (0.94) 4.9 (0.34) 74.1 (1.16) 72.2 (1.13) 29.7 (1.19) 8.6 (0.76) 72.6 (0.92) 70.6 (0.97) 11.3 (0.52) 9.3 (0.50) 68.6 (1.44) 67.2 (1.41) 13.9 (1.19) 10.3 (0.85)
  Institution control
    Public  60.0 (0.80) 58.8 (0.81) 8.3 (0.42) 64.1 (0.89) 61.2 (0.86) 25.9 (0.84) 13.5 (0.69) 66.4 (0.68) 64.1 (0.66) 11.7 (0.40) 13.7 (0.45) 58.7 (1.09) 57.1 (1.12) 12.9 (0.75) 12.2 (0.67)
    Private nonprofit  66.2 (1.16) 65.2 (1.17) 14.1 (0.93) 73.5 (1.72) 70.7 (1.74) 34.6 (1.83) 21.5 (1.75) 69.2 (0.94) 66.7 (0.96) 17.9 (0.75) 17.0 (0.66) 61.3 (1.48) 58.8 (1.44) 17.8 (1.24) 16.2 (1.06)
    Private for-profit  77.2 (4.41) 77.0 (4.45) 10.8 ! (3.55) 87.2 (1.62) 86.3 (1.59) 40.5 (1.76) 10.9 (1.17) 86.5 (1.95) 85.3 (2.43) 15.1 (1.16) 12.7 (1.63) 82.3 (3.11) 81.0 (3.24) 17.5 (5.22) 11.0 (1.68)
Average cumulative loan amount for students with loans (current dollars)4
   Total, all completers  $14,260 (186) $13,540 (162) $12,630 (443) $23,050 (285) $19,510 (208) $11,210 (450) $22,990 (1,197) $24,480 (336) $22,520 (305) $16,160 (439) $27,170 (676) $25,670 (450) $21,830 (306) $19,930 (997) $34,630 (1,462)

Certificate below associate's level

7,790

(418)
7,150

(330)
6,850

(1,081)
13,280

(374)
11,380

(343)
6,630

(526)
8,900

(612)
15,520

(502)
14,280

(413)
12,080

(1,649)
12,920

(1,158)
15,680

(465)
13,740

(422)
9,900

(1,128)
14,600

(2,355)
  Gender
    Male  8,110 (533) 7,550 (544) 8,290 (2,316) 13,370 (743) 10,970 (629) 7,540 (1,314) 10,080 (1,199) 15,380 (1,091) 13,760 (891) 14,630 (3,942) 16,320 (2,136) 14,870 (1,013) 12,780 (907) 11,890 (2,473) 17,870 (3,875)
    Female  7,590 (492) 6,900 (373) 5,720 (941) 13,250 (393) 11,520 (357) 6,280 (510) 8,300 (775) 15,590 (476) 14,520 (423) 10,950 (1,549) 10,450 (1,172) 15,930 (581) 14,030 (506) 9,260 (1,330) 12,980 (2,189)
    Nonbinary2 --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) (†) (†) (†) (†)
  Institution control
    Public  7,640 (819) 7,540 (623) (†) 12,420 (1,151) 11,030 (1,095) 9,410 (2,241) (†) 16,400 (1,080) 15,550 (946) (†) (†) 15,430 (1,328) 15,480 (1,226) 8,290 ! (3,566) 21,450 (5,027)
    Private nonprofit  11,240 (2,280) 9,880 (1,828) 9,680 (2,443) 15,820 (2,721) 11,850 (1,463) 14,530 ! (6,937) (†) 17,110 (2,536) 15,840 (1,951) 13,520 ! (6,105) 17,470 ! (6,447) 21,660 (4,683) 15,260 (2,874) 29,200 (#) (†)
    Private for-profit  7,470 (323) 6,540 (287) 6,260 (1,604) 13,320 (345) 11,430 (329) 5,510 (338) 9,180 (650) 14,880 (434) 13,480 (326) 11,040 (1,616) 11,110 (943) 15,450 (401) 13,120 (446) 9,320 (803) 9,240 (803)

Associate's degree

9,490

(334)
8,840

(339)
7,630

(1,046)
17,160

(359)
15,130

(305)
8,370

(413)
14,830

(1,095)
18,550

(408)
18,060

(392)
9,950

(1,136)
12,980

(1,148)
18,920

(752)
17,460

(642)
11,830

(965)
18,960

(2,062)
  Gender
    Male  9,320 (698) 8,590 (663) 7,860 (2,013) 15,950 (536) 13,930 (418) 8,090 (561) 16,000 (1,696) 17,010 (652) 16,150 (552) 13,220 (2,547) 13,500 (1,712) 17,340 (996) 16,220 (835) 9,060 (1,379) 18,310 (2,371)
    Female  9,570 (436) 8,970 (384) 7,430 (803) 17,900 (535) 15,850 (447) 8,570 (621) 13,690 (1,445) 19,420 (492) 19,110 (485) 7,970 (792) 12,580 (1,338) 19,810 (862) 18,210 (761) 13,300 (1,255) 18,890 (2,884)
    Nonbinary2 --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) (†) (†) (†) (†)
  Race/ethnicity
    American Indian/Alaska Native  (†) (†) (†) 22,330 (3,730) 22,100 (3,720) (†) (†) 18,230 (3,431) 17,830 (3,110) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†)
    Asian  (†) (†) (†) 13,580 (1,965) 13,400 (1,786) 4,640 (902) (†) 16,830 (1,772) 17,720 (1,981) 9,340 (2,170) (†) 17,310 (3,716) 15,070 (2,201) 13,740 ! (5,568) (†)
    Black  9,500 (771) 8,590 (659) (†) 19,280 (922) 17,580 (783) 9,380 (1,321) 15,050 (4,419) 22,300 (834) 21,930 (792) 9,020 (2,182) 11,310 (1,748) 22,660 (1,593) 21,500 (1,477) 10,940 (1,670) 11,620 (1,919)
    Hispanic  8,840 (2,037) 9,090 (2,124) (†) 15,170 (912) 14,020 (786) 6,650 (667) 12,220 (1,572) 15,970 (904) 15,590 (928) 9,770 (1,659) 12,440 (1,563) 16,520 (1,128) 14,790 (964) 13,060 (1,826) 22,620 (4,519)
    Pacific Islander  (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†)
    White  9,590 (480) 8,910 (433) 8,510 (1,285) 17,110 (485) 14,630 (377) 8,810 (577) 15,400 (1,429) 17,760 (533) 17,100 (486) 10,210 (1,837) 13,350 (1,638) 18,930 (948) 17,590 (848) 11,010 (1,251) 18,630 (3,253)
    Other3 (†) (†) (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†)
    Two or more races  (†) (†) (†) 17,570 (1,740) 15,260 (1,453) 5,920 (1,367) (†) 21,790 (2,159) 20,940 (2,134) (†) (†) 18,930 (2,597) 16,650 (2,303) (†) (†)
  Dependency status
    Dependent  8,280 (530) 7,400 (452) 8,830 (1,306) 13,240 (512) 11,200 (391) 7,090 (618) 15,520 (1,739) 12,140 (438) 11,660 (440) 8,340 (1,100) 15,470 (1,677) 13,420 (669) 11,350 (532) 12,220 (1,457) 22,260 (2,973)
    Independent  10,120 (479) 9,630 (459) (†) 18,860 (471) 16,860 (420) 8,960 (534) 13,880 (1,419) 20,780 (474) 20,250 (448) 10,550 (1,504) 11,510 (1,381) 20,950 (936) 19,610 (796) 11,620 (1,162) 16,540 (2,942)
  Institution control
    Public  8,060 (431) 7,360 (398) (†) 13,970 (349) 12,300 (315) 8,080 (538) 12,070 (1,154) 15,640 (511) 15,230 (494) 10,110 (1,639) 11,600 (1,490) 15,530 (626) 14,890 (590) 9,160 (1,146) 18,960 (2,949)
    Private nonprofit  11,850 (1,035) 11,950 (999) (†) 25,310 (2,076) 20,420 (1,564) 10,790 (2,742) (†) 24,830 (1,159) 23,890 (1,239) 8,180 (2,395) 14,950 (2,567) 29,170 (2,489) 25,770 (2,248) 14,140 (1,847) 23,830 (3,535)
    Private for-profit  13,440 (685) 12,540 (672) 9,550 (1,804) 24,680 (624) 21,550 (537) 8,550 (486) 17,590 (1,854) 26,420 (512) 25,340 (537) 10,220 (718) 15,740 (1,994) 28,530 (2,056) 24,090 (1,347) 16,610 (2,009) 14,370 (2,331)

Bachelor's degree

17,480

(204)
16,530

(180)
14,350

(548)
29,380

(456)
24,400

(295)
13,760

(704)
27,350

(1,613)
29,910

(402)
27,050

(384)
18,700

(432)
32,600

(796)
30,500

(593)
25,360

(385)
24,640

(1,241)
40,360

(1,783)
  Gender
    Male  17,470 (247) 16,530 (232) 14,730 (784) 29,030 (666) 23,740 (451) 14,630 (1,044) 29,780 (3,015) 28,920 (477) 26,120 (429) 18,760 (800) 33,790 (1,296) 29,760 (847) 24,030 (502) 26,080 (1,756) 45,410 (3,026)
    Female  17,490 (256) 16,530 (230) 14,050 (627) 29,650 (551) 24,890 (378) 13,090 (857) 25,530 (1,602) 30,610 (451) 27,710 (420) 18,650 (641) 31,660 (967) 30,840 (707) 26,000 (437) 24,040 (1,648) 36,400 (2,127)
    Nonbinary2 --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) 35,530 (8,295) 32,030 (9,288) (†) (†)
  Race/ethnicity
    American Indian/Alaska Native  18,770 (1,553) 18,290 (1,646) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) 26,380 (2,659) 25,550 (2,696) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†)
    Asian  14,540 (619) 13,990 (545) 20,260 (4,188) 23,130 (1,259) 20,740 (1,041) 10,070 (2,255) (†) 25,450 (1,094) 22,770 (882) 19,250 (2,191) 34,080 (3,962) 30,470 (2,947) 23,050 (1,398) 33,880 (5,355) 60,260 (9,449)
    Black  19,510 (793) 18,760 (718) 10,880 (1,006) 33,020 (1,066) 29,200 (842) 11,620 (1,662) 24,490 (4,344) 34,000 (877) 32,370 (809) 16,450 (1,555) 24,800 (2,009) 33,960 (926) 32,210 (792) 17,330 (2,796) 33,440 (3,213)
    Hispanic  17,450 (821) 16,270 (626) 13,810 (1,693) 29,520 (1,584) 23,710 (825) 16,050 (2,820) 26,470 (3,900) 26,820 (774) 25,420 (725) 13,900 (1,028) 29,440 (2,070) 27,020 (1,076) 23,470 (792) 20,360 (3,048) 40,650 (4,268)
    Pacific Islander  18,380 (1,787) 16,850 (1,222) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) 26,520 (3,981) 27,690 (3,236) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†)
    White  17,370 (211) 16,390 (195) 14,720 (591) 29,060 (579) 23,690 (354) 14,050 (766) 27,450 (2,033) 30,090 (346) 26,460 (325) 20,040 (595) 34,370 (1,088) 30,720 (721) 24,530 (544) 25,310 (1,397) 39,970 (2,592)
    Other3 16,210 (1,378) 15,250 (1,361) (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†)
    Two or more races  17,720 (1,352) 16,470 (1,229) (†) 28,050 (1,731) 23,950 (1,427) 12,250 (2,067) (†) 29,680 (1,097) 27,280 (940) 14,490 (1,605) 40,070 (3,890) 30,420 (2,067) 26,670 (1,776) 20,990 (4,089) 42,330 (5,166)
  Dependency status
    Dependent  16,910 (221) 15,620 (177) 15,680 (671) 26,070 (575) 20,370 (285) 14,700 (917) 28,410 (1,566) 26,760 (282) 22,450 (199) 21,340 (575) 36,790 (1,047) 27,280 (542) 21,110 (240) 25,980 (1,432) 47,510 (2,085)
    Independent  18,110 (320) 17,540 (300) 9,490 (802) 33,040 (637) 28,740 (481) 12,570 (905) 24,060 (4,374) 33,340 (649) 32,010 (587) 14,230 (634) 22,420 (1,257) 34,640 (999) 30,730 (703) 22,350 (2,205) 23,910 (2,469)
  Institution control
    Public  16,210 (233) 15,700 (213) 11,600 (550) 25,640 (454) 22,030 (336) 11,400 (621) 20,460 (1,080) 26,930 (278) 25,000 (235) 15,770 (611) 27,530 (990) 27,430 (511) 23,390 (360) 21,210 (1,211) 35,710 (2,192)
    Private nonprofit  19,620 (373) 17,810 (313) 17,950 (810) 32,310 (1,181) 24,610 (594) 18,370 (1,698) 37,130 (3,739) 31,890 (453) 26,670 (331) 23,840 (766) 41,940 (1,853) 33,910 (1,035) 26,720 (917) 28,640 (1,960) 51,290 (3,448)
    Private for-profit  24,040 (1,204) 23,170 (1,160) (†) 40,040 (798) 34,880 (612) 11,870 (911) 25,650 (2,506) 41,320 (1,592) 39,150 (1,303) 15,460 (1,060) 31,890 (2,316) 40,970 (3,589) 34,740 (1,361) 31,980 (8,617) 22,370 ! (8,336)
Average cumulative loan amount for students with loans (constant 2021-22 dollars)4,5
   Total, all completers  $23,750 (310) $22,550 (270) $21,040 (737) $28,570 (353) $24,170 (258) $13,900 (557) $28,490 (1,483) $28,980 (397) $26,650 (361) $19,130 (520) $32,160 (800) $28,150 (493) $23,940 (335) $21,850 (1,093) $37,970 (1,603)

Certificate below associate's level

12,980

(697)
11,920

(550)
11,410

(1,800)
16,460

(463)
14,100

(425)
8,220

(652)
11,030

(758)
18,370

(594)
16,910

(489)
14,290

(1,952)
15,300

(1,371)
17,190

(510)
15,070

(463)
10,850

(1,237)
16,000

(2,582)
  Gender
    Male  13,510 (888) 12,580 (907) 13,820 (3,858) 16,560 (920) 13,600 (780) 9,350 (1,629) 12,500 (1,486) 18,200 (1,292) 16,290 (1,055) 17,310 (4,665) 19,320 (2,528) 16,300 (1,110) 14,020 (994) 13,040 (2,711) 19,590 (4,249)
    Female  12,650 (820) 11,500 (622) 9,530 (1,567) 16,420 (487) 14,280 (442) 7,780 (632) 10,280 (961) 18,450 (563) 17,180 (500) 12,960 (1,834) 12,370 (1,388) 17,470 (637) 15,380 (554) 10,160 (1,458) 14,230 (2,400)
    Nonbinary2 --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) (†) (†) (†) (†)
  Institution control
    Public  12,730 (1,364) 12,560 (1,038) (†) 15,390 (1,427) 13,670 (1,357) 11,660 (2,777) (†) 19,410 (1,278) 18,410 (1,120) (†) (†) 16,910 (1,456) 16,970 (1,344) 9,080 (3,910) 23,520 (5,512)
    Private nonprofit  18,720 (3,798) 16,460 (3,045) 16,130 (4,070) 19,610 (3,373) 14,690 (1,814) 18,010 ! (8,597) (†) 20,260 (3,001) 18,750 (2,309) 16,000 ! (7,227) 20,680 ! (7,630) 23,740 (5,134) 16,730 (3,151) 32,020 (#) (†)
    Private for-profit  12,450 (538) 10,900 (478) 10,430 (2,672) 16,510 (427) 14,160 (408) 6,830 (418) 11,380 (806) 17,610 (513) 15,950 (386) 13,070 (1,912) 13,150 (1,116) 16,940 (440) 14,390 (489) 10,220 (881) 10,130 (880)

Associate's degree

15,800

(557)
14,730

(565)
12,710

(1,742)
21,260

(445)
18,750

(378)
10,380

(511)
18,380

(1,357)
21,960

(484)
21,380

(463)
11,780

(1,344)
15,360

(1,359)
20,740

(825)
19,140

(704)
12,970

(1,058)
20,790

(2,261)
  Gender
    Male  15,520 (1,163) 14,310 (1,105) 13,100 (3,353) 19,770 (664) 17,260 (518) 10,020 (695) 19,820 (2,101) 20,130 (771) 19,120 (654) 15,650 (3,015) 15,970 (2,027) 19,020 (1,092) 17,790 (915) 9,930 (1,512) 20,070 (2,600)
    Female  15,950 (727) 14,950 (640) 12,380 (1,337) 22,190 (663) 19,640 (554) 10,620 (770) 16,960 (1,791) 22,990 (582) 22,620 (575) 9,430 (937) 14,890 (1,583) 21,720 (945) 19,970 (834) 14,580 (1,376) 20,710 (3,162)
    Nonbinary2 --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) (†) (†) (†) (†)
  Race/ethnicity
    American Indian/Alaska Native  (†) (†) (†) 22,330 (3,730) 22,100 (3,720) (†) (†) 21,570 (4,062) 21,110 (3,682) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†)
    Asian  (†) (†) (†) 16,830 (2,435) 16,610 (2,213) 5,750 (1,117) (†) 19,920 (2,097) 20,970 (2,344) 11,050 (2,569) (†) 18,980 (4,074) 16,530 (2,413) 15,070 (6,105) (†)
    Black  15,830 (1,284) 14,310 (1,098) (†) 23,900 (1,143) 21,790 (970) 11,630 (1,637) 18,650 (5,476) 26,400 (987) 25,960 (937) 10,670 (2,583) 13,390 (2,069) 24,840 (1,746) 23,580 (1,619) 11,990 (1,831) 12,740 (2,104)
    Hispanic  14,730 (3,393) 15,140 (3,539) (†) 18,800 (1,130) 17,380 (974) 8,240 (827) 15,150 (1,948) 18,910 (1,070) 18,450 (1,099) 11,560 (1,963) 14,730 (1,850) 18,120 (1,236) 16,220 (1,057) 14,320 (2,002) 24,800 (4,955)
    Pacific Islander  (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†)
    White  15,970 (799) 14,840 (722) 14,170 (2,141) 21,210 (601) 18,130 (468) 10,910 (714) 19,090 (1,771) 21,020 (631) 20,240 (575) 12,090 (2,174) 15,800 (1,939) 20,760 (1,039) 19,280 (930) 12,070 (1,372) 20,420 (3,566)
    Other3 (†) (†) (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†)
    Two or more races  (†) (†) (†) 21,780 (2,156) 18,910 (1,801) 7,340 (1,694) (†) 25,800 (2,555) 24,790 (2,526) (†) (†) 20,750 (2,847) 18,250 (2,525) (†) (†)
  Dependency status
    Dependent  13,800 (884) 12,320 (753) 14,700 (2,176) 16,410 (635) 13,880 (485) 8,790 (766) 19,240 (2,156) 14,370 (519) 13,800 (521) 9,870 (1,302) 18,310 (1,985) 14,710 (733) 12,450 (583) 13,390 (1,598) 24,410 (3,260)
    Independent  16,850 (798) 16,040 (765) (†) 23,370 (584) 20,890 (521) 11,100 (662) 17,210 (1,758) 24,600 (562) 23,970 (530) 12,480 (1,780) 13,620 (1,634) 22,970 (1,026) 21,500 (872) 12,740 (1,274) 18,130 (3,226)
  Institution control
    Public  13,430 (718) 12,270 (664) (†) 17,310 (432) 15,250 (391) 10,020 (667) 14,960 (1,431) 18,510 (605) 18,030 (585) 11,960 (1,940) 13,730 (1,764) 17,020 (686) 16,330 (647) 10,040 (1,256) 20,790 (3,233)
    Private nonprofit  19,740 (1,724) 19,910 (1,665) (†) 31,370 (2,573) 25,310 (1,939) 13,380 (3,398) (†) 29,390 (1,372) 28,280 (1,467) 9,680 (2,835) 17,700 (3,038) 31,980 (2,729) 28,250 (2,465) 15,500 (2,024) 26,130 (3,876)
    Private for-profit  22,390 (1,142) 20,900 (1,120) 15,910 (3,005) 30,590 (774) 26,700 (666) 10,590 (602) 21,800 (2,298) 31,270 (606) 30,000 (636) 12,090 (850) 18,630 (2,360) 31,280 (2,255) 26,410 (1,477) 18,210 (2,203) 15,760 (2,556)

Bachelor's degree

29,120

(340)
27,540

(300)
23,910

(913)
36,420

(565)
30,240

(366)
17,050

(873)
33,900

(1,999)
35,400

(475)
32,020

(454)
22,130

(511)
38,590

(943)
33,440

(650)
27,810

(422)
27,010

(1,360)
44,250

(1,955)
  Gender
    Male  29,100 (412) 27,540 (387) 24,540 (1,306) 35,980 (825) 29,420 (559) 18,130 (1,294) 36,900 (3,736) 34,240 (564) 30,910 (507) 22,210 (947) 39,990 (1,533) 32,620 (929) 26,350 (551) 28,600 (1,925) 49,790 (3,318)
    Female  29,130 (427) 27,540 (383) 23,400 (1,044) 36,740 (683) 30,850 (469) 16,220 (1,062) 31,640 (1,985) 36,230 (534) 32,800 (497) 22,070 (759) 37,470 (1,145) 33,820 (775) 28,510 (479) 26,350 (1,807) 39,900 (2,332)
    Nonbinary2 --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) 38,960 (9,095) 35,120 (10,183) (†) (†)
  Race/ethnicity
    American Indian/Alaska Native  31,270 (2,588) 30,460 (2,743) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) 31,220 (3,147) 30,240 (3,191) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†)
    Asian  24,220 (1,031) 23,300 (908) 33,750 (6,977) 28,670 (1,560) 25,700 (1,290) 12,480 (2,794) (†) 30,120 (1,295) 26,950 (1,044) 22,790 (2,593) 40,340 (4,689) 33,400 (3,231) 25,270 (1,533) 37,150 (5,871) 66,070 (10,360)
    Black  32,510 (1,322) 31,240 (1,197) 18,120 (1,676) 40,920 (1,321) 36,180 (1,043) 14,400 (2,059) 30,350 (5,384) 40,240 (1,038) 38,310 (958) 19,480 (1,841) 29,360 (2,378) 37,230 (1,015) 35,310 (869) 19,000 (3,065) 36,670 (3,522)
    Hispanic  29,060 (1,367) 27,100 (1,042) 23,010 (2,820) 36,580 (1,964) 29,380 (1,022) 19,890 (3,495) 32,810 (4,833) 31,750 (916) 30,080 (858) 16,450 (1,216) 34,840 (2,450) 29,620 (1,180) 25,740 (868) 22,320 (3,341) 44,570 (4,680)
    Pacific Islander  30,610 (2,977) 28,070 (2,035) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) 31,380 (4,711) 32,770 (3,830) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†)
    White  28,940 (352) 27,310 (324) 24,520 (985) 36,020 (717) 29,370 (438) 17,420 (949) 34,020 (2,519) 35,620 (409) 31,310 (385) 23,720 (705) 40,680 (1,288) 33,680 (791) 26,890 (596) 27,750 (1,532) 43,830 (2,842)
    Other3 27,000 (2,295) 25,410 (2,268) (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†) --- (†)
    Two or more races  29,510 (2,252) 27,440 (2,047) (†) 34,770 (2,145) 29,680 (1,768) 15,180 (2,562) (†) 35,130 (1,298) 32,290 (1,112) 17,150 (1,900) 47,430 (4,604) 33,350 (2,266) 29,240 (1,947) 23,010 (4,483) 46,410 (5,663)
  Dependency status
    Dependent  28,170 (368) 26,030 (295) 26,130 (1,119) 32,310 (712) 25,240 (354) 18,220 (1,136) 35,210 (1,940) 31,670 (334) 26,570 (236) 25,250 (681) 43,550 (1,239) 29,910 (594) 23,140 (263) 28,480 (1,570) 52,090 (2,286)
    Independent  30,170 (533) 29,220 (500) 15,810 (1,336) 40,950 (790) 35,620 (596) 15,580 (1,121) 29,820 (5,420) 39,460 (768) 37,890 (695) 16,850 (751) 26,540 (1,488) 37,980 (1,095) 33,700 (771) 24,510 (2,417) 26,210 (2,707)
  Institution control
    Public  27,010 (388) 26,160 (354) 19,320 (916) 31,780 (563) 27,300 (416) 14,130 (769) 25,360 (1,338) 31,870 (329) 29,590 (278) 18,660 (723) 32,590 (1,172) 30,080 (560) 25,640 (395) 23,250 (1,327) 39,150 (2,403)
    Private nonprofit  32,680 (622) 29,670 (522) 29,900 (1,349) 40,040 (1,464) 30,500 (736) 22,760 (2,105) 46,010 (4,634) 37,750 (537) 31,570 (392) 28,220 (907) 49,640 (2,193) 37,180 (1,135) 29,290 (1,006) 31,400 (2,148) 56,230 (3,781)
    Private for-profit  40,050 (2,005) 38,600 (1,933) (†) 49,620 (989) 43,230 (758) 14,710 (1,129) 31,790 (3,106) 48,910 (1,884) 46,340 (1,543) 18,300 (1,255) 37,750 (2,741) 44,920 (3,935) 38,090 (1,492) 35,060 (9,447) 24,530 ! (9,140)
---Not available.
†Not applicable.
!Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent.
‡Reporting standards not met. Either there are too few cases for a reliable estimate or the coefficient of variation (CV) is 50 percent or greater.
1Parent PLUS Loans are taken out by parents of dependent students and are used toward the students' undergraduate education. Parent PLUS Loans were available through both the William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program and the Federal Family Education Loan Program (FFELP) until FFELP was discontinued in 2010. Since then, Parent PLUS Loans have been referred to as Direct PLUS Loans.
2Nonbinary includes genderqueer, gender nonconforming, or a different identity.
3The 2012, 2016, and 2020 questionnaires did not offer students the option of choosing an "Other" race category.
4Average loan amounts were calculated only for students who took out each type of loan (or whose parents took out a PLUS Loan on their behalf).
5Constant dollars based on the Consumer Price Index, prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, adjusted to a school-year basis.
NOTE: Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. Data exclude students attending institutions in Puerto Rico.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 1999–2000, 2011–12, 2015-16, and 2019-20 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:2000, NPSAS:12, NPSAS:16, and NPSAS:20). (This table was prepared June 2023.)

2022 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest