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Digest of Education Statistics
2020 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest


Table 102.45. Percentage of related children ages 5 to 17 living in poverty, by locale, region, and state: 2019
[Standard errors appear in parentheses]
Region and state Total Locale
City Suburban Town Rural
Total Large Midsize Small Total Large Midsize Small Total Fringe Distant Remote Total Fringe Distant Remote
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
United States 15.8   (0.11) 20.9   (0.19) 21.7   (0.25) 20.2   (0.38) 19.7   (0.39) 11.8   (0.15) 11.3   (0.16) 14.2   (0.43) 15.4   (0.65) 20.8   (0.33) 16.3   (0.54) 23.0   (0.48) 21.7   (0.60) 13.6   (0.15) 10.5   (0.23) 16.0   (0.28) 20.7   (0.50)
Northeast 14.5   (0.22) 25.4   (0.56) 24.8   (0.67) 30.9   (1.53) 24.4   (1.13) 9.6   (0.23) 9.3   (0.26) 11.5   (0.92) 15.0   (1.43) 19.0   (0.87) 15.0   (1.34) 22.7   (1.39) 22.3   (2.51) 10.0   (0.34) 7.3   (0.46) 13.8   (0.65) 17.2   (1.65)
Connecticut 13.6   (0.70) 27.0   (2.07)   (†) 33.8   (2.66) 16.2   (2.83) 9.6   (0.72) 8.1   (0.78) 16.3   (2.24)   (†) 12.7   (3.28) 12.7   (3.28)   (†)   (†) 6.1   (1.72) 5.5 ! (1.84) 13.3 ! (5.25)   (†)
Maine 12.1   (1.06) 12.3   (2.55)   (†)   (†) 12.3   (2.55) 9.5   (2.82)   (†) 10.3 ! (3.66) 7.8 ! (3.72) 23.1   (4.01)   (†) 26.3   (7.17) 29.2   (6.88) 10.5   (1.21) 5.2   (1.31) 11.4   (2.13) 20.3   (3.09)
Massachusetts 11.0   (0.57) 20.8   (1.61) 26.7   (3.23) 23.2   (2.70) 6.9 ! (2.34) 9.2   (0.57) 8.7   (0.63) 13.4   (1.77) 18.1 ! (8.90) 10.9   (2.75) 12.0   (3.49)   (†)   (†) 5.5   (1.52) 5.3 ! (1.61) 8.2 ! (3.21)   (†)
New Hampshire 6.5   (0.86) 10.3   (2.58)   (†) 13.7   (4.09)   (†) 7.0   (1.62)   (†) 7.5 ! (2.57) 7.5 ! (2.92) 5.7 ! (2.31)   (†)   (†)   (†) 5.3   (1.06) 2.0 ! (0.83) 9.4   (2.42) 8.5 ! (3.43)
New Jersey 11.6   (0.42) 27.8   (1.78) 28.1   (2.91)   (†) 27.5   (2.76) 9.4   (0.44) 9.5   (0.44) 7.1   (1.84) 8.7 ! (3.33) 20.6   (3.90) 20.6   (3.90)   (†)   (†) 4.4   (1.17) 4.4   (1.22)   (†)   (†)

New York
17.2   (0.39) 23.8   (0.70) 22.7   (0.72) 40.3   (3.67) 29.7   (2.43) 8.9   (0.50) 8.8   (0.53) 13.9   (3.26) 7.8   (1.91) 22.0   (1.61) 15.2   (2.46) 27.4   (2.35) 22.3   (4.94) 13.2   (0.77) 9.3   (0.92) 16.7   (1.36) 25.9   (5.03)
Pennsylvania 16.3   (0.46) 33.0   (1.46) 32.8   (2.07) 31.6   (5.56) 33.6   (2.19) 11.1   (0.54) 10.2   (0.59) 8.9   (2.01) 22.9   (2.96) 18.7   (1.64) 14.9   (2.47) 21.9   (2.27) 22.0   (4.88) 11.3   (0.78) 9.0   (1.02) 14.9   (0.99) 19.6   (4.86)
Rhode Island 13.2   (1.46) 23.4   (4.16)   (†) 30.3   (5.75)   (†) 10.6   (1.47) 10.8   (1.51)   (†)   (†) #   (†) #   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†) #   (†)   (†)
Vermont 9.4   (1.09) 16.1 ! (5.67)   (†)   (†) 16.1 ! (5.67) 13.3 ! (4.60)   (†) 13.3 ! (4.60)   (†) 15.7   (3.68) #   (†) 12.9   (3.80) 37.0 ! (11.85) 6.3   (1.00) 4.6 ! (1.68) 7.5   (1.53) 5.8 ! (1.87)

Midwest
14.4   (0.17) 22.8   (0.41) 24.8   (0.62) 22.3   (0.94) 19.5   (0.70) 10.2   (0.29) 9.9   (0.32) 11.3   (0.96) 13.4   (1.08) 16.7   (0.44) 14.5   (0.98) 16.9   (0.56) 18.3   (0.94) 10.4   (0.22) 6.9   (0.34) 12.0   (0.33) 15.8   (0.64)
Illinois 14.6   (0.39) 21.9   (0.95) 23.2   (1.29) 21.7   (2.19) 17.7   (1.69) 10.9   (0.66) 10.9   (0.69) 10.0 ! (3.41) 12.6   (2.93) 17.3   (1.56) 12.1   (3.22) 18.4   (1.88) 23.0   (3.30) 9.8   (0.63) 6.9   (1.14) 11.5   (0.83) 13.2   (2.99)
Indiana 14.1   (0.62) 22.5   (1.40) 18.7   (1.77) 31.6   (3.75) 25.5   (2.23) 9.5   (0.75) 9.6   (0.82) 6.1 ! (1.91) 15.9 ! (4.96) 16.1   (1.47) 18.4   (3.30) 15.6   (1.74)   (†) 8.6   (0.77) 6.2   (0.91) 11.0   (1.30) 10.4 ! (4.78)
Iowa 11.7   (0.63) 16.2   (1.54)   (†) 19.8   (2.32) 12.5   (2.00) 4.9   (1.30) 3.0   (0.84) 11.3 ! (4.61) #   (†) 17.7   (1.59) 7.5 ! (3.18) 16.6   (2.69) 21.2   (2.41) 8.2   (0.76) 5.3   (1.27) 7.7   (0.94) 13.0   (1.72)
Kansas 13.3   (0.60) 17.5   (1.42) 19.5   (2.38) 17.8   (1.87) 11.2   (2.90) 7.0   (1.42) 7.4   (1.52)   (†) #   (†) 14.1   (1.47) 9.0   (2.34) 10.6   (1.58) 18.3   (2.47) 10.7   (0.96) 4.2   (1.13) 13.9   (1.74) 13.7   (1.77)
Michigan 16.5   (0.45) 29.4   (1.34) 43.5   (2.80) 26.9   (2.86) 21.8   (1.47) 11.1   (0.65) 10.8   (0.69) 11.3   (1.90) 13.3   (1.54) 21.5   (1.82) 20.6   (2.88) 26.4   (2.90) 17.3   (2.67) 11.2   (0.62) 7.8   (0.88) 13.2   (0.96) 21.3   (1.93)

Minnesota
10.7   (0.49) 17.2   (1.51) 24.1   (2.43)   (†) 10.8   (2.33) 7.5   (0.91) 7.0   (0.87) 16.0 ! (4.86)   (†) 11.5   (1.06) 5.8 ! (2.11) 10.6   (1.43) 17.2   (2.21) 8.6   (0.62) 5.4   (0.96) 9.2   (0.83) 12.1   (1.11)
Missouri 16.0   (0.56) 21.3   (1.50) 23.5   (2.01) 14.7   (3.66) 21.0   (3.74) 11.6   (1.04) 11.6   (1.05)   (†) 9.5   (2.10) 21.6   (1.71) 18.2   (3.29) 20.4   (2.64) 25.0   (2.68) 15.4   (0.97) 9.9   (1.48) 17.7   (1.43) 20.0   (2.30)
Nebraska 9.5   (0.72) 12.6   (1.62) 13.0   (1.74)   (†) 6.9 ! (3.10) 5.4   (1.03) 5.0   (1.07)   (†)   (†) 10.9   (1.69) #   (†) 12.9   (2.43) 10.2   (2.27) 6.2   (0.64) 2.8 ! (1.34) 4.8   (0.87) 9.6   (1.23)
North Dakota 10.3   (1.21) 11.4   (3.03)   (†) 15.1 ! (5.53) 8.0   (2.23)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†) 11.6   (3.38) #   (†) 21.3 ! (9.99) 10.9 ! (3.55) 9.6   (1.36)   (†) 9.3 ! (3.10) 13.0   (1.94)
Ohio 16.8   (0.47) 32.1   (1.21) 30.0   (1.52) 38.4   (4.23) 35.4   (2.72) 11.5   (0.69) 10.2   (0.71) 26.6   (4.49) 21.6   (2.82) 19.6   (1.14) 18.5   (2.53) 19.9   (1.31) 36.4 ! (17.68) 11.1   (0.75) 8.9   (0.96) 13.3   (1.16) 33.5 ! (12.23)

South Dakota
13.6   (1.43) 11.7   (3.11)   (†) 11.9 ! (4.10) 11.2 ! (3.53) 24.9 ! (9.98)   (†) 33.3 ! (15.64)   (†) 12.2   (2.39)   (†)   (†) 14.7   (3.27) 14.9   (1.63) 5.4 ! (2.24) 7.0 ! (2.40) 22.4   (2.72)
Wisconsin 12.7   (0.50) 22.3   (1.30) 26.8   (2.10) 27.1   (5.68) 15.9   (1.77) 6.5   (0.84) 6.0   (1.18) 7.6   (1.39) 5.4 ! (1.64) 13.1   (1.28) 14.0   (3.12) 12.9   (1.59) 10.4 ! (3.19) 9.4   (0.58) 3.8   (0.59) 11.7   (0.99) 17.5   (1.74)

South
17.9   (0.18) 22.7   (0.34) 22.7   (0.48) 22.1   (0.66) 23.2   (0.63) 13.6   (0.26) 13.0   (0.28) 16.1   (0.64) 18.2   (1.19) 25.5   (0.63) 18.2   (1.04) 27.8   (0.76) 29.2   (1.15) 16.4   (0.24) 13.0   (0.37) 19.5   (0.46) 25.9   (1.00)
Alabama 20.1   (0.68) 23.2   (1.71)   (†) 25.9   (2.41) 17.9   (2.20) 13.6   (1.50) 13.6   (1.65) 16.3 ! (7.49) 12.5   (2.81) 25.3   (2.22) 18.6   (4.86) 26.7   (2.76) 33.5   (7.80) 20.5   (1.00) 17.8   (1.65) 21.3   (1.63) 33.6   (4.38)
Arkansas 20.1   (0.82) 21.9   (2.06)   (†) 15.6   (4.01) 23.5   (2.44) 15.6   (2.19) 14.6   (2.33) 21.5 ! (7.45) 18.6 ! (7.05) 24.3   (2.36) 25.5 ! (8.91) 24.5   (3.45) 23.7   (3.33) 18.9   (1.24) 12.0   (1.63) 22.9   (1.86) 27.5   (3.40)
Delaware 15.2   (1.85) 45.0   (6.96)   (†)   (†) 45.0   (6.96) 9.7   (2.17) 7.0   (2.00) 14.0 ! (4.95) 26.1 ! (10.99) 16.6   (3.90) 14.9 ! (5.29) 19.2 ! (7.01)   (†) 13.2   (3.92) 13.8 ! (4.54)   (†)   (†)
District of
    Columbia
18.4   (2.39) 18.4   (2.39) 18.4   (2.39)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)
Florida 16.5   (0.42) 19.2   (0.96) 21.0   (1.39) 17.2   (1.87) 18.4   (1.48) 15.5   (0.54) 15.2   (0.54) 17.4   (1.81) 17.8   (3.20) 20.1   (2.15) 13.9   (3.90) 27.7   (2.91) 11.4 ! (4.34) 14.5   (1.14) 12.4   (1.35) 20.2   (2.15) 16.6 ! (6.56)

Georgia
17.9   (0.60) 29.3   (1.90) 34.9   (3.87) 28.3   (2.44) 27.2   (2.90) 13.5   (0.69) 12.7   (0.73) 22.0   (3.82) 21.0   (3.55) 31.9   (2.30) 20.1   (3.50) 35.6   (2.81) 36.2   (4.44) 15.2   (0.88) 11.8   (1.20) 18.8   (1.42) 34.2   (5.00)
Kentucky 19.6   (0.74) 20.1   (1.72) 19.0   (1.84)   (†) 25.3   (3.65) 13.2   (1.34) 12.4   (1.56) 30.0   (5.73) 6.2 ! (2.94) 25.7   (1.79) 17.4   (5.05) 24.8   (2.12) 32.3   (3.80) 19.7   (1.06) 16.3   (1.89) 20.0   (1.47) 27.9   (2.97)
Louisiana 26.4   (0.87) 38.1   (1.60) 38.0   (3.24) 34.1   (2.74) 45.7   (3.40) 22.0   (1.67) 20.8   (2.12) 29.8   (4.66) 20.0   (3.47) 34.6   (2.32) 28.7   (5.58) 38.6   (2.90) 32.1   (5.42) 17.6   (1.18) 12.8   (1.47) 23.4   (2.16) 24.5   (4.16)
Maryland 11.7   (0.61) 22.1   (2.10) 31.9   (3.62)   (†) 12.5   (2.15) 9.9   (0.72) 10.1   (0.78) 8.3   (1.35) 10.7 ! (3.68) 8.7   (1.85) 5.1 ! (1.95) 13.5 ! (4.16)   (†) 8.5   (1.08) 7.0   (1.36) 14.4   (2.99)   (†)
Mississippi 26.9   (1.20) 36.3   (3.88)   (†) 33.9   (5.16) 38.9   (5.17) 18.4   (2.29) 14.1   (3.04) 14.7 ! (5.51) 36.2   (6.53) 41.7   (2.60) 42.9   (12.31) 40.7   (4.84) 42.1   (3.04) 21.4   (1.23) 14.4   (1.88) 22.8   (1.93) 30.2   (3.59)

North Carolina
18.4   (0.51) 19.2   (0.85) 16.0   (1.36) 24.7   (1.78) 20.3   (1.96) 14.1   (1.08) 12.0   (1.21) 16.7   (2.18) 40.3   (9.39) 26.4   (1.75) 23.3   (2.85) 29.1   (2.15) 11.7 ! (3.62) 18.3   (0.91) 14.6   (1.19) 23.6   (1.59) 25.1   (4.91)
Oklahoma 18.7   (0.52) 23.7   (1.15) 23.2   (1.27)   (†) 29.8   (5.60) 10.4   (1.08) 11.2   (1.22) 5.5 ! (2.31) #   (†) 25.0   (1.60) 15.7   (3.63) 26.2   (2.41) 26.0   (2.21) 16.2   (0.70) 10.1   (0.88) 17.0   (1.20) 25.9   (1.65)
South Carolina 18.7   (0.80) 21.7   (2.05)   (†) 22.7   (3.37) 21.0   (2.78) 14.2   (1.00) 14.1   (1.20) 11.4   (1.88) 25.0   (5.79) 30.5   (2.92) 17.6   (3.41) 35.1   (3.59) #   (†) 20.3   (1.31) 15.7   (1.62) 26.8   (2.02) 35.4   (10.48)
Tennessee 18.2   (0.59) 24.9   (1.31) 27.1   (2.06) 20.9   (2.38) 23.8   (2.64) 10.3   (1.08) 9.5   (1.01) 14.2 ! (4.45) 18.0 ! (7.11) 20.1   (1.70) 15.8   (2.66) 21.7   (2.20) 24.1   (4.72) 16.3   (0.92) 14.8   (1.45) 18.2   (1.44) 15.8   (2.86)
Texas 18.0   (0.34) 22.5   (0.52) 23.5   (0.67) 17.8   (1.18) 24.7   (1.49) 13.9   (0.55) 13.3   (0.58) 18.1   (1.93) 20.1   (4.62) 22.6   (1.24) 15.8   (2.01) 24.6   (1.60) 25.4   (2.01) 12.8   (0.67) 12.2   (1.01) 12.6   (0.93) 17.6   (1.70)

Virginia
12.6   (0.44) 18.4   (1.09) 9.1   (1.73) 20.3   (1.37) 23.3   (2.75) 8.7   (0.61) 8.3   (0.65) 13.6   (2.32) 8.4   (1.62) 23.4   (2.43) 17.8   (3.72) 27.4   (3.28) 14.4 ! (6.25) 13.0   (0.89) 7.7   (1.01) 16.1   (1.39) 33.4   (4.31)
West Virginia 18.5   (1.18) 27.0   (3.66)   (†)   (†) 27.0   (3.66) 12.8   (2.07)   (†) 10.7   (2.35) 16.6   (3.80) 19.7   (3.27) 30.7 ! (10.57) 15.0   (3.05) 23.5 ! (8.24) 18.4   (1.63) 13.8   (2.65) 20.3   (2.55) 33.0   (5.28)

West
14.3   (0.19) 15.8   (0.32) 17.4   (0.42) 14.0   (0.56) 12.7   (0.61) 12.2   (0.30) 11.9   (0.30) 13.9   (0.91) 14.0   (1.31) 18.4   (0.65) 15.9   (1.25) 21.9   (1.23) 17.5   (0.94) 13.3   (0.42) 10.3   (0.59) 14.1   (0.86) 21.9   (1.04)
Alaska 10.8   (1.25) 10.6   (2.96) 10.9 ! (3.31)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†) 8.1   (1.66) #   (†) 13.2   (3.63) 8.4   (2.18) 13.3   (1.26) 6.5 ! (2.60) 13.4 ! (4.37) 18.5   (1.63)
Arizona 18.0   (0.67) 18.9   (1.03) 19.8   (1.13) 6.2 ! (2.18) 14.0   (2.74) 12.1   (1.05) 11.7   (1.10) 11.8   (2.35) 37.0 ! (15.15) 25.0   (2.41) 21.9   (5.24) 24.4   (4.26) 27.3   (3.25) 24.0   (2.12) 19.1   (2.94) 16.6   (3.53) 42.5   (3.91)
California 15.2   (0.25) 16.2   (0.38) 18.3   (0.50) 13.5   (0.78) 11.1   (0.91) 13.6   (0.38) 13.3   (0.40) 16.1   (1.55) 14.5   (1.90) 23.0   (1.41) 20.0   (1.70) 28.8   (2.40) 12.6   (2.28) 13.7   (0.97) 10.7   (1.23) 18.0   (2.26) 30.7   (3.93)
Colorado 10.4   (0.59) 12.7   (0.87) 13.5   (1.23) 12.3   (1.70) 8.5 ! (2.69) 8.9   (1.09) 8.8   (1.21) 13.1   (3.81) 6.4 ! (1.98) 11.0   (1.80) 2.6 ! (1.05) 16.4 ! (5.65) 13.7   (2.56) 7.9   (0.94) 5.7   (1.22) 8.1   (2.09) 14.7   (2.78)
Hawaii 12.0   (1.44) 11.8   (2.71) 8.8   (2.48)   (†) 30.4 ! (11.60) 9.7   (1.82) 9.7   (2.18) 10.0 ! (3.95)   (†) 14.1   (2.92) 12.1 ! (4.69) #   (†) 15.2   (3.63) 19.9   (4.61) 12.0 ! (3.76) 33.9 ! (12.90) 29.1 ! (11.86)

Idaho
11.2   (0.95) 13.6   (3.08)   (†) 19.5 ! (6.52) 8.5   (2.05) 9.6   (1.70) 5.8 ! (2.24) 9.8   (2.55) 15.1   (4.11) 14.1   (2.00)   (†) 16.9   (3.17) 16.5   (3.31) 9.5   (1.35) 7.1   (1.54) 11.3   (2.16) 11.4   (3.37)
Montana 14.1   (1.25) 13.7   (2.98)   (†) 17.8   (4.78) 9.4 ! (3.31)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†) 17.2   (2.38) 51.3 ! (23.54)   (†) 16.1   (2.11) 13.0   (1.47) 5.3 ! (1.80) 13.2   (2.54) 18.2   (2.58)
Nevada 16.1   (0.89) 15.4   (1.23) 14.2   (1.37) 22.4   (3.80) 17.3 ! (8.28) 17.1   (1.60) 17.1   (1.61)   (†)   (†) 20.3   (3.67)   (†) 19.3   (5.00) 24.0   (5.66) 9.4 ! (3.03) 7.2 ! (3.53)   (†)   (†)
New Mexico 23.5   (1.09) 21.6   (2.00) 19.9   (2.25) 25.5   (6.14) 26.7   (5.60) 22.7   (3.30) 21.9   (4.07) 32.8 ! (15.20) 19.6 ! (6.73) 25.8   (2.40) 38.0   (9.59) 9.6   (2.48) 26.1   (2.65) 24.5   (2.12) 16.8   (2.92) 20.7   (3.72) 41.0   (4.40)
Oregon 12.5   (0.76) 14.3   (1.38) 14.6   (2.53) 15.1   (2.74) 13.2   (2.15) 11.5   (1.53) 8.8   (1.64) 15.3   (3.74) 29.3 ! (10.41) 12.9   (1.75) 11.8   (3.15) 13.5   (2.60) 13.6   (3.17) 9.8   (1.22) 8.0   (1.78) 10.4   (2.37) 16.4   (3.88)

Utah
9.0   (0.57) 13.5   (1.92)   (†) 14.0   (2.88) 13.2   (2.37) 7.7   (0.69) 7.7   (0.68)   (†) 8.5 ! (3.66) 10.3   (1.74) 10.6 ! (4.56) 4.8 ! (1.85) 16.9   (3.32) 8.7   (1.36) 4.8 ! (1.50) 16.5   (3.38) 11.5   (3.31)
Washington 11.2   (0.50) 12.9   (0.98) 7.6   (2.10) 13.2   (1.62) 15.2   (1.50) 7.9   (0.68) 6.8   (0.71) 10.4   (1.59) 15.5   (4.33) 17.5   (2.17) 9.7 ! (3.04) 21.6   (3.23) 20.5 ! (7.72) 12.7   (1.11) 12.6   (1.56) 11.2   (1.83) 17.3   (3.87)
Wyoming 9.9   (1.31) 17.4   (4.23)   (†)   (†) 17.4   (4.23)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†) 6.5   (1.41)   (†)   (†) 6.5   (1.41) 10.2   (2.11)   (†) 10.7 ! (4.65) 13.1   (3.64)
#Rounds to zero
†Not applicable.
!Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent.
‡Reporting standards not met. Either there are too few cases for a reliable estimate or the coefficient of variation (CV) is 50 percent or greater.
NOTE: Data are based on sample surveys of the entire population residing within the United States, but this table includes only 5- to 17-year-old related children. Related children include all children who live in a household and are related to the householder by birth, marriage, or adoption (except a child who is the spouse of the householder). The householder is the person (or one of the people) who owns or rents (maintains) the housing unit. This table excludes unrelated children and householders who are themselves under the age of 18. Poverty status is determined by the Census Bureau using a set of money income thresholds that vary by family size and composition. For additional information about poverty status, see https://www.census.gov/topics/income-poverty/poverty/guidance/poverty-measures.html.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Census Bureau, American Community Survey Education Tabulation (ACS-ED), 2019, Custom Tabulated Data File. (This table was prepared May 2021.)

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