|1 Because countries may have used two different school samples--one for advanced mathematics and one for physics--the total number of instructional hours per year for a particular country may be different in column 2 (based on the advanced mathematics sample) than in column 7 (based on the physics sample).
|2 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) Advanced scores are reported on a scale from 0 to 1,000, with the scale centerpoint set at 500 and the standard deviation set at 100.
|3 Columns 4 and 9 show final-year secondary school students who have taken or are taking the specified courses as a percentage of the age cohort that corresponds to the final year of secondary school in their country. The age cohort represents the entire population of the country that is about the same age as the average age of final-year secondary students (approximately 18 or 19 years old, depending on the country). In the United States, the cohort consists of the total population of 18-year-olds. For the United States, therefore, columns 4 and 9 show the percentage of all 18-year-olds who have taken the specified courses.
|4 Includes advanced mathematics courses covering topics in geometry, algebra, and calculus. In the United States, includes Advanced Placement (AP) calculus, International Baccalaureate (IB) mathematics, and state- and school-specific calculus courses.
|5 Includes physics courses covering topics in mechanics and thermodynamics, electricity and magnetism, and wave phenomena and atomic/nuclear physics. In the United States, includes AP physics, IB physics, and state- and school-specific second-year physics courses.
|6 The international average includes only education systems that are members of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IAE), which develops and implements TIMSS at the international level. All nine of the education systems that participated in TIMSS Advanced are countries that are members of IAE.
|7 Data are available for at least 70 percent but less than 85 percent of students.
|8 Did not satisfy guidelines for sample participation rates.
|9 Met guidelines for sample participation rates only after replacement schools were included.
|10 Intensive courses are advanced mathematics courses that involve 6 or more hours per week. Results for students in these courses are reported separately from the results for other students from the Russian Federation taking courses that involve 4.5 hours per week.
|11 Data are available for at least 50 percent but less than 70 percent of students.
|NOTE: Countries were required to draw probability samples of students in their final year of secondary school; in the United States, samples of 12th-graders were drawn. Instructional times shown in this table are actual or implemented times (as opposed to intended times prescribed by the curriculum). Principals reported total instructional hours per day and school days per year. Total instructional hours per year were calculated by multiplying the number of school days per year by the number of instructional hours per day. Teachers reported instructional hours per week in advanced mathematics and physics. Instructional hours per year in advanced mathematics and physics were calculated by dividing weekly instructional hours by the number of school days per week and then multiplying by the number of school days per year.
|SOURCE: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) Advanced, 2015. (This table was prepared January 2017.)