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Digest of Education Statistics
2020 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest


Table 203.75. Enrollment and percentage distribution of enrollment in public schools, by family poverty rate of 5- to 17-year-olds living in the school district, student race/ethnicity, region, and school locale: 2018-19
Student race/ethnicity, region, and school locale Enrollment Percentage distribution of enrollment
Total Family poverty rate1 of 5- to 17-year-olds2 living in the school district Total Family poverty rate1 of 5- to 17-year-olds2 living in the school district
0 to 9.425 percent 9.426 to 15.780 percent 15.781 to 22.407 percent 22.408 percent or more 0 to 9.425 percent 9.426 to 15.780 percent 15.781 to 22.407 percent 22.408 percent or more
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Total 50,538,261 12,634,496 12,604,236 12,558,589 12,740,940 100.0 25.0 24.9 24.8 25.2
White 23,790,842 8,255,759 6,774,364 5,323,147 3,437,572 100.0 34.7 28.5 22.4 14.4
Black 7,654,588 757,546 1,419,945 1,978,135 3,498,962 100.0 9.9 18.6 25.8 45.7
Hispanic 13,706,828 1,841,426 2,962,227 4,156,992 4,746,183 100.0 13.4 21.6 30.3 34.6
Asian 2,663,516 1,106,280 664,071 430,053 463,112 100.0 41.5 24.9 16.1 17.4
Pacific Islander 185,010 27,422 95,099 39,236 23,253 100.0 14.8 51.4 21.2 12.6
American Indian/Alaska Native 486,402 54,635 106,165 121,266 204,336 100.0 11.2 21.8 24.9 42.0
Two or more races 2,044,863 586,003 582,182 509,269 367,409 100.0 28.7 28.5 24.9 18.0
Race unknown 6,212 5,425 183 491 113 100.0 87.3 2.9 7.9 1.8

Region
                   
Northeast 7,897,190 3,052,228 1,590,942 1,024,029 2,229,991 100.0 38.6 20.1 13.0 28.2
White 4,177,130 2,228,203 1,022,810 499,959 426,158 100.0 53.3 24.5 12.0 10.2
Black 1,107,080 147,074 178,987 160,339 620,680 100.0 13.3 16.2 14.5 56.1
Hispanic 1,745,212 302,658 267,835 295,334 879,385 100.0 17.3 15.3 16.9 50.4
Asian 577,042 268,292 58,041 30,849 219,860 100.0 46.5 10.1 5.3 38.1
Pacific Islander 13,062 3,596 2,020 1,029 6,417 100.0 27.5 15.5 7.9 49.1
American Indian/Alaska Native 30,977 5,199 5,085 3,613 17,080 100.0 16.8 16.4 11.7 55.1
Two or more races 246,466 97,080 56,112 32,898 60,376 100.0 39.4 22.8 13.3 24.5
Race unknown 221 126 52 8 35 100.0 57.0 23.5 3.6 15.8

    Midwest
10,473,285 3,738,818 2,790,698 1,960,288 1,983,481 100.0 35.7 26.6 18.7 18.9
White 6,740,774 2,869,132 2,015,214 1,184,228 672,200 100.0 42.6 29.9 17.6 10.0
Black 1,431,538 195,827 198,226 284,003 753,482 100.0 13.7 13.8 19.8 52.6
Hispanic 1,358,867 300,725 348,697 328,135 381,310 100.0 22.1 25.7 24.1 28.1
Asian 377,278 195,546 81,519 42,178 58,035 100.0 51.8 21.6 11.2 15.4
Pacific Islander 13,188 3,519 3,868 3,144 2,657 100.0 26.7 29.3 23.8 20.1
American Indian/Alaska Native 78,625 14,374 21,538 20,004 22,709 100.0 18.3 27.4 25.4 28.9
Two or more races 467,847 154,531 121,632 98,596 93,088 100.0 33.0 26.0 21.1 19.9
Race unknown 5,168 5,164 4 0 0 100.0 99.9 0.1 0.0 0.0

    South
19,860,299 2,623,941 4,696,771 6,191,805 6,347,782 100.0 13.2 23.6 31.2 32.0
White 8,340,258 1,383,885 2,287,132 2,671,559 1,997,682 100.0 16.6 27.4 32.0 24.0
Black 4,530,683 331,780 891,976 1,311,012 1,995,915 100.0 7.3 19.7 28.9 44.1
Hispanic 5,355,344 513,755 1,056,705 1,769,878 2,015,006 100.0 9.6 19.7 33.0 37.6
Asian 705,586 246,948 218,377 148,712 91,549 100.0 35.0 30.9 21.1 13.0
Pacific Islander 32,534 4,029 7,329 13,988 7,188 100.0 12.4 22.5 43.0 22.1
American Indian/Alaska Native 169,384 13,493 34,969 47,898 73,024 100.0 8.0 20.6 28.3 43.1
Two or more races 726,452 130,051 200,283 228,758 167,360 100.0 17.9 27.6 31.5 23.0
Race unknown 58 0 0 0 58 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0

    West
12,307,487 3,219,509 3,525,825 3,382,467 2,179,686 100.0 26.2 28.6 27.5 17.7
White 4,532,680 1,774,539 1,449,208 967,401 341,532 100.0 39.1 32.0 21.3 7.5
Black 585,287 82,865 150,756 222,781 128,885 100.0 14.2 25.8 38.1 22.0
Hispanic 5,247,405 724,288 1,288,990 1,763,645 1,470,482 100.0 13.8 24.6 33.6 28.0
Asian 1,003,610 395,494 306,134 208,314 93,668 100.0 39.4 30.5 20.8 9.3
Pacific Islander 126,226 16,278 81,882 21,075 6,991 100.0 12.9 64.9 16.7 5.5
American Indian/Alaska Native 207,416 21,569 44,573 49,751 91,523 100.0 10.4 21.5 24.0 44.1
Two or more races 604,098 204,341 204,155 149,017 46,585 100.0 33.8 33.8 24.7 7.7
Race unknown 765 135 127 483 20 100.0 17.6 16.6 63.1 2.6

School locale
                   
City 15,890,151 1,763,091 2,616,113 4,458,167 7,052,780 100.0 11.1 16.5 28.1 44.4
White 4,588,466 870,232 1,139,953 1,418,292 1,159,989 100.0 19.0 24.8 30.9 25.3
Black 3,511,007 128,576 253,597 901,708 2,227,126 100.0 3.7 7.2 25.7 63.4
Hispanic 5,891,039 361,628 833,851 1,661,269 3,034,291 100.0 6.1 14.2 28.2 51.5
Asian 1,063,526 278,797 196,484 202,776 385,469 100.0 26.2 18.5 19.1 36.2
Pacific Islander 62,418 5,408 19,277 21,954 15,779 100.0 8.7 30.9 35.2 25.3
American Indian/Alaska Native 113,055 11,251 23,768 37,033 41,003 100.0 10.0 21.0 32.8 36.3
Two or more races 660,029 107,124 149,119 214,718 189,068 100.0 16.2 22.6 32.5 28.6
Race unknown 611 75 64 417 55 100.0 12.3 10.5 68.2 9.0

    Suburban
21,497,620 8,618,237 6,290,451 4,535,850 2,053,082 100.0 40.1 29.3 21.1 9.6
White 10,234,506 5,548,140 2,818,456 1,415,259 452,651 100.0 54.2 27.5 13.8 4.4
Black 2,991,138 567,782 994,933 861,531 566,892 100.0 19.0 33.3 28.8 19.0
Hispanic 5,696,588 1,265,278 1,647,889 1,871,846 911,575 100.0 22.2 28.9 32.9 16.0
Asian 1,448,523 780,171 427,059 191,795 49,498 100.0 53.9 29.5 13.2 3.4
Pacific Islander 103,714 19,207 70,427 11,034 3,046 100.0 18.5 67.9 10.6 2.9
American Indian/Alaska Native 89,950 28,628 31,315 22,201 7,806 100.0 31.8 34.8 24.7 8.7
Two or more races 927,747 403,710 300,304 162,154 61,579 100.0 43.5 32.4 17.5 6.6
Race unknown 5,454 5,321 68 30 35 100.0 97.6 1.2 0.6 0.6

    Town
5,470,696 712,131 1,517,595 1,564,495 1,676,475 100.0 13.0 27.7 28.6 30.6
White 3,457,626 576,594 1,127,148 1,042,660 711,224 100.0 16.7 32.6 30.2 20.6
Black 475,403 15,831 40,535 82,626 336,411 100.0 3.3 8.5 17.4 70.8
Hispanic 1,142,505 75,916 247,509 328,543 490,537 100.0 6.6 21.7 28.8 42.9
Asian 62,375 10,942 19,094 16,719 15,620 100.0 17.5 30.6 26.8 25.0
Pacific Islander 10,433 1,157 2,731 4,064 2,481 100.0 11.1 26.2 39.0 23.8
American Indian/Alaska Native 118,184 6,487 22,780 27,505 61,412 100.0 5.5 19.3 23.3 52.0
Two or more races 204,106 25,195 57,773 62,355 58,783 100.0 12.3 28.3 30.6 28.8
Race unknown 64 9 25 23 7 100.0 14.1 39.1 35.9 10.9

    Rural
7,679,794 1,541,037 2,180,077 2,000,077 1,958,603 100.0 20.1 28.4 26.0 25.5
White 5,510,244 1,260,793 1,688,807 1,446,936 1,113,708 100.0 22.9 30.6 26.3 20.2
Black 677,040 45,357 130,880 132,270 368,533 100.0 6.7 19.3 19.5 54.4
Hispanic 976,696 138,604 232,978 295,334 309,780 100.0 14.2 23.9 30.2 31.7
Asian 89,092 36,370 21,434 18,763 12,525 100.0 40.8 24.1 21.1 14.1
Pacific Islander 8,445 1,650 2,664 2,184 1,947 100.0 19.5 31.5 25.9 23.1
American Indian/Alaska Native 165,213 8,269 28,302 34,527 94,115 100.0 5.0 17.1 20.9 57.0
Two or more races 252,981 49,974 74,986 70,042 57,979 100.0 19.8 29.6 27.7 22.9
Race unknown 83 20 26 21 16 100.0 24.1 31.3 25.3 19.3
1 A family is in poverty if its income falls below the Census Bureau's poverty threshold, which is a dollar amount that varies depending on a family's size and composition and is updated annually to account for inflation. In 2019, for example, the poverty threshold for a family of four with two children was $25,926. The family poverty rate of 5- to 17-year-olds is the percentage of children in this age group whose families are in poverty. Includes only children classified as "related" and "relevant" (see footnote 2). For additional information about poverty status, see https://www.census.gov/topics/income-poverty/poverty/guidance/poverty-measures.html.
2 Includes only those children who live in households and meet both of the following conditions: (1) The children are related to the householder by birth, marriage, or adoption (except a child who is the spouse of the householder). The householder is the person (or one of the people) who owns or rents (maintains) the housing unit. (2) The children are relevant to the school district. Children are relevant if they reside within the geographical boundaries of the district and are at a grade level served by the district, even if they do not attend a school in the district.
NOTE: Data in this table represent the 50 states and the District of Columbia. School enrollment data were obtained from the Common Core of Data and poverty rate data were obtained from the Census Bureau. To create the school district categories, public school districts were ranked and divided into quarters based on the family poverty rate of their 5- to 17-year-old population; the cut points between the four quarters were chosen so that, at the national level, each quarter contains approximately the same number of students. For the approximately 3 percent of public school students who attended charter or other special districts, no data were available on their school district's family poverty rate. The rate for their district was imputed to be the same as the rate for the county containing the zip code listed for their superintendent's location. This table excludes 5,671 enrolled children (based on author's calculations) whose poverty status could not be determined. Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD), "Local Education Agency Universe Survey," 2018-19; and Education Demographic and Geographic Estimates (EDGE), "Public School File," 2018-19. U.S. Department of Commerce, Census Bureau, Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates (SAIPE) Program, 2018 Poverty Estimates for School Districts and 2018 Poverty Estimates for States and Counties. (This table was prepared June 2021.)

2020 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest