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Digest of Education Statistics
2019 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest


Table 212.10. Highest degree, average years of experience, and salaries of principals in public and private elementary and secondary schools, by selected characteristics: Selected years, 1993-94 through 2017-18
[Standard errors appear in parentheses]      
Selected
characteristic
Percentage distribution by highest degree earned,
2017-18
Average years of experience Average annual salary in constant 2018-19 dollars1
As a principal Prior
teaching
experience,
2017-18
1993-94 2003-04 2007-08 2011-12 2015-16 2017-18
Bachelor's
or less
Master's Education
special-
ist2
Doctor's and
first-
professional
1993-94 2003-04 2007-08 2011-12 2015-16 2017-18
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Public schools                                                                                                      
Total 1.8   (0.22) 61.8   (0.65) 25.9   (0.60) 10.5   (0.41) 8.7   (0.10) 7.8   (0.10) 7.5   (0.14) 7.2   (0.09) 6.6   (0.09) 6.8   (0.09) 11.3   (0.07) $95,020   (219) $102,760   (252) $102,580   (459) $100,730   (276) $101,740   (314) $100,340   (326)
Sex                                                                                                      
Males 1.4   (0.24) 64.1   (0.93) 25.1   (0.84) 9.4   (0.54) 10.3   (0.16) 9.1   (0.16) 8.2   (0.20) 7.7   (0.12) 7.0   (0.13) 7.3   (0.12) 10.3   (0.10) 95,130   (277) 102,930   (395) 103,000   (795) 101,530   (486) 102,990   (466) 102,690   (500)
Females 2.2   (0.35) 59.7   (0.91) 26.5   (0.79) 11.6   (0.62) 5.6   (0.12) 6.3   (0.13) 6.8   (0.19) 6.6   (0.15) 6.2   (0.12) 6.3   (0.11) 12.2   (0.10) 94,810   (478) 102,570   (455) 102,160   (746) 99,980   (530) 100,690   (473) 98,300   (511)

Race/ethnicity
                                                                                                     
White 2.0   (0.28) 61.0   (0.76) 27.8   (0.71) 9.2   (0.38) 9.0   (0.12) 8.0   (0.12) 7.8   (0.17) 7.3   (0.10) 6.8   (0.11) 7.0   (0.10) 11.5   (0.09) 94,340   (239) 102,180   (301) 101,490   (526) 100,090   (355) 100,800   (352) 99,440   (373)
Black 0.8 ! (0.25) 53.6   (2.22) 24.0   (1.82) 21.5   (1.84) 7.1   (0.21) 6.9   (0.33) 6.2   (0.38) 6.2   (0.30) 6.0   (0.23) 6.0   (0.23) 10.6   (0.26) 99,890   (787) 105,290   (905) 105,080   (1,550) 102,870   (1,271) 103,610   (1,159) 101,140   (1,207)
Hispanic 1.3 ! (0.39) 75.3   (2.02) 14.3   (1.54) 9.2   (1.45) 6.3   (0.37) 6.1   (0.43) 6.5   (0.62) 6.1   (0.42) 5.5   (0.28) 6.0   (0.24) 10.8   (0.25) 96,760   (1,383) 108,130   (1,863) 111,180   (3,175) 104,260   (1,572) 106,100   (1,285) 105,080   (1,566)
Asian3 4.8 ! (1.83) 66.6   (5.97) 19.2 ! (6.17) 9.5 ! (4.25) 6.0   (0.60) 6.8   (1.17) 6.3   (0.97) 7.7   (1.13) 6.5   (0.90) 5.4   (0.71) 11.8   (0.87) 102,970   (2,469) 112,480   (2,276) 123,750   (7,978) 114,120   (4,742) 117,460   (3,175) 125,390   (3,075)
Pacific Islander   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†) ---   (†) ---   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†) ---   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)
American Indian/
    Alaska Native
  (†) 77.1   (6.73) 8.8 ! (4.21) 14.2 ! (5.88) 12.6   (0.67) 6.9   (0.63) 6.4   (1.30) 9.2   (1.67) 8.2   (1.06) 7.2   (1.03) 11.8   (0.96) 88,540   (3,003) 84,390   (2,895) 91,670   (3,944) 89,640   (4,172) 97,740   (6,323) 86,680   (3,867)
Two or more races   (†) 69.1   (6.34) 18.3   (5.07) 7.9 ! (3.51) ---   (†) 5.6   (1.12) 5.8   (1.50) 7.8   (0.77) 5.1   (0.64) 6.8   (0.87) 10.0   (0.80) ---   (†) 103,170   (5,126) 97,710   (6,730) 102,010   (4,038) 99,500   (3,181) 103,040   (3,323)

Age
                                                                                                     
Under 40 2.6 ! (0.84) 65.4   (1.68) 23.3   (1.36) 8.8   (0.79) 2.8   (0.13) 2.4   (0.10) 2.9   (0.14) 3.0   (0.10) 2.5   (0.07) 2.7   (0.08) 7.8   (0.10) 80,620   (820) 93,660   (741) 95,100   (1,083) 95,450   (778) 93,570   (781) 92,310   (782)
40 to 44 1.6   (0.34) 64.0   (1.42) 24.8   (1.38) 9.6   (0.87) 5.0   (0.12) 4.5   (0.18) 4.8   (0.22) 4.8   (0.13) 4.5   (0.11) 4.5   (0.13) 9.8   (0.13) 90,140   (668) 98,410   (901) 100,200   (1,336) 98,050   (722) 100,920   (658) 99,150   (729)
45 to 49 1.6   (0.40) 59.3   (1.42) 28.9   (1.29) 10.2   (0.88) 7.1   (0.13) 6.1   (0.16) 6.1   (0.26) 6.5   (0.18) 6.4   (0.15) 6.6   (0.15) 11.2   (0.16) 96,000   (452) 99,730   (717) 101,510   (1,150) 99,980   (954) 103,200   (786) 102,390   (726)
50 to 54 1.5   (0.34) 61.6   (1.52) 26.7   (1.33) 10.3   (1.09) 10.3   (0.18) 8.7   (0.19) 8.2   (0.28) 8.1   (0.24) 7.9   (0.23) 8.1   (0.19) 12.7   (0.20) 97,970   (631) 104,870   (594) 103,910   (1,103) 101,920   (992) 104,400   (958) 102,440   (1023)
55 or over 2.0   (0.48) 59.7   (1.42) 25.0   (1.22) 13.3   (0.95) 15.1   (0.35) 11.9   (0.23) 11.8   (0.29) 11.8   (0.22) 11.2   (0.25) 11.1   (0.22) 14.4   (0.19) 100,160   (857) 109,000   (648) 107,920   (1,117) 106,310   (673) 106,220   (857) 103,640   (785)

School level
                                                                                                     
Elementary 1.5   (0.27) 62.4   (0.81) 25.9   (0.75) 10.2   (0.53) 8.9   (0.14) 7.9   (0.13) 7.7   (0.17) 7.2   (0.13) 6.6   (0.12) 6.8   (0.11) 11.3   (0.09) 93,810   (292) 102,620   (306) 101,970   (585) 99,690   (337) 101,170   (408) 99,780   (399)
Secondary 2.0   (0.48) 58.7   (1.27) 27.1   (1.13) 12.2   (0.80) 8.0   (0.12) 7.5   (0.19) 7.1   (0.19) 7.1   (0.15) 6.4   (0.16) 6.7   (0.16) 11.1   (0.16) 98,040   (289) 108,020   (601) 107,980   (841) 107,190   (680) 107,360   (773) 106,470   (649)
Combined 3.6   (0.55) 64.0   (1.70) 23.0   (1.55) 9.4   (0.96) 7.5   (0.29) 7.4   (0.36) 7.1   (0.43) 7.1   (0.29) 7.0   (0.29) 6.9   (0.26) 11.9   (0.27) 91,500   (884) 87,990   (838) 90,640   (1,481) 92,300   (1,493) 91,970   (1,389) 89,880   (1,042)

School locale
                                                                                                     
City 2.1   (0.27) 61.8   (1.15) 23.8   (0.95) 12.3   (0.77) ---   (†) 7.3   (0.17) 7.0   (0.25) 6.8   (0.21) 6.4   (0.17) 6.4   (0.14) 11.1   (0.14) ---   (†) 109,150   (512) 109,100   (889) 106,700   (629) 106,920   (633) 105,360   (691)
Suburban 1.2   (0.25) 62.7   (1.14) 23.5   (0.98) 12.6   (0.77) ---   (†) 7.9   (0.23) 7.7   (0.28) 7.3   (0.21) 6.6   (0.16) 6.8   (0.15) 11.0   (0.14) ---   (†) 116,200   (643) 115,950   (1,105) 113,080   (512) 112,340   (616) 110,870   (587)
Town 2.3   (0.67) 59.5   (1.76) 31.8   (1.62) 6.4   (0.75) ---   (†) 8.1   (0.28) 7.8   (0.34) 7.3   (0.24) 6.6   (0.22) 7.1   (0.24) 11.8   (0.23) ---   (†) 93,830   (684) 92,750   (851) 92,250   (617) 92,180   (730) 90,690   (637)
Rural 2.1 ! (0.66) 61.6   (1.29) 28.0   (1.28) 8.3   (0.69) ---   (†) 7.9   (0.22) 7.5   (0.27) 7.3   (0.15) 6.6   (0.18) 7.0   (0.17) 11.8   (0.18) ---   (†) 88,440   (478) 90,570   (786) 89,280   (399) 88,550   (657) 86,760   (537)
Private schools                                                                                                      
Total 30.8   (1.52) 50.6   (1.47) 10.8   (0.66) 7.9   (0.68) 8.8   (0.20) 10.0   (0.24) 10.0   (0.22) 10.8   (0.31) ---   (†) 9.7   (0.29) 13.1   (0.27) $55,560   (629) $68,300   (831) $68,760   (958) $72,660   (1,294) ---   (†) $73,990   (1,014)
Sex                                                                                                      
Males 31.7   (2.41) 51.5   (2.22) 8.1   (0.96) 8.8   (0.96) 9.0   (0.26) 11.0   (0.35) 10.6   (0.37) 11.4   (0.43) ---   (†) 9.7   (0.50) 11.9   (0.47) 61,660   (978) 75,390   (1,365) 75,320   (1,615) 82,260   (2,752) ---   (†) 84,160   (1,859)
Females 30.1   (1.83) 50.0   (1.77) 12.7   (0.99) 7.2   (0.91) 8.6   (0.27) 9.2   (0.28) 9.5   (0.26) 10.4   (0.41) ---   (†) 9.6   (0.35) 14.0   (0.39) 50,550   (1,053) 62,960   (1,147) 63,400   (1,152) 65,770   (1,400) ---   (†) 67,340   (1,266)

Race/ethnicity
                                                                                                     
White 30.8   (1.62) 51.6   (1.64) 10.6   (0.69) 7.0   (0.69) 8.7   (0.22) 10.3   (0.24) 10.4   (0.25) 10.9   (0.31) ---   (†) 9.8   (0.32) 13.4   (0.30) 55,370   (694) 68,860   (821) 70,240   (1,050) 73,800   (1,488) ---   (†) 75,330   (1,062)
Black 21.3   (6.07) 41.2   (5.91) 13.5 ! (5.01) 24.0   (5.01) 8.3   (1.04) 7.1   (1.08) 7.1   (0.90) 11.3   (1.12) ---   (†) 8.3   (1.14) 11.5   (1.49) 59,560   (4,289) 60,310   (4,711) 59,090   (2,571) 64,960   (5,282) ---   (†) 61,690   (4,213)
Hispanic 34.7   (4.56) 42.4   (4.80) 16.2   (3.73)   (†) 10.1   (1.43) 6.6   (1.29) 7.8   (0.87) 9.2   (0.93) ---   (†) 8.6   (0.93) 11.2   (0.96) 54,300   (3,391) 65,340   (5,362) 57,620   (3,942) 68,980   (6,677) ---   (†) 68,300   (4,325)

Age
                                                                                                     
Under 40 40.5   (3.30) 47.7   (3.43) 9.1   (1.57) 2.7   (0.75) 3.5   (0.22) 2.9   (0.20) 3.0   (0.22) 3.3   (0.36) ---   (†) 2.8   (0.21) 6.7   (0.30) 45,570   (1,505) 55,700   (2,153) 55,830   (1,656) 54,540   (2,046) ---   (†) 64,080   (2,277)
40 to 44 21.7   (3.51) 61.2   (3.54) 11.0   (2.45) 6.2   (1.48) 5.3   (0.24) 5.4   (0.38) 5.3   (0.35) 5.9   (0.56) ---   (†) 5.2   (0.45) 9.3   (0.52) 52,810   (1,608) 59,380   (2,340) 64,610   (3,201) 74,820   (7,889) ---   (†) 78,230   (3,116)
45 to 49 35.6   (3.32) 46.9   (2.98) 9.8   (1.79) 7.7   (1.56) 8.3   (0.27) 7.6   (0.28) 6.2   (0.38) 6.6   (0.50) ---   (†) 6.7   (0.42) 11.5   (0.55) 60,000   (1,275) 70,300   (1,996) 64,900   (2,464) 73,900   (4,178) ---   (†) 74,920   (3,225)
50 to 54 28.0   (3.61) 54.7   (3.52) 10.5   (1.96) 6.7   (1.35) 9.6   (0.34) 10.1   (0.35) 9.0   (0.45) 9.7   (0.59) ---   (†) 8.8   (0.47) 13.8   (0.64) 65,350   (1,730) 71,340   (2,134) 70,240   (2,187) 76,390   (4,063) ---   (†) 80,790   (2,927)
55 or over 28.8   (2.38) 48.7   (2.27) 11.7   (1.11) 10.8   (1.35) 14.8   (0.40) 15.2   (0.40) 15.4   (0.43) 16.1   (0.44) ---   (†) 14.8   (0.48) 16.9   (0.47) 55,050   (1,311) 73,490   (1,509) 75,200   (1,715) 76,300   (2,110) ---   (†) 73,910   (1,959)

School level
                                                                                                     
Elementary 33.7   (1.95) 51.9   (1.91) 10.3   (1.00) 4.2   (0.64) 9.4   (0.27) 9.9   (0.30) 9.9   (0.30) 10.6   (0.39) ---   (†) 9.5   (0.41) 12.6   (0.42) 49,850   (770) 64,310   (916) 66,340   (1,160) 67,270   (1,292) ---   (†) 68,640   (1,254)
Secondary 20.2   (2.25) 55.8   (2.88) 11.2   (1.57) 12.8   (2.37) 7.8   (0.36) 9.3   (0.77) 9.9   (0.58) 11.0   (0.89) ---   (†) 9.0   (0.52) 14.2   (0.61) 75,660   (1,358) 88,470   (3,529) 89,850   (2,838) 94,460   (7,720) ---   (†) 89,380   (2,676)
Combined 30.8   (2.73) 45.7   (2.52) 11.5   (1.37) 12.1   (1.38) 8.0   (0.34) 10.3   (0.39) 10.2   (0.44) 11.2   (0.57) ---   (†) 10.3   (0.48) 13.4   (0.55) 58,260   (1,923) 70,190   (2,063) 65,860   (1,768) 74,470   (2,553) ---   (†) 75,520   (2,400)

School locale
                                                                                                     
City 22.6   (1.68) 56.2   (2.19) 11.2   (1.17) 10.0   (1.46) ---   (†) ---   (†) 10.8   (0.38) 11.0   (0.53) ---   (†) 10.0   (0.43) 13.7   (0.39) ---   (†) ---   (†) 77,680   (1,549) 80,640   (2,328) ---   (†) 84,470   (1,992)
Suburban 26.9   (1.96) 52.4   (2.06) 12.8   (1.22) 7.9   (0.91) ---   (†) ---   (†) 10.5   (0.36) 11.8   (0.49) ---   (†) 10.3   (0.40) 12.8   (0.37) ---   (†) ---   (†) 73,670   (1,702) 75,730   (2,724) ---   (†) 78,200   (1,516)
Town 26.1   (5.31) 55.3   (5.51) 14.2   (3.33) 4.4 ! (1.45) ---   (†) ---   (†) 9.4   (0.80) 10.2   (1.00) ---   (†) 10.4   (1.36) 15.7   (1.08) ---   (†) ---   (†) 52,960   (2,572) 50,190   (2,551) ---   (†) 51,580   (2,012)
Rural 51.1   (4.31) 37.3   (3.86) 5.7   (1.43) 5.9   (1.26) ---   (†) ---   (†) 8.1   (0.53) 9.7   (0.76) ---   (†) 8.0   (0.79) 11.5   (0.88) ---   (†) ---   (†) 51,270   (1,964) 64,530   (3,019) ---   (†) 56,390   (2,372)
---Not available.
†Not applicable.
!Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent.
‡Reporting standards not met (too few cases for a reliable estimate).
1 Constant dollars based on the Consumer Price Index, prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, adjusted to a school-year basis. Excludes principals reporting a salary of $0.
2 Education specialist degrees or certificates are generally awarded for 1 year's work beyond the master's level. Includes certificate of advanced graduate studies.
3 Includes Pacific Islander for 1993-94.
NOTE: Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding and cell suppression.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), "Public School Principal Data File" and "Private School Principal Data File," 1993-94, 2003-04, 2007-08, and 2011-12; National Teacher and Principal Survey (NTPS), “Public School Principal Data File,” 2015-16 and 2017-18; and NTPS, “Private School Principal Data File,” 2017-18. (This table was prepared November 2019.)

2019 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest