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Digest of Education Statistics
2019 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest


Table 106.30. Amount and percentage distribution of direct general expenditures of state and local governments, by function: Selected years, 1970-71 through 2016-17
Function 1970-71 1980-81 1990-91 2000-01 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
  Amount (in millions of current dollars)
Total direct general expenditures $150,674 $407,449 $908,109 $1,621,757 $2,579,509 $2,589,246 $2,623,305 $2,710,967 $2,839,458 $2,961,032 $3,071,187
Education and public libraries 60,174 147,649 313,744 571,374 872,969 879,294 888,240 916,301 947,318 985,051 1,022,721
Education 59,413 145,784 309,302 563,572 862,271 867,839 877,059 905,213 935,754 973,025 1,010,131
Public libraries 761 1,865 4,442 7,802 10,699 11,455 11,181 11,088 11,564 12,026 12,590

Social services and income maintenance
30,376 92,555 214,919 396,086 729,846 732,663 765,511 805,538 883,060 935,325 973,903
Public welfare 18,226 54,121 130,402 257,380 490,645 484,025 515,296 543,511 614,553 652,514 678,238
Hospitals and health 11,205 36,101 81,110 134,010 233,018 242,684 244,290 256,553 263,420 277,324 290,962
Social insurance administration 945 2,276 3,250 4,359 5,256 5,116 4,901 4,415 4,114 4,107 3,914
Veterans’ services 57 157 337 927 838 1,024 1,060 973 1,381 789

Transportation1
19,819 39,231 75,410 130,422 183,282 188,344 186,324 191,924 198,621 210,140 216,458

Public safety
9,416 31,233 79,932 146,544 225,202 225,666 228,400 235,042 241,787 249,346 257,967
Police and fire protection 7,531 21,283 46,568 84,554 138,147 139,344 141,308 145,952 151,011 157,098 164,961
Correction 1,885 7,393 27,356 52,370 73,243 72,766 73,040 74,943 77,058 77,885 78,733
Protective inspection and regulation 2,557 6,008 9,620 13,812 13,556 14,052 14,147 13,718 14,363 14,273

Environment and housing
11,832 35,223 76,167 124,203 200,491 196,193 190,321 190,175 193,912 202,636 211,184
Natural resources, parks, and
    recreation
5,191 13,239 28,505 50,082 67,053 66,455 65,472 65,544 68,358 72,553 77,037
Housing and community development 2,554 7,086 16,648 27,402 56,284 53,647 50,586 50,244 49,916 49,871 52,401
Sewerage and sanitation 4,087 14,898 31,014 46,718 77,154 76,090 74,263 74,387 75,638 80,213 81,746

Governmental administration
6,703 20,001 48,461 85,910 123,851 123,245 123,580 127,676 130,458 139,139 144,245
Financial administration 2,271 7,230 16,995 30,007 39,351 38,620 39,785 40,501 41,920 44,187 45,508
General control2 4,432 12,771 31,466 55,903 84,500 84,624 83,796 87,175 88,538 94,952 98,738

Interest on general debt
5,089 17,131 52,234 73,836 108,478 110,219 108,614 106,940 105,258 105,221 106,323

Other direct general expenditures
7,265 24,426 47,242 93,382 135,388 133,622 132,314 137,371 139,043 134,174 138,387
  Amount (in millions of constant 2018-19 dollars)3
Total direct general expenditures $960,627 $1,191,270 $1,717,444 $2,345,848 $2,954,977 $2,881,696 $2,871,811 $2,922,130 $3,038,504 $3,147,376 $3,205,499
Education and public libraries 383,641 431,686 593,362 826,484 1,000,037 978,609 972,383 987,673 1,013,725 1,047,042 1,067,448
Education 378,789 426,233 584,962 815,199 987,781 965,860 960,143 975,722 1,001,350 1,034,259 1,054,307
Public libraries 4,852 5,453 8,401 11,286 12,256 12,749 12,240 11,951 12,375 12,783 13,140

Social services and income maintenance
193,663 270,606 406,462 572,932 836,081 815,416 838,028 868,284 944,963 994,187 1,016,494
Public welfare 116,200 158,235 246,620 372,297 562,062 538,695 564,110 585,846 657,633 693,578 707,899
Hospitals and health 71,438 105,550 153,398 193,844 266,936 270,094 267,431 276,536 281,886 294,776 303,687
Social insurance administration 6,025 6,654 6,147 6,305 6,021 5,694 5,365 4,759 4,402 4,366 4,085
Veterans’ services 167 297 487 1,062 933 1,122 1,142 1,041 1,468 823

Transportation1
126,357 114,701 142,618 188,654 209,960 209,617 203,975 206,873 212,544 223,364 225,924

Public safety
60,032 91,317 151,170 211,974 257,982 251,154 250,037 253,350 258,736 265,038 269,248
Police and fire protection 48,014 62,226 88,071 122,307 158,255 155,082 154,694 157,320 161,597 166,985 172,175
Correction 12,018 21,615 51,737 75,753 83,905 80,985 79,959 80,781 82,459 82,786 82,176
Protective inspection and regulation 7,476 11,363 13,915 15,822 15,087 15,383 15,249 14,680 15,267 14,897

Environment and housing
75,435 102,982 144,049 179,658 229,674 218,352 208,350 204,988 207,505 215,389 220,420
Natural resources, parks, and
    recreation
33,095 38,707 53,910 72,444 76,814 73,961 71,674 70,649 73,150 77,119 80,406
Housing and community development 16,283 20,718 31,485 39,637 64,476 59,707 55,378 54,157 53,415 53,009 54,693
Sewerage and sanitation 26,057 43,558 58,655 67,577 88,385 84,685 81,298 80,181 80,940 85,261 85,321

Governmental administration
42,735 58,477 91,651 124,267 141,879 137,165 135,287 137,621 139,604 147,895 150,554
Financial administration 14,479 21,139 32,141 43,405 45,079 42,982 43,553 43,656 44,859 46,967 47,498
General control2 28,256 37,339 59,509 80,862 96,800 94,183 91,734 93,965 94,745 100,928 103,056

Interest on general debt
32,445 50,086 98,787 106,803 124,268 122,668 118,903 115,270 112,637 111,843 110,973

Other direct general expenditures
46,318 71,415 89,346 135,076 155,095 148,714 144,848 148,072 148,790 142,617 144,439
  Percentage distribution
Total direct general expenditures 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Education and public libraries 39.9 36.2 34.5 35.2 33.8 34.0 33.9 33.8 33.4 33.3 33.3
Education 39.4 35.8 34.1 34.8 33.4 33.5 33.4 33.4 33.0 32.9 32.9
Public libraries 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4

Social services and income maintenance
20.2 22.7 23.7 24.4 28.3 28.3 29.2 29.7 31.1 31.6 31.7
Public welfare 12.1 13.3 14.4 15.9 19.0 18.7 19.6 20.0 21.6 22.0 22.1
Hospitals and health 7.4 8.9 8.9 8.3 9.0 9.4 9.3 9.5 9.3 9.4 9.5
Social insurance administration 0.6 0.6 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1
Veterans’ services # # # # # # # # # #

Transportation1
13.2 9.6 8.3 8.0 7.1 7.3 7.1 7.1 7.0 7.1 7.0

Public safety
6.2 7.7 8.8 9.0 8.7 8.7 8.7 8.7 8.5 8.4 8.4
Police and fire protection 5.0 5.2 5.1 5.2 5.4 5.4 5.4 5.4 5.3 5.3 5.4
Correction 1.3 1.8 3.0 3.2 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.7 2.6 2.6
Protective inspection and regulation 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

Environment and housing
7.9 8.6 8.4 7.7 7.8 7.6 7.3 7.0 6.8 6.8 6.9
Natural resources, parks, and
    recreation
3.4 3.2 3.1 3.1 2.6 2.6 2.5 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.5
Housing and community development 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.7 2.2 2.1 1.9 1.9 1.8 1.7 1.7
Sewerage and sanitation 2.7 3.7 3.4 2.9 3.0 2.9 2.8 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7

Governmental administration
4.4 4.9 5.3 5.3 4.8 4.8 4.7 4.7 4.6 4.7 4.7
Financial administration 1.5 1.8 1.9 1.9 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5
General control2 2.9 3.1 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.1 3.2 3.2

Interest on general debt
3.4 4.2 5.8 4.6 4.2 4.3 4.1 3.9 3.7 3.6 3.5

Other direct general expenditures
4.8 6.0 5.2 5.8 5.2 5.2 5.0 5.1 4.9 4.5 4.5
†Not applicable.
#Rounds to zero.
1 Includes highways, air transportation (airports), parking facilities, and sea and inland port facilities. For 2000-01 and earlier years, also includes transit subsidies.
2 Includes judicial and legal expenditures, expenditures on general public buildings, and other governmental administration expenditures.
3 Constant dollars based on the Consumer Price Index, prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, adjusted to a school-year basis.
NOTE: Excludes monies paid by states to the federal government. Some data have been revised from previously published figures. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Census Bureau, Governmental Finances. Retrieved April 15, 2020, from https://www.census.gov/data/datasets/2017/econ/local/public-use-datasets.html. (This table was prepared April 2020.)

2019 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest