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Digest of Education Statistics
2020 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest


Table 401.10. Federal support and estimated federal tax expenditures for education, by category: Selected fiscal years, 1965 through 2020
[In thousands of dollars]
Fiscal year Total
on-budget support,
off-budget support, and nonfederal funds generated by federal legislation
On-budget support1 Off-budget support and nonfederal funds generated by federal legislation Estimated federal tax expendi-tures for education2
Total Elementary and secondary Post-secondary Other
educa- tion3
Research at educational institutions Total Off-budget support Nonfederal funds
Direct Loan Program4 Federal Family Education Loan Program5 Perkins Loans6 Income Contingent Loans7 Leveraging Educational Assistance Partner-ships8 Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grants9 Work-Study Aid10
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
  Current dollars
1965 $5,324,767 $5,331,016 $1,942,577 $1,197,511 $374,652 $1,816,276   -$6,249 $16,111   -$22,360   ---
1970 13,318,909 12,511,079 5,830,442 3,432,277 964,719 2,283,641   807,830 $770,000 20,976 -$30,986   47,840   ---
1975 24,412,487 23,288,120 10,617,195 7,644,037 1,608,478 3,418,410   1,124,367 1,233,000 35,667 $20,000 -39,300   -125,000   ---
1980 39,273,874 34,465,612 16,027,686 11,087,992 1,548,730 5,801,204   4,808,262 4,598,000 31,778 76,800 -8,477   110,161   ---
1985 47,642,802 39,027,876 16,901,334 11,174,379 2,107,588 8,844,575   8,614,926 8,467,000 21,387 76,000 -12,961   63,500   ---

1990
67,188,203 56,033,753 21,984,361 18,060,326 3,383,031 12,606,035   11,154,450 10,826,000 15,014 $500 59,181 127,719   126,036   ---
1991 75,249,116 62,499,477 25,418,031 19,607,407 3,698,617 13,775,422   12,749,639 12,372,000 17,349 500 63,530 131,115   165,145   ---
1992 80,151,676 66,153,112 27,926,887 20,057,407 3,991,955 14,176,863   13,998,564 13,568,000 17,333 542 72,000 175,656   165,033   ---
1993 87,266,261 70,314,009 30,834,326 20,417,407 4,107,193 14,955,083   16,952,252 16,524,000 29,255 72,429 172,023   154,545   ---
1994 97,404,473 72,934,561 32,304,356 20,857,407 4,483,704 15,289,094   24,469,912 $818,540 23,214,000 52,667 72,429 172,000   140,276   $4,490,000

1995
102,727,958 79,149,520 33,623,809 25,128,137 4,719,655 15,677,919   23,578,438 4,615,671 18,519,000 52,667 63,400 181,000   146,700   4,615,000
1996 103,633,432 78,107,362 34,391,501 22,555,508 4,828,038 16,332,315   25,526,070 8,414,470 16,711,000 31,100 31,400 179,000   159,100   4,805,000
1997 111,760,841 82,431,845 35,478,905 24,659,425 5,021,163 17,272,352   29,328,996 9,758,696 19,163,000 52,700 50,000 228,200   76,400   5,455,000
1998 116,853,639 86,369,233 37,486,166 25,259,570 5,148,492 18,475,005   30,484,406 10,087,664 20,002,500 45,000 25,000 240,950   83,292   9,695,000
1999 123,427,861 93,153,597 39,937,911 27,941,199 5,318,020 19,956,467   30,274,264 9,805,764 20,107,000 33,300 25,000 255,900   47,300   32,155,000

2000
127,911,420 94,257,817 43,790,783 22,997,852 5,809,048 21,660,134   33,653,603 10,577,535 22,711,000 33,300 50,000 276,743   5,025   12,890,000
2001 138,337,565 102,876,476 48,530,061 22,968,278 5,880,007 25,498,130   35,461,089 10,324,341 24,694,000 25,000 80,000 316,655   21,093   14,230,000
2002 157,459,682 117,211,479 52,754,118 30,964,176 6,297,697 27,195,488   40,248,203 11,117,896 28,606,000 25,000 104,000 308,811   86,496   16,530,000
2003 178,450,390 132,374,489 59,274,219 37,499,694 6,532,502 29,068,074   46,075,901 11,742,063 33,791,000 33,000 103,000 304,671   102,167   17,620,000
2004 191,990,526 139,762,703 62,653,231 39,774,974 6,576,821 30,757,677   52,227,823 12,448,155 39,266,000 33,000 102,000 295,143   83,525   18,120,000

2005
212,926,929 156,606,678 69,029,389 46,860,566 7,297,025 33,419,698   56,320,251 12,569,446 43,284,000 0 101,000 305,644   60,161   19,930,000
200611 234,749,825 174,795,661 70,948,229 66,057,738 7,074,484 30,715,210   59,954,164 12,175,674 47,307,000 0 100,000 309,608   61,882   22,860,000
2007 218,194,867 153,897,988 70,735,875 45,665,287 7,214,906 30,281,920   64,296,879 12,507,162 51,320,000 0 100,000 287,126   82,591   20,770,000
2008 228,598,213 152,938,889 71,272,580 44,986,271 7,882,220 28,797,817   75,659,324 17,850,773 57,296,000 0 98,000 281,812   132,739   23,220,000
200912 376,406,421 280,097,568 172,660,784 61,885,401 8,853,694 36,697,689   96,308,853 28,857,577 66,778,000 0 98,000 309,058   266,218   27,520,000

2010
280,458,555 179,560,187 75,155,797 58,198,856 9,212,228 36,993,306   100,898,368 80,709,552 19,618,000 0 98,000 255,108   217,708   35,980,000
2011 305,352,452 195,006,154 74,538,319 77,645,852 10,804,871 32,017,112   110,346,298 109,917,342 0 0 0 231,480   197,476   35,740,000
2012 302,574,280 197,534,242 76,106,350 79,923,155 9,328,554 32,176,184   105,040,038 104,612,005 0 0 0 243,871   184,162   35,400,000
2013 290,712,525 188,644,529 75,642,514 73,479,680 9,217,187 30,305,148   102,067,996 101,729,011 0 0 0 192,116   146,869   35,590,000
2014 299,166,582 199,611,510 77,055,620 80,916,948 9,435,306 32,203,636   99,555,072 99,186,791 0 0 0 249,553   118,728   38,640,000

2015
303,379,413 207,426,048 78,909,699 86,660,617 9,464,840 32,390,891   95,953,365 95,578,878 0 0 0 259,745   114,742   36,690,000
2016 294,818,076 200,023,892 82,029,675 74,837,278 9,600,541 33,556,398   94,794,185 94,435,754 0 0 0 253,991   104,440   36,560,000
201711 334,521,981 241,137,480 82,803,943 114,022,573 9,643,170 34,667,794   93,384,501 93,081,848 0 0 0 274,607   28,046   43,830,000
2018 309,130,891 217,316,354 86,166,625 83,544,180 9,565,623 38,039,926   91,814,536 91,486,953 0 0 0 295,319   32,264   37,280,000
2019 337,441,727 245,601,538 87,090,705 107,465,117 9,872,654 41,173,062   91,840,189 91,512,153 0 0 0 0 295,495 13 32,541 13 31,610,000
2020 431,251,031 342,466,141 89,917,596 199,708,789 9,824,631 43,015,125 13 88,784,890 88,446,619 0 0 0 0 304,289 13 33,981 13 32,470,000
  Constant fiscal year 2020 dollars14
1965 $40,921,618 $40,969,642 $14,928,990 $9,203,048 $2,879,256 $13,958,348   -$48,024 $123,815   -$171,840   ---
1970 83,778,549 78,697,140 36,674,623 21,589,695 6,068,272 14,364,550   5,081,409 $4,843,451 131,943 -$194,908   300,923   ---
1975 108,426,979 103,433,153 47,155,801 33,950,652 7,143,984 15,182,717   4,993,826 5,476,315 158,413 $88,829 -174,549   -555,182   ---
1980 118,827,016 104,279,141 48,493,360 33,547,824 4,685,837 17,552,120   14,547,875 13,911,707 96,148 232,366 -25,648   333,303   ---
1985 105,738,956 86,618,895 37,511,006 24,800,539 4,677,604 19,629,747   19,120,061 18,791,753 47,467 168,675 -28,766   140,933   ---

1990
128,297,473 106,997,785 41,979,660 34,486,623 6,459,978 24,071,524   21,299,688 20,672,505 28,670 $955 113,008 243,882   240,669   ---
1991 137,538,186 114,234,760 46,458,351 35,837,859 6,760,227 25,178,323   23,303,426 22,613,188 31,710 914 116,118 239,648   301,847   ---
1992 140,770,064 116,184,443 49,047,878 35,226,743 7,011,054 24,898,767   24,585,621 23,829,423 30,442 952 126,453 308,504   289,847   ---
1993 148,864,415 119,946,170 52,599,181 34,829,329 7,006,315 25,511,345   28,918,245 28,187,705 49,905 123,554 293,448   263,633   ---
1994 163,281,193 122,261,757 54,152,480 34,963,715 7,516,128 25,629,434   41,019,435 $1,372,137 38,914,122 88,287 121,414 288,327   235,148   $7,526,683

1995
167,236,409 128,851,792 54,738,021 40,907,456 7,683,382 25,522,934   38,384,617 7,514,101 30,148,084 85,739 103,212 294,660   238,821   7,513,009
1996 165,236,605 124,536,987 54,834,958 35,963,255 7,697,985 26,040,789   40,699,619 13,416,312 26,644,577 49,587 50,065 285,404   253,674   7,661,252
1997 174,527,221 128,726,670 55,404,332 38,508,487 7,841,115 26,972,736   45,800,551 15,239,309 29,925,197 82,297 78,081 356,360   119,307   8,518,601
1998 180,970,022 133,759,138 58,054,437 39,119,235 7,973,416 28,612,049   47,210,884 15,622,661 30,977,665 69,691 38,717 373,157   128,993   15,014,546
1999 188,833,359 142,516,499 61,101,358 42,747,484 8,136,085 30,531,573   46,316,859 15,001,923 30,761,874 50,946 38,248 391,504   72,365   49,194,214

2000
190,855,738 140,641,431 65,339,921 34,314,935 8,667,640 32,318,935   50,214,307 15,782,667 33,886,925 49,687 74,605 412,926   7,498   19,233,079
2001 201,146,617 149,585,220 70,564,041 33,396,507 8,549,692 37,074,981   51,561,397 15,011,875 35,905,754 36,351 116,322 460,425   30,670   20,690,811
2002 225,475,999 167,842,174 75,541,798 44,339,468 9,018,052 38,942,857   57,633,825 15,920,384 40,962,654 35,799 148,924 442,205   123,859   23,670,302
2003 248,467,384 184,313,091 82,531,117 52,213,116 9,095,602 40,473,256   64,154,293 16,349,192 47,049,274 45,948 143,413 424,212   142,253   24,533,403
2004 260,535,366 189,661,062 85,021,813 53,975,515 8,924,891 41,738,844   70,874,304 16,892,419 53,284,826 44,782 138,416 400,516   113,345   24,589,239

2005
279,357,743 205,466,205 90,565,784 61,480,537 9,573,615 43,846,269   73,891,538 16,490,973 56,788,122 0 132,511 401,001   78,931   26,147,936
200611 297,692,685 221,663,167 89,971,393 83,769,628 8,971,347 38,950,799   76,029,518 15,440,306 59,991,303 0 126,813 392,622   78,474   28,989,392
2007 269,248,485 189,907,310 87,286,779 56,350,131 8,903,062 37,367,337   79,341,176 15,433,610 63,327,944 0 123,398 354,308   101,916   25,629,801
2008 272,647,199 182,408,949 85,006,218 53,654,754 9,401,059 34,346,918   90,238,250 21,290,469 68,336,466 0 116,884 336,115   158,317   27,694,302
200912 448,984,521 334,105,544 205,952,968 73,818,048 10,560,849 43,773,680   114,878,976 34,421,850 79,654,030 0 116,896 368,650   317,550   32,826,364

2010
328,670,144 210,427,072 88,075,283 68,203,397 10,795,835 43,352,556   118,243,072 94,583,744 22,990,388 0 114,846 298,962   255,133   42,165,060
2011 349,668,264 223,307,404 85,356,068 88,914,598 12,372,982 36,663,757   126,360,860 125,869,650 0 0 0 265,075   226,136   40,926,947
2012 339,730,402 221,791,447 85,452,209 89,737,718 10,474,100 36,127,420   117,938,954 117,458,359 0 0 0 273,818   206,777   39,747,120
2013 321,841,868 208,844,486 83,742,274 81,347,845 10,204,158 33,550,208   112,997,383 112,622,099 0 0 0 212,688   162,596   39,400,958
2014 326,057,307 217,553,682 83,981,800 88,190,205 10,283,403 35,098,275   108,503,625 108,102,241 0 0 0 271,984   129,400   42,113,174

2015
329,019,999 224,956,985 85,578,876 93,984,875 10,264,776 35,128,457   104,063,014 103,656,877 0 0 0 281,698   124,440   39,790,913
2016 317,618,246 215,493,020 88,373,555 80,624,924 10,343,012 36,151,529   102,125,226 101,739,075 0 0 0 273,634   112,517   39,387,419
201711 354,441,144 255,496,048 87,734,516 120,812,065 10,217,374 36,732,093   98,945,096 98,624,421 0 0 0 290,959   29,716   46,439,864
2018 320,195,723 225,094,836 89,250,817 86,534,507 9,908,009 39,401,503   95,100,887 94,761,578 0 0 0 305,889   33,419   38,614,376
2019 343,343,517 249,897,061 88,613,904 109,344,661 10,045,325 41,893,171   93,446,456 93,112,683 0 0 0 300,663 13 33,110 13 32,162,853
2020 431,251,031 342,466,141 89,917,596 199,708,789 9,824,631 43,015,125 13 88,784,890 88,446,619 0 0 0 304,289 13 33,981 13 32,470,000
---Not available.
†Not applicable.
1 On-budget support includes federal funds for education programs tied to appropriations. Excludes federal support for medical education benefits under Medicare in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services prior to fiscal year (FY) 1990 because data before FY 1990 are not available. This program has existed since Medicare began but was not available as a separate budget item until FY 1990.
2 Losses of tax revenue attributable to provisions of the federal income tax laws that allow a special exclusion, exemption, or deduction from gross income or provide a special credit, preferential rate of tax, or a deferral of tax liability affecting individual or corporate income tax liabilities.
3 Other education includes libraries, museums, cultural activities, and miscellaneous research.
4 The William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program (commonly referred to as the Direct Loan Program) provides students with the same benefits they were eligible to receive under the Federal Family Education Loan (FFEL) Program, but provides loans to students through federal capital rather than through private lenders.
5 The Federal Family Education Loan (FFEL) Program, formerly known as the Guaranteed Student Loan Program, provided student loans guaranteed by the federal government and disbursed to borrowers. Since June 30, 2010, no new FFEL loans have been originated; all new loans are originated through the Direct Loan Program.
6 Student loans created from institutional matching funds (since 1993, one-third of federal capital contributions). Excludes repayments of outstanding loans.
7 Student loans created from institutional matching funds (one-ninth of federal contributions). This was a demonstration project that involved only 10 institutions and had unsubsidized interest rates. Program repealed in fiscal year 1992.
8 Formerly the State Student Incentive Grant Program. Starting in fiscal year 2000, amounts under $30.0 million have required dollar-for-dollar state matching contributions, while amounts over $30.0 million have required two-to-one state matching contributions.
9 Institutions award grants to undergraduate students, and the federal share of such grants may not exceed 75 percent of the total grant.
10 Employer contributions to student earnings are generally one-third of federal allocation.
11 The increases in postsecondary expenditures in 2006 and 2017 resulted primarily from accounting adjustments.
12 All education funds from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) are included in the FY 2009 row of this table. Most of these funds had a 2-year availability, meaning that they were available for the U.S. Department of Education to obligate during FY 2009 and FY 2010.
13 Estimated.
14 Data adjusted by the federal budget composite deflator, as reported in the U.S. Office of Management and Budget's Budget of the U.S. Government, Historical Tables, Fiscal Year 2022.
NOTE: To the extent possible, federal education funds data do not represent obligations, but instead represent appropriations or (especially for earlier years) outlays. Negative amounts occur when program receipts exceed outlays. Some data have been revised from previously published figures. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Budget Service, unpublished tabulations. U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, unpublished tabulations. U.S. Office of Management and Budget, Budget of the U.S. Government, Appendix, fiscal years 1967 through 2022. National Science Foundation, Federal Funds for Research and Development, fiscal years 1967 through 2022. U.S. Department of the Treasury, Tax Expenditures, fiscal years 1996 through 2020. (This table was prepared June 2021.)

2020 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest