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Digest of Education Statistics
2019 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest


Table 603.90. Employment to population ratios of 25- to 64-year-olds, by sex, highest level of educational attainment, and country: 2018
[Standard errors appear in parentheses]
Country Total population, 25 to 64 years old Male Female
All levels
of education
Less than
high school
completion
High school
completion
Associate's
or higher
degree
All levels
of education
Less than
high school
completion
High school
completion
Associate's or
higher degree
All levels
of education
Less than
high school
completion
High school
completion
Associate's or
higher degree
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
OECD average1 76.7 (0.03) 58.9 (0.10) 76.3 (0.05) 85.4 (0.05) 83.2 (0.04) 69.2 (0.14) 83.1 (0.06) 89.9 (0.06) 70.1 (0.05) 48.0 (0.15) 68.7 (0.08) 81.4 (0.07)
Australia 77.3 (0.25) 60.1 (0.67) 77.3 (0.41) 84.1 (0.32) 83.1 (0.32) 68.9 (0.92) 83.7 (0.48) 88.6 (0.43) 71.7 (0.37) 52.0 (0.94) 68.9 (0.69) 80.5 (0.46)
Austria 77.2 (0.13) 55.3 (0.42) 77.6 (0.18) 86.3 (0.20) 82.0 (0.18) 62.9 (0.68) 81.5 (0.24) 89.3 (0.25) 72.4 (0.20) 50.6 (0.53) 73.4 (0.27) 83.1 (0.31)
Belgium 73.0 (0.16) 46.5 (0.37) 74.1 (0.25) 86.1 (0.19) 77.4 (0.21) 55.0 (0.51) 79.8 (0.32) 88.3 (0.27) 68.6 (0.23) 37.3 (0.51) 67.5 (0.39) 84.2 (0.27)
Canada 77.7 (---) 55.6 (---) 74.5 (---) 82.7 (---) 81.5 (---) 63.7 (---) 79.7 (---) 86.3 (---) 73.9 (---) 44.4 (---) 67.4 (---) 79.9 (---)
Chile2 72.0 (0.14) 62.4 (0.24) 71.9 (0.21) 84.5 (0.23) 85.7 (0.15) 82.1 (0.28) 85.4 (0.24) 90.9 (0.27) 60.1 (0.20) 45.2 (0.35) 59.9 (0.31) 79.1 (0.35)

Colombia
74.9 (0.07) 71.1 (0.12) 74.9 (0.12) 82.0 (0.12) 88.6 (0.08) 88.9 (0.12) 88.0 (0.13) 89.1 (0.15) 61.9 (0.11) 52.6 (0.18) 62.6 (0.19) 76.5 (0.17)
Czech Republic 82.5 (0.12) 52.2 (0.60) 83.5 (0.13) 87.3 (0.22) 90.0 (0.13) 64.0 (0.94) 90.3 (0.15) 95.1 (0.21) 74.7 (0.19) 44.1 (0.76) 75.9 (0.22) 80.3 (0.35)
Denmark 81.6 (0.14) 65.0 (0.42) 83.3 (0.21) 87.9 (0.19) 83.9 (0.17) 69.6 (0.49) 85.5 (0.24) 90.4 (0.22) 76.8 (0.26) 53.3 (0.80) 78.0 (0.41) 84.1 (0.33)
Estonia 80.4 (0.31) 65.1 (1.13) 79.9 (0.46) 85.1 (0.44) 84.1 (0.42) 69.1 (1.40) 84.4 (0.56) 90.6 (0.62) 76.8 (0.46) 57.4 (1.91) 74.0 (0.73) 81.8 (0.60)
Finland 78.4 (0.16) 54.6 (0.60) 75.7 (0.26) 86.7 (0.20) 80.3 (0.22) 61.9 (0.74) 78.4 (0.33) 89.5 (0.28) 76.4 (0.24) 42.5 (0.97) 72.2 (0.40) 84.7 (0.28)

France
73.5 (0.09) 52.9 (0.21) 73.5 (0.13) 84.9 (0.12) 77.5 (0.12) 61.1 (0.30) 77.1 (0.18) 87.9 (0.17) 69.6 (0.13) 45.5 (0.28) 69.6 (0.20) 82.5 (0.18)
Germany 81.4 (0.06) 61.0 (0.22) 82.3 (0.08) 88.9 (0.09) 85.7 (0.08) 69.5 (0.30) 85.7 (0.10) 92.1 (0.11) 77.0 (0.09) 53.5 (0.30) 79.0 (0.12) 85.0 (0.15)
Greece 62.3 (0.14) 50.4 (0.25) 60.9 (0.22) 74.1 (0.24) 73.6 (0.18) 64.5 (0.34) 74.2 (0.29) 81.0 (0.32) 51.2 (0.20) 35.5 (0.34) 47.5 (0.32) 68.0 (0.35)
Hungary 77.0 (0.13) 57.0 (0.33) 78.3 (0.16) 85.8 (0.24) 84.8 (0.15) 68.2 (0.48) 85.6 (0.18) 92.8 (0.28) 69.3 (0.19) 48.1 (0.44) 69.9 (0.26) 80.6 (0.35)
Iceland 87.0 (0.35) 76.5 (0.94) 87.1 (0.60) 92.3 (0.42) 90.2 (0.45) 82.9 (1.16) 91.2 (0.66) 94.0 (0.61) 83.7 (0.54) 68.6 (1.48) 80.5 (1.12) 91.0 (0.58)

Ireland
75.4 (0.16) 52.4 (0.45) 73.6 (0.28) 85.1 (0.20) 82.3 (0.21) 64.7 (0.57) 83.0 (0.34) 89.7 (0.26) 68.8 (0.25) 35.4 (0.66) 64.1 (0.42) 81.2 (0.30)
Israel 77.8 (0.11) 52.5 (0.36) 73.6 (0.19) 87.1 (0.12) 82.9 (0.14) 68.6 (0.48) 78.4 (0.24) 90.8 (0.16) 72.9 (0.16) 35.4 (0.49) 67.7 (0.29) 84.2 (0.18)
Italy 65.8 (0.09) 52.5 (0.15) 70.9 (0.13) 81.1 (0.17) 76.4 (0.11) 67.7 (0.19) 80.8 (0.16) 86.1 (0.24) 55.5 (0.13) 35.9 (0.20) 60.8 (0.20) 77.5 (0.24)
Japan3 83.1 (---) --- (---) --- (---) 85.3 (---) 91.9 (---) --- (---) --- (---) 94.6 (---) 74.2 (---) --- (---) --- (---) 76.3 (---)
Korea, Republic of 74.1 (---) 64.7 (---) 72.4 (---) 77.6 (---) 85.3 (---) 75.4 (---) 83.7 (---) 88.4 (---) 62.4 (---) 57.7 (---) 60.9 (---) 65.1 (---)

Latvia
78.2 (0.29) 62.0 (0.90) 75.1 (0.40) 89.1 (0.39) 80.3 (0.41) 66.7 (1.11) 79.8 (0.53) 90.6 (0.65) 76.3 (0.40) 53.5 (1.49) 70.0 (0.60) 88.2 (0.49)
Lithuania 80.4 (0.21) 55.1 (1.03) 75.2 (0.31) 91.0 (0.24) 81.6 (0.31) 58.2 (1.33) 78.8 (0.41) 92.6 (0.38) 79.2 (0.29) 49.8 (1.62) 70.9 (0.46) 90.1 (0.32)
Luxembourg 76.6 (0.23) 62.0 (0.58) 74.5 (0.40) 85.7 (0.29) 81.3 (0.29) 70.7 (0.75) 77.7 (0.52) 89.6 (0.36) 71.8 (0.35) 53.5 (0.87) 71.1 (0.61) 81.8 (0.45)
Mexico 68.9 (0.11) 65.1 (0.14) 71.0 (0.22) 79.7 (0.20) 89.0 (0.11) 89.2 (0.14) 89.5 (0.22) 88.0 (0.24) 51.3 (0.16) 44.3 (0.21) 55.0 (0.33) 71.6 (0.32)
Netherlands 80.5 (0.08) 62.6 (0.22) 81.2 (0.12) 89.6 (0.09) 86.2 (0.10) 74.6 (0.28) 86.3 (0.15) 92.3 (0.12) 74.8 (0.12) 50.9 (0.31) 75.7 (0.19) 87.0 (0.14)

New Zealand
83.1 (0.28) 72.1 (0.72) 83.5 (0.42) 88.1 (0.39) 89.2 (0.33) 80.3 (0.92) 90.8 (0.47) 92.1 (0.49) 77.3 (0.42) 63.9 (1.07) 75.7 (0.69) 84.8 (0.57)
Norway 81.0 (0.16) 61.5 (0.49) 80.8 (0.26) 89.1 (0.20) 83.7 (0.22) 67.4 (0.66) 84.5 (0.33) 90.4 (0.28) 78.2 (0.24) 54.6 (0.73) 76.0 (0.42) 87.9 (0.28)
Poland 74.0 (---) 43.1 (---) 70.4 (---) 88.8 (---) 81.3 (---) 54.0 (---) 80.0 (---) 93.4 (---) 66.8 (---) 31.3 (---) 59.0 (---) 85.6 (---)
Portugal 78.0 (0.15) 70.0 (0.22) 83.7 (0.27) 88.4 (0.24) 81.8 (0.20) 77.2 (0.28) 85.8 (0.38) 89.6 (0.38) 74.6 (0.21) 62.1 (0.33) 81.8 (0.39) 87.7 (0.31)
Slovak Republic 75.0 (0.39) 38.3 (1.48) 76.9 (0.46) 82.6 (0.73) 81.4 (0.51) 47.0 (2.37) 82.6 (0.58) 89.8 (0.89) 68.6 (0.59) 31.2 (1.83) 70.3 (0.72) 77.2 (1.07)

Slovenia
77.2 (0.22) 51.3 (0.75) 75.9 (0.30) 88.9 (0.29) 80.7 (0.30) 61.9 (1.09) 79.4 (0.39) 91.6 (0.41) 73.5 (0.33) 41.4 (0.99) 71.1 (0.48) 86.9 (0.41)
Spain 69.5 (0.08) 57.4 (0.13) 70.9 (0.16) 81.6 (0.11) 76.0 (0.10) 67.4 (0.17) 77.8 (0.21) 85.6 (0.15) 63.0 (0.11) 46.0 (0.19) 64.3 (0.24) 78.2 (0.16)
Sweden 84.9 (0.09) 67.0 (0.31) 86.7 (0.14) 90.2 (0.12) 87.2 (0.12) 74.1 (0.39) 89.4 (0.17) 90.9 (0.18) 82.5 (0.14) 58.6 (0.47) 83.0 (0.23) 89.6 (0.16)
Switzerland 83.2 (0.13) 68.6 (0.49) 81.7 (0.21) 88.7 (0.17) 88.4 (0.16) 76.3 (0.69) 86.9 (0.27) 92.4 (0.19) 77.9 (0.20) 62.0 (0.68) 77.0 (0.30) 84.1 (0.28)
Turkey 59.1 (---) 52.4 (---) 63.1 (---) 74.3 (---) 78.8 (---) 75.5 (---) 82.1 (---) 83.7 (---) 37.2 (---) 29.9 (---) 34.8 (---) 62.8 (---)

United Kingdom4
80.2 (0.19) 65.7 (0.49) 81.1 (0.32) 86.1 (0.25) 85.5 (0.24) 74.9 (0.64) 86.6 (0.40) 89.8 (0.33) 75.1 (0.28) 56.3 (0.71) 75.3 (0.49) 82.9 (0.36)
United States 74.6 (0.14) 56.8 (0.52) 70.0 (0.23) 82.2 (0.18) 80.5 (0.19) 68.8 (0.68) 76.7 (0.30) 86.9 (0.24) 68.9 (0.21) 43.2 (0.75) 62.7 (0.34) 78.2 (0.27)

Other reporting
    countries
                                               
Argentina 73.1 (0.27) 64.3 (0.47) 74.2 (0.49) 81.1 (0.40) 86.3 (0.30) 81.7 (0.53) 90.5 (0.47) 88.2 (0.52) 61.3 (0.40) 45.6 (0.71) 58.9 (0.77) 76.2 (0.57)
Brazil 67.4 (0.10) 58.9 (0.14) 71.9 (0.17) 82.1 (0.21) 79.1 (0.12) 73.7 (0.17) 83.3 (0.20) 88.6 (0.27) 56.7 (0.14) 43.8 (0.20) 62.1 (0.24) 77.7 (0.29)
Costa Rica 69.6 (0.41) 65.4 (0.52) 69.8 (1.02) 80.9 (0.83) 86.1 (0.45) 85.8 (0.55) 84.4 (1.19) 88.0 (1.07) 53.5 (0.60) 44.4 (0.75) 55.9 (1.50) 74.6 (1.19)
Indonesia2 74.7 (---) 73.0 (---) 74.1 (---) 85.1 (---) 91.2 (---) 91.3 (---) 90.8 (---) 91.9 (---) 58.4 (---) 56.7 (---) 52.4 (---) 78.5 (---)
Russia2 77.5 (---) 53.6 (---) 72.6 (---) 82.8 (---) 83.7 (---) 61.5 (---) 80.2 (---) 89.3 (---) 71.9 (---) 43.6 (---) 63.1 (---) 78.3 (---)
Saudi Arabia5 65.6 (---) 61.9 (---) 64.5 (---) 74.0 (---) 91.7 (---) 91.0 (---) 90.9 (---) 93.9 (---) 24.0 (---) 20.4 (---) 16.3 (---) 41.2 (---)
South Africa 55.7 (0.25) 43.9 (0.48) 57.1 (0.30) 84.6 (0.63) 62.7 (0.34) 51.5 (0.69) 64.4 (0.42) 88.2 (0.82) 48.9 (0.35) 36.3 (0.64) 50.1 (0.43) 81.2 (0.93)
--- Not available.
1 Refers to the mean of the data values for all reporting Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries, to which each country reporting data contributes equally.
2 Data are for 2017 instead of 2018.
3 Associate's or higher degree data include some persons (less than 5 percent of the total) whose highest level of education was high school completion or a postsecondary program below the associate's degree level.
4 High school completion data include some persons (17 percent of the total in 2015) who have completed a sufficient volume and standard of programs, any one of which individually would be classified as a program that only partially completes the high school (or upper secondary) level of education.
5 Data are for 2016 instead of 2018.
NOTE: All data in this table were calculated using International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011. High school completion refers to completion of ISCED 2011 level 3 (upper secondary education); programs classified under ISCED 2011 as only partially completing level 3 are not included in the high school completion data except where otherwise noted. In this table, persons completing ISCED 2011 level 4 are also considered to have high school completion as their highest level of educational attainment. ISCED level 4 typically corresponds to postsecondary vocational programs below the associate’s degree level in the United States. Associate’s or higher degrees include ISCED 2011 level 5 (corresponding to the associate’s degree in the United States), level 6 (bachelor’s or equivalent degree), level 7 (master’s or equivalent degree), and level 8 (doctoral or equivalent degree). For each country, the employment to population ratio of 25- to 64-year-olds is the number of persons in this age group who are employed as a percentage of the total civilian population in this age group.
SOURCE: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Online Education Database, retrieved March 30, 2020, from https://stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx. (This table was prepared April 2020.)

2019 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest