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Digest of Education Statistics
2019 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest


Table 206.20. Percentage distribution of students ages 5 through 17 attending kindergarten through 12th grade, by school type or participation in homeschooling and selected child, parent, and household characteristics: Selected years, 1999 through 2016
[Standard errors appear in parentheses]
Selected child, parent, or household characteristic 1999 2003 2007 2016
Public school Private school Home-schooled1 Public school Private school Home-schooled1 Public school Private school Home-
schooled1
Public school2 Private school Home-schooled1
Assigned Chosen Assigned Chosen Assigned Chosen Assigned Chosen
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
Total 74.1 (0.45) 14.3   (0.33) 10.0   (0.28) 1.7   (0.14) 72.1   (0.57) 15.0   (0.41) 10.8   (0.39) 2.2   (0.18) 70.6   (0.70) 15.0   (0.55) 11.4   (0.45) 3.0   (0.23) 68.8   (0.62) 18.7   (0.52) 9.2   (0.32) 3.3   (0.23)
Sex of child                                                                                              
Male 74.8 (0.60) 13.9   (0.44) 9.7   (0.34) 1.6   (0.17) 72.1   (0.70) 15.0   (0.56) 10.7   (0.48) 2.2   (0.24) 70.7   (1.05) 15.3   (0.79) 11.5   (0.73) 2.4   (0.28) 69.6   (0.88) 18.4   (0.78) 8.9   (0.42) 3.0   (0.30)
Female 73.4 (0.61) 14.6   (0.45) 10.3   (0.41) 1.8   (0.19) 72.1   (0.78) 14.9   (0.54) 10.8   (0.51) 2.1   (0.23) 70.5   (0.88) 14.7   (0.64) 11.2   (0.54) 3.5   (0.39) 68.0   (0.93) 19.0   (0.83) 9.5   (0.48) 3.5   (0.29)
                                                                                               
Race/ethnicity of child                                                                                              
White 75.0 (0.54) 11.2   (0.35) 11.8   (0.39) 2.0   (0.19) 72.7   (0.67) 12.4   (0.47) 12.2   (0.48) 2.7   (0.25) 69.9   (0.80) 12.0   (0.46) 14.2   (0.61) 3.9   (0.34) 71.8   (0.74) 13.4   (0.52) 11.0   (0.48) 3.8   (0.35)
Black 70.2 (1.24) 22.6   (1.22) 6.2   (0.47) 1.0   (0.31) 66.6   (1.49) 23.4   (1.45) 8.6   (0.85) 1.3 ! (0.42) 68.4   (2.30) 23.0   (2.20) 7.8   (1.33) 0.8 ! (0.28) 60.3   (2.02) 30.1   (2.13) 8.0   (0.91) 1.9   (0.39)
Hispanic 76.0 (1.02) 17.6   (0.91) 5.2   (0.40) 1.1   (0.25) 77.2   (1.17) 15.0   (0.99) 7.1   (0.66) 0.7 ! (0.26) 74.6   (1.41) 17.5   (1.25) 6.3   (0.57) 1.5   (0.29) 66.8   (1.40) 23.1   (1.35) 6.1   (0.59) 3.5   (0.50)
Asian/Pacific Islander 68.8 (3.13) 18.1   (2.74) 11.3   (1.68)   (†) 65.8   (3.52) 19.1   (3.23) 14.0   (2.21)   (†) 72.1   (3.22) 13.6   (2.10) 12.1   (2.08)   (†) 69.2   (2.45) 19.5   (2.06) 9.8   (1.58) 1.4   (0.40)
Asian (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†) 71.4   (3.15) 12.8   (2.11) 13.4   (2.25)   (†) 69.4   (2.53) 19.2   (2.11) 9.9   (1.58) 1.4   (0.40)
Pacific Islander (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†) 77.9   (11.74)   (†)   (†)   (†) 63.2   (12.42) 26.9 ! (12.19)   (†)   (†)
Other3 70.2 (2.90) 17.2   (2.50) 10.7   (1.96) 1.9   (0.56) 68.2   (3.75) 18.3   (2.87) 8.8   (2.14) 4.6 ! (1.76) 69.4   (2.83) 18.6   (2.41) 7.8   (1.22) 4.2   (1.13) 69.9   (1.94) 18.8   (1.79) 8.7   (1.17) 2.6   (0.56)
                                                                                               
Disability status of child as
      reported by parent
                                                                                             
Has a disability 74.8 (0.93) 15.3   (0.78) 8.0   (0.49) 1.8   (0.27) 72.4   (1.12) 16.2   (0.75) 9.2   (0.70) 2.2   (0.35) 72.7   (1.35) 14.0   (0.91) 10.5   (0.96) 2.7   (0.49) 69.0   (1.29) 19.8   (1.17) 7.2   (0.61) 4.1   (0.50)
Does not have a disability 73.9 (0.51) 14.0   (0.36) 10.5   (0.34) 1.7   (0.16) 72.0   (0.67) 14.5   (0.51) 11.3   (0.44) 2.1   (0.21) 69.9   (0.76) 15.3   (0.63) 11.7   (0.48) 3.1   (0.28) 68.7   (0.70) 18.5   (0.59) 9.6   (0.38) 3.1   (0.24)
                                                                                               
Grade equivalent4                                                                                              
Kindergarten through grade 5 71.5 (0.61) 15.1   (0.43) 11.6   (0.41) 1.8   (0.20) 70.1   (0.70) 16.2   (0.56) 11.8   (0.53) 1.9   (0.23) 68.5   (1.16) 16.2   (1.04) 12.2   (0.69) 3.0   (0.36) 70.0   (0.89) 17.8   (0.80) 9.1   (0.50) 3.0   (0.29)
Kindergarten 66.2 (1.67) 15.4   (1.13) 15.9   (1.29) 2.4   (0.52) 69.0   (1.50) 15.5   (1.18) 12.8   (1.21) 2.7   (0.64) 66.4   (2.20) 14.7   (1.60) 15.8   (1.61)   (†) 70.3   (2.54) 17.1   (2.24) 9.4   (1.17) 3.5   (0.80)
Grades 1 through 3 72.2 (0.87) 15.3   (0.67) 10.9   (0.53) 1.6   (0.29) 70.0   (1.18) 16.2   (0.96) 12.1   (0.73) 1.8   (0.28) 68.4   (1.68) 15.9   (1.63) 12.3   (0.93) 3.4   (0.54) 69.5   (1.35) 18.5   (1.16) 8.4   (0.84) 2.4   (0.28)
Grades 4 and 5 72.9 (1.17) 14.6   (0.79) 10.7   (0.77) 1.7   (0.28) 70.7   (1.12) 16.5   (0.96) 10.9   (0.76) 1.9   (0.35) 69.7   (1.62) 17.5   (1.34) 10.3   (1.08) 2.5   (0.52) 70.7   (1.37) 17.4   (1.30) 9.9   (0.77) 3.4   (0.62)
Grades 6 through 8 77.4 (0.79) 11.5   (0.65) 9.5   (0.47) 1.6   (0.24) 73.3   (1.03) 14.1   (0.81) 10.2   (0.59) 2.4   (0.36) 74.4   (1.44) 11.6   (0.81) 11.0   (1.14) 3.0   (0.53) 68.9   (1.13) 17.9   (0.89) 8.8   (0.62) 3.3   (0.41)
Grades 9 through 12 75.7 (0.75) 15.1   (0.60) 7.5   (0.44) 1.7   (0.24) 74.6   (0.97) 13.6   (0.76) 9.5   (0.63) 2.3   (0.33) 70.8   (1.07) 15.9   (0.84) 10.5   (0.75) 2.8   (0.38) 66.4   (0.88) 20.9   (0.81) 8.8   (0.53) 3.8   (0.40)
                                                                                               
Number of parents in the household                                                                                              
Two parents 74.5 (0.54) 12.0   (0.35) 11.5   (0.37) 2.1   (0.21) 71.8   (0.67) 13.6   (0.51) 12.1   (0.47) 2.5   (0.23) 69.5   (0.73) 13.8   (0.49) 12.9   (0.52) 3.6   (0.30) 68.5   (0.75) 17.2   (0.54) 10.5   (0.42) 3.7   (0.28)
One parent 73.5 (0.78) 18.2   (0.55) 7.3   (0.47) 0.9   (0.16) 72.9   (1.09) 18.0   (0.98) 7.6   (0.67) 1.5   (0.32) 73.6   (1.39) 17.2   (1.14) 8.1   (1.18) 1.0   (0.24) 68.9   (1.39) 22.7   (1.30) 6.2   (0.55) 2.3   (0.30)
Nonparental guardians 71.6 (2.70) 21.9   (2.72) 5.1   (0.84)   (†) 73.2   (3.05) 20.1   (2.59) 5.8   (1.36)   (†) 72.2   (5.91) 23.0   (6.19) 2.6   (0.74)   (†) 74.2   (2.92) 19.5   (2.83) 4.0   (0.84) 2.0   (0.54)
                                                                                               
Highest education level of parents                                                                                              
Less than a high school diploma 79.1 (1.38) 18.0   (1.46) 2.7   (0.51)   (†) 76.9   (2.06) 18.9   (1.76) 2.9 ! (1.18)   (†) 83.5   (2.77) 11.9   (1.93)   (†)   (†) 71.7   (2.53) 19.2   (2.03) 4.2   (1.00) 4.4   (1.02)
High school diploma or GED 79.0 (0.84) 14.3   (0.72) 5.6   (0.44) 1.1   (0.19) 77.8   (1.01) 15.5   (0.89) 4.9   (0.45) 1.8   (0.34) 79.3   (1.74) 15.1   (1.66) 3.8   (0.56) 1.8   (0.32) 73.9   (1.59) 19.6   (1.36) 3.7   (0.68) 2.7   (0.39)
Vocational/technical, associate's
      degree, or some college
75.8 (0.72) 14.7   (0.63) 7.7   (0.40) 1.9   (0.24) 74.0   (0.97) 15.5   (0.74) 8.3   (0.58) 2.1   (0.36) 72.0   (1.03) 15.3   (0.99) 8.8   (0.70) 3.8   (0.52) 71.7   (0.97) 19.0   (0.90) 6.1   (0.56) 3.1   (0.36)
Bachelor's degree/some graduate
      school
68.6 (1.06) 13.2   (0.75) 15.8   (0.75) 2.4   (0.37) 67.1   (1.00) 13.2   (0.84) 16.8   (0.90) 2.8   (0.45) 67.3   (1.28) 14.6   (1.11) 14.2   (0.85) 3.9   (0.57) 65.8   (1.06) 17.9   (0.84) 12.8   (0.61) 3.6   (0.45)
Graduate/professional degree 65.0 (1.14) 12.4   (0.77) 20.2   (0.91) 2.4   (0.54) 63.6   (1.50) 13.5   (1.14) 20.5   (1.28) 2.3   (0.55) 59.3   (1.35) 16.0   (0.95) 21.8   (1.13) 2.9   (0.46) 61.5   (1.09) 18.2   (0.87) 17.6   (0.81) 3.0   (0.35)
                                                                                               
Poverty status of household5                                                                                              
Poor 74.8 (1.16) 19.2   (1.06) 4.3   (0.50) 1.7   (0.34) 76.3   (1.28) 17.7   (1.10) 3.7   (0.67) 2.3   (0.58) 76.6   (2.48) 17.8   (2.35) 3.7   (1.04) 1.8   (0.40) 72.9   (1.54) 19.2   (1.31) 3.6   (0.68) 3.9   (0.58)
Near-poor 76.8 (0.79) 15.3   (0.70) 5.9   (0.48) 2.0   (0.31) 75.1   (1.17) 16.0   (0.87) 5.9   (0.69) 3.1   (0.50) 73.8   (1.51) 16.8   (1.19) 5.3   (0.73) 4.1   (0.66) 68.6   (1.26) 21.1   (1.32) 5.4   (0.67) 4.7   (0.51)
Nonpoor 72.5 (0.57) 11.8   (0.34) 14.0   (0.47) 1.6   (0.18) 69.8   (0.70) 13.8   (0.54) 14.6   (0.54) 1.8   (0.21) 67.9   (0.74) 13.6   (0.48) 15.5   (0.54) 3.0   (0.30) 67.7   (0.79) 17.7   (0.61) 12.1   (0.43) 2.6   (0.24)
                                                                                               
Locale                                                                                              
City (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†) 61.7   (1.46) 22.1   (1.38) 14.2   (0.97) 2.0   (0.26) 57.7   (1.22) 15.9   (0.71) 10.7   (0.58) 3.0   (0.33)
Suburban (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†) 72.7   (0.95) 11.8   (0.67) 12.8   (0.68) 2.6   (0.41) 71.2   (0.92) 13.6   (1.39) 10.2   (0.57) 2.9   (0.33)
Town (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†) 77.3   (1.77) 12.4   (1.43) 7.1   (0.75) 3.0   (0.65) 78.6   (1.69) 9.9   (0.67) 3.5   (0.56) 4.3   (0.70)
Rural (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†) 76.7   (1.36) 11.5   (1.03) 6.8   (1.09) 4.9   (0.71) 79.0   (1.05) 9.9   (0.67) 6.4   (0.61) 4.4   (0.54)
                                                                                               
Region                                                                                              
Northeast 72.8 (1.06) 13.4   (0.78) 12.6   (0.63) 1.1   (0.30) 71.6   (1.42) 11.9   (1.02) 14.6   (1.03) 1.8 ! (0.58) 72.5   (1.42) 11.8   (1.11) 13.6   (0.98) 2.2   (0.47) 73.4   (1.70) 28.4   (1.04) 12.1   (0.98) 1.8   (0.38)
South 75.4 (0.65) 13.2   (0.52) 9.3   (0.43) 2.0   (0.28) 74.2   (0.88) 14.9   (0.72) 8.3   (0.58) 2.6   (0.39) 71.9   (1.15) 13.6   (0.96) 10.8   (0.58) 3.8   (0.46) 67.5   (1.05) 15.9   (0.71) 8.2   (0.47) 3.9   (0.42)
Midwest 74.3 (0.80) 13.4   (0.72) 10.9   (0.61) 1.4   (0.24) 69.9   (1.27) 14.4   (0.92) 13.8   (1.04) 2.0   (0.37) 70.8   (1.54) 14.2   (1.06) 12.8   (1.14) 2.2   (0.53) 71.0   (1.44) 13.6   (1.39) 11.0   (0.83) 2.9   (0.48)
West 72.7 (0.95) 17.7   (0.73) 7.5   (0.49) 2.0   (0.34) 71.9   (1.07) 17.9   (0.97) 8.3   (0.59) 2.0   (0.34) 67.0   (1.40) 20.3   (1.17) 9.4   (0.75) 3.1   (0.42) 65.5   (1.30) 9.9   (0.67) 7.1   (0.58) 3.7   (0.40)
—Not available.
†Not applicable.
!Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent.
‡Reporting standards not met. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is 50 percent or greater.
1 Excludes students who were enrolled in school for more than 25 hours a week. Also excludes students who were homeschooled only due to a temporary illness.
2 In 63 cases in 2016, questions about whether a student's school was assigned were not asked because parents reported the school as a private school, and it was only later identified as a public school based on administrative data. Due to the missing data on whether the school was assigned or chosen, these cases were excluded from the analysis of public chosen and assigned schools.
3 Includes American Indian/Alaska Native, Two or more races, and race/ethnicity not reported.
4 Students whose grade equivalent was "ungraded" were excluded from the grade analysis. The percentage of students with an "ungraded" grade equivalent was 0.03 percent in 1999 and 0.02 percent in 2003 and 2007.
5 Poor children are those whose family incomes were below the Census Bureau’s poverty threshold in the year prior to data collection; near-poor children are those whose family incomes ranged from the poverty threshold to 199 percent of the poverty threshold; and nonpoor children are those whose family incomes were at or above 200 percent of the poverty threshold. The poverty threshold is a dollar amount that varies depending on a family’s size and composition and is updated annually to account for inflation. In 2015, for example, the poverty threshold for a family of four with two children was $24,036. Survey respondents are asked to select the range within which their income falls, rather than giving the exact amount of their income; therefore, the measure of poverty status is an approximation.
NOTE: Data are based on parent reports. While National Household Education Surveys Program (NHES) administrations in 1999, 2003, and 2007 were administered via telephone with an interviewer, NHES:2016 used self-administered paper-and-pencil questionnaires that were mailed to respondents. Measurable differences between estimates for 2016 and estimates for the earlier years in this table could reflect actual changes in the population, or the changes could be due to the mode change from telephone to mail. Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. Some data have been revised from previously published figures.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Parent Survey and Parent and Family Involvement in Education Survey of the National Household Education Surveys Program (Parent-NHES:1999 and PFI-NHES:2003, 2007, and 2016). (This table was prepared February 2018.)