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Digest of Education Statistics
2020 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest


Table 236.85. Unadjusted and geographically adjusted current expenditure per pupil in fall enrollment in public elementary and secondary schools, by function, district poverty level, and locale: 2017-18
School district locale Current expenditures, by function Current expenditures, by district poverty level1
Total Instruc- tion Student support2 Instruc- tional
staff support3
General adminis-tration School adminis-tration Operation and maintenance Student trans- portation Other support services4 Food services Enterprise opera- tions5 Other Low-poverty districts Middle-
low-
poverty districts
Middle-
high-
poverty districts
High-poverty districts
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
  Current expenditure per pupil in unadjusted dollars
Total $12,485 $7,551 $744 $593 $245 $711 $1,152 $528 $460 $474 $25 $1 $13,306 $12,076 $11,258 $13,300
City, total 12,842 7,784 724 657 193 757 1,190 487 526 500 22 2 11,853 11,787 11,095 14,574
Large 13,370 8,266 652 623 193 786 1,263 512 536 513 24 3 10,375 11,101 10,584 15,501
Midsize 12,126 7,062 821 735 173 744 1,077 463 549 488 13 1 11,839 12,440 11,512 12,604
Small 12,266 7,325 804 661 214 698 1,128 449 479 481 25 1 13,064 12,024 11,873 12,443
Suburban, total 12,713 7,766 825 597 216 712 1,150 534 456 427 30 1 13,712 12,233 11,422 12,717
Large 12,832 7,861 836 600 217 718 1,154 539 457 422 28 # 13,848 12,300 11,485 12,804
Midsize 11,841 7,071 735 594 185 672 1,129 492 445 466 51 1 12,670 11,710 10,753 12,357
Small 12,058 7,235 776 554 257 673 1,107 527 453 456 20 1 12,129 11,996 11,819 12,362
Town, total 11,451 6,812 651 522 323 641 1,085 488 399 514 15 2 12,296 11,996 11,165 10,900
Fringe 11,897 7,177 667 512 312 663 1,109 539 433 471 13 1 12,488 11,662 11,533 11,828
Distant 11,458 6,822 640 529 318 648 1,071 497 391 529 11 1 11,716 12,086 11,252 11,105
Remote 11,094 6,512 657 516 340 612 1,091 433 385 522 23 3 13,041 12,169 10,795 10,281
Rural, total 11,839 6,990 625 502 376 661 1,125 624 381 525 28 1 12,951 12,064 11,326 11,244
Fringe 11,602 6,938 676 508 280 648 1,072 594 378 485 22 1 13,226 11,587 10,756 10,614
Distant 11,678 6,860 566 471 433 657 1,115 649 364 542 21 1 11,971 12,214 11,479 11,116
Remote 13,247 7,554 585 561 611 727 1,372 679 441 644 72 2 14,579 13,900 13,139 12,672
  Current expenditure per pupil adjusted for geographic cost differences6
Total $13,002 $7,848 $771 $615 $262 $740 $1,203 $555 $474 $507 $26 $1 $13,244 $12,727 $12,200 $13,837
City, total 12,852 7,763 732 659 196 759 1,194 491 524 511 21 2 11,339 11,893 11,588 14,361
Large 12,870 7,921 636 604 188 761 1,219 495 519 502 23 3 9,806 10,997 10,636 14,653
Midsize 12,579 7,328 847 753 182 772 1,120 487 559 517 13 2 11,398 12,167 12,285 13,632
Small 13,080 7,809 851 702 231 742 1,208 484 501 526 26 1 12,526 12,623 13,127 13,822
Suburban, total 12,780 7,802 823 599 219 715 1,157 540 457 438 29 1 13,445 12,420 11,858 13,046
Large 12,765 7,817 826 596 217 713 1,148 539 454 427 27 1 13,509 12,366 11,743 12,860
Midsize 12,729 7,607 786 634 199 722 1,215 530 475 511 50 1 12,966 12,668 12,138 13,497
Small 13,147 7,887 839 597 285 729 1,208 587 486 507 20 1 12,671 12,895 13,407 14,323
Town, total 13,269 7,898 749 601 375 743 1,260 568 452 604 17 2 13,374 13,854 13,156 12,826
Fringe 13,030 7,861 728 559 345 725 1,214 595 468 521 13 1 13,207 12,999 12,847 13,038
Distant 13,359 7,961 740 614 372 756 1,250 583 445 624 13 1 12,947 14,005 13,353 12,983
Remote 13,304 7,820 782 613 404 735 1,312 521 452 634 28 3 14,957 14,433 12,983 12,524
Rural, total 13,746 8,115 718 580 441 767 1,308 725 436 621 32 2 14,013 13,928 13,500 13,588
Fringe 13,084 7,826 755 573 316 730 1,209 669 421 560 24 1 13,906 13,049 12,666 12,613
Distant 13,848 8,138 668 557 513 779 1,322 770 426 651 24 2 13,602 14,405 13,757 13,470
Remote 16,148 9,224 709 672 748 885 1,669 831 531 791 87 2 17,451 16,655 16,033 15,667
#Rounds to zero.
1 To determine district poverty levels, all public school districts were first ranked by the percentage of their 5- to 17-year-old residents whose families had incomes below the Census Bureau’s poverty threshold (for details about poverty status, see https://www.census.gov/topics/income-poverty/poverty/guidance/poverty-measures.html). The districts were then divided into four levels, each containing 25 percent of the total enrolled students. The low-poverty level consists of districts with the lowest percentages of poor 5- to 17-year-olds (9.8 percent or less); the middle-low-poverty level consists of districts with 9.8 percent to 16.1 percent of poor 5- to 17-year-olds; the middle-high-poverty level consists of districts with 16.1 percent to 23.2 percent of poor 5- to 17-year-olds; and the high-poverty level consists of districts with the highest percentages of poor 5- to 17-year-olds (23.2 percent or more). District poverty levels were determined based on family incomes in unadjusted dollars.
2 Includes expenditures for guidance, health, attendance, social work, student accounting, counseling, student appraisal, information, record maintenance, placement services, and medical, dental, nursing, psychological, and speech pathology services.
3 Includes expenditures for curriculum development, staff training, supervision of instruction service improvements, academic assessment, and media, library, and instruction-related technology services.
4 Includes business support services concerned with paying, transporting, exchanging, and maintaining goods and services for local education agencies; central support services, including planning, research, evaluation, information, staff, and data processing services; and other support services.
5 Includes expenditures for operations funded by sales of products or services (e.g., school bookstore or computer time).
6 Data have been adjusted using the American Community Survey-Comparable Wage Index for Teachers (ACS-CWIFT), an experimental index created by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) to measure wage differences across geographic areas. ACS-CWIFT can facilitate comparisons of school district-level finance data across geographic areas. For more information, see https://nces.ed.gov/programs/edge/docs/EDGE_ACS_CWIFT_FILEDOC.pdf.
NOTE: Data in this table represent the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Includes only current expenditures for schools. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD), "Local Education Agency (School District) Finance Survey (F-33)," 2017-18; Education Demographic and Geographic Estimates (EDGE) Program, "Public Local Education Agency Geocode File," 2017-18; and American Community Survey-Comparable Wage Index for Teachers (ACS-CWIFT), Local Education Agency file, 2017-18, and State file, 2017-18. U.S. Department of Commerce, Census Bureau, Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates (SAIPE) Program, 2017 Poverty Estimates for School Districts and 2017 Poverty Estimates for States and Counties. (This table was prepared February 2021.)

2020 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest