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Digest of Education Statistics
2019 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest


Table 102.60. Number and percentage of related children under age 18 living in poverty, by family structure, race/ethnicity, and selected racial/ethnic subgroups: 2010 and 2018
[Standard errors appear in parentheses]
Year and race/ethnicity Number of
related
children1
living in
poverty (in
thousands)
Percent of related children1 living in poverty, by family
structure
Total, all
families
Married-couple
household2
Female
householder,
no spouse
present2
Male householder,
no spouse
present2
1 2 3 4 5 6
2010                              
Total 15,357   (97.8) 21.1   (0.13) 10.8   (0.11) 43.9   (0.25) 28.9   (0.36)
White 4,934   (47.9) 12.7   (0.12) 6.6   (0.10) 35.0   (0.34) 21.0   (0.45)
Black 3,835   (42.0) 37.8   (0.38) 14.7   (0.42) 51.2   (0.49) 40.1   (1.01)

Hispanic
5,362   (38.2) 31.9   (0.22) 22.3   (0.28) 49.4   (0.40) 34.1   (0.72)
Cuban 75   (4.7) 18.8   (1.10) 12.5   (1.29) 35.4   (2.43) 16.8   (2.90)
Dominican 148   (7.1) 34.3   (1.22) 12.9   (1.24) 51.6   (1.95) 30.2   (4.75)
Mexican 3,999   (35.1) 33.8   (0.26) 25.3   (0.33) 50.8   (0.52) 36.9   (0.91)
Puerto Rican 513   (14.3) 33.6   (0.77) 13.5   (0.92) 53.6   (1.09) 30.4   (2.05)
Spaniard 31   (3.1) 17.4   (1.62) 9.3   (1.83) 35.2   (3.72) 20.5   (4.73)
Central American3 323   (11.0) 26.8   (0.80) 17.8   (0.88) 41.8   (1.39) 31.0   (2.47)
Costa Rican 6   (1.3) 18.4   (3.53) 11.8 ! (3.71) 25.7 ! (7.79)   (†)
Guatemalan 98   (6.7) 31.5   (1.68) 23.6   (1.80) 46.4   (3.51) 36.2   (4.62)
Honduran 68   (5.2) 33.5   (2.16) 20.3   (2.57) 51.5   (3.05) 30.0   (4.83)
Nicaraguan 19   (2.8) 21.6   (2.90) 12.8   (2.80) 38.5   (5.69) 27.2   (7.33)
Panamanian 6   (1.5) 15.4   (3.49)   (†) 32.3   (6.69)   (†)
Salvadoran 123   (6.3) 23.6   (1.08) 15.5   (1.26) 36.8   (1.98) 29.5   (3.96)
South American 132   (6.4) 17.3   (0.78) 11.6   (0.79) 33.2   (1.71) 17.1   (2.57)
Chilean 3   (1.0) 10.8   (3.01) 7.3 ! (3.51) 25.8 ! (8.79)   (†)
Colombian 34   (3.5) 14.0   (1.30) 9.5   (1.34) 24.3   (2.74) 14.8 ! (5.06)
Ecuadorian 41   (4.1) 24.2   (1.95) 17.6   (2.05) 43.6   (3.49) 21.8   (5.36)
Peruvian 28   (3.8) 18.7   (2.25) 11.0   (1.90) 40.4   (4.91)   (†)
Venezuelan 10   (2.0) 17.2   (3.19) 12.7   (3.22) 33.6   (8.59)   (†)
Other South American 16   (2.5) 14.0   (1.88) 9.1   (1.77) 30.4   (5.76) 19.7 ! (8.71)
Other Hispanic 142   (7.0) 28.3   (1.15) 17.5   (1.26) 47.0   (1.96) 25.7   (3.06)

Asian
383   (9.6) 12.2   (0.30) 9.5   (0.28) 28.3   (1.21) 23.6   (1.87)
Chinese4 67   (3.4) 10.0   (0.51) 7.8   (0.50) 24.1   (2.31) 21.8   (3.67)
Filipino 25   (3.1) 5.4   (0.69) 3.0   (0.56) 17.3   (2.78) 9.8 ! (2.98)
Japanese 4   (0.9) 4.6   (1.15) 2.2 ! (0.91) 25.9   (7.58)   (†)
Korean 34   (2.8) 13.0   (0.97) 9.9   (0.88) 37.0   (4.29) 8.8 ! (3.45)
South Asian5 82   (5.4) 10.0   (0.63) 8.9   (0.60) 27.8   (4.04) 24.1   (6.46)
Asian Indian 52   (4.3) 7.7   (0.61) 6.6   (0.60) 27.0   (4.53) 23.0   (6.06)
Bangladeshi 10   (1.7) 30.0   (4.25) 31.4   (4.45)   (†)   (†)
Bhutanese ---   (†) ---   (†) ---   (†) ---   (†) ---   (†)
Nepalese ---   (†) ---   (†) ---   (†) ---   (†) ---   (†)
Pakistani 20   (2.4) 19.2   (2.32) 17.6   (2.14) 42.5   (12.51)   (†)
Southeast Asian 140   (6.3) 21.7   (0.89) 17.2   (1.00) 34.8   (2.16) 38.0   (4.67)
Burmese ---   (†) ---   (†) ---   (†) ---   (†) ---   (†)
Cambodian 17   (2.4) 26.3   (2.94) 20.2   (4.30) 35.4   (5.11) 39.0   (9.46)
Hmong 40   (4.4) 39.7   (3.60) 30.9   (3.86) 61.2   (6.69) 63.6   (8.43)
Laotian 11   (2.3) 20.5   (3.72) 18.0 ! (5.48) 26.4   (5.10) 17.3 ! (5.96)
Thai 5 ! (1.8) 23.3   (6.49) 23.9 ! (7.98)   (†)   (†)
Vietnamese 63   (4.2) 16.3   (1.04) 12.8   (1.01) 31.7   (3.38) 28.6   (5.76)
Other Southeast Asian6 5   (1.3) 22.6   (5.67) 23.4   (6.10)   (†)   (†)
Other Asian 32   (2.8) 15.8   (1.28) 13.2   (1.28) 29.6   (4.05) 21.7 ! (6.98)

Pacific Islander
28   (2.9) 22.0   (2.24) 18.8   (2.68) 33.3   (4.82) 18.0 ! (5.47)

American Indian/Alaska Native7
188   (6.5) 34.0   (1.16) 18.7   (1.45) 49.9   (1.92) 41.5   (2.72)
American Indian 159   (6.0) 35.5   (1.25) 19.2   (1.63) 52.5   (1.99) 41.8   (3.05)
Alaska Native 9   (1.4) 24.6   (3.44) 13.5   (3.36) 37.1   (6.49) 26.6 ! (8.25)

Some other race8
35   (3.3) 19.7   (1.60) 11.3   (1.74) 34.9   (4.07) 35.4   (6.89)
Two or more races 591   (14.1) 21.3   (0.48) 8.7   (0.37) 41.0   (0.88) 28.1   (1.33)

2018
                             
Total 12,575   (92.5) 17.5   (0.12) 8.4   (0.10) 38.7   (0.30) 23.1   (0.32)
White 3,724   (42.1) 10.3   (0.12) 5.2   (0.09) 30.5   (0.40) 17.2   (0.42)
Black 3,057   (45.4) 32.1   (0.44) 11.5   (0.41) 44.9   (0.65) 34.7   (0.94)

Hispanic
4,632   (49.0) 25.3   (0.26) 15.8   (0.30) 43.1   (0.51) 25.2   (0.65)
Cuban 77   (5.7) 16.9   (1.13) 7.5   (1.08) 35.4   (2.51) 16.0   (3.06)
Dominican 173   (8.7) 28.7   (1.22) 14.9   (1.58) 43.4   (1.89) 22.8   (3.80)
Mexican 3,163   (39.3) 26.0   (0.30) 17.3   (0.36) 43.7   (0.52) 25.2   (0.79)
Puerto Rican 487   (16.5) 28.7   (0.84) 11.5   (0.72) 47.5   (1.40) 29.8   (2.09)
Spaniard 19   (2.1) 10.4   (1.08) 4.8   (1.04) 22.0   (3.27) 24.4   (6.26)
Central American3 441   (14.5) 26.8   (0.69) 17.6   (1.00) 43.1   (1.33) 27.0   (1.87)
Costa Rican 4 ! (1.5) 10.3 ! (3.58)   (†) 32.8 ! (11.11)   (†)
Guatemalan 154   (8.2) 33.6   (1.52) 26.4   (2.06) 51.7   (2.53) 25.7   (3.93)
Honduran 106   (8.0) 32.1   (1.85) 18.8   (2.21) 49.1   (2.85) 36.9   (4.45)
Nicaraguan 15   (2.3) 16.1   (2.28) 10.1   (2.71) 25.9   (4.58) 22.3 ! (8.31)
Panamanian 7   (1.4) 14.2   (2.36) 3.9 ! (1.95) 23.9   (4.25)   (†)
Salvadoran 151   (7.4) 23.0   (1.02) 14.0   (1.37) 38.9   (2.20) 23.7   (2.95)
South American 103   (5.8) 11.9   (0.66) 8.7   (0.78) 22.2   (1.55) 11.5   (2.28)
Chilean 3   (0.8) 7.0   (1.90)   (†) 20.9 ! (8.22)   (†)
Colombian 26   (2.7) 9.7   (1.00) 6.7   (1.20) 18.9   (2.51) 5.7 ! (2.49)
Ecuadorian 26   (3.7) 14.7   (1.97) 10.5   (2.31) 25.5   (3.94) 15.0 ! (5.55)
Peruvian 15   (2.3) 10.2   (1.45) 6.1   (1.30) 24.2   (4.36)   (†)
Venezuelan 26   (3.4) 20.4   (2.20) 16.6   (2.28) 34.6   (6.12) 31.3 ! (11.99)
Other South American 8   (1.6) 6.9   (1.36) 5.6   (1.59) 9.6 ! (3.30) 14.2 ! (5.96)
Other Hispanic 168   (8.5) 25.2   (1.05) 13.9   (1.21) 43.7   (2.14) 26.9   (3.27)

Asian
325   (9.0) 9.5   (0.26) 7.2   (0.23) 24.9   (1.27) 18.8   (1.94)
Chinese4 70   (3.9) 10.0   (0.51) 7.4   (0.51) 24.3   (2.30) 21.7   (3.17)
Filipino 18   (2.3) 4.4   (0.55) 2.5   (0.36) 14.1   (2.57) 8.6 ! (2.79)
Japanese 5   (1.3) 7.7   (1.87) 6.9   (1.76)   (†)   (†)
Korean 17   (1.8) 8.0   (0.78) 6.2   (0.84) 28.3   (5.06)   (†)
South Asian5 85   (5.1) 7.1   (0.41) 6.2   (0.39) 23.0   (3.29) 11.9 ! (3.86)
Asian Indian 40   (3.4) 4.2   (0.36) 3.5   (0.33) 20.7   (3.27) 8.4 ! (2.76)
Bangladeshi 2 ! (0.7) 19.6 ! (8.45) 20.2 ! (9.36)   (†)   (†)
Bhutanese   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)
Nepalese 6   (1.3) 13.0   (2.68) 11.0   (2.91)   (†)   (†)
Pakistani 25   (3.5) 19.4   (2.46) 18.7   (2.49) 36.3 ! (11.23)   (†)
Southeast Asian 108   (6.1) 17.8   (0.87) 13.6   (1.01) 31.0   (2.55) 27.8   (4.32)
Burmese 18   (3.3) 27.7   (4.44) 29.9   (4.76)   (†)   (†)
Cambodian 9   (1.7) 20.6   (3.30) 9.5 ! (2.97) 35.6   (6.61) 33.8 ! (10.80)
Hmong 21   (3.0) 22.0   (2.69) 18.0   (3.33) 20.5   (5.22) 36.4   (9.13)
Laotian 8   (1.6) 26.2   (4.59) 20.4   (5.80) 40.3   (10.72)   (†)
Thai 7   (1.6) 24.4   (4.68) 16.1   (4.82) 60.3   (10.89)   (†)
Vietnamese 46   (4.0) 13.2   (1.05) 9.2   (1.03) 32.3   (3.95) 20.7   (4.65)
Other Southeast Asian6   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)
Other Asian 8   (1.5) 16.0   (2.97) 13.6   (3.02) 26.6 ! (13.12)   (†)

Pacific Islander
30   (3.4) 24.9   (2.21) 17.5   (2.65) 43.7   (5.71) 26.1 ! (9.34)

American Indian/Alaska Native7
160   (5.6) 30.5   (1.03) 14.5   (1.05) 47.2   (1.81) 36.6   (2.58)
American Indian 139   (5.4) 31.6   (1.18) 15.2   (1.18) 48.2   (1.98) 36.5   (2.85)
Alaska Native 7   (0.9) 22.2   (2.93) 11.4   (2.64) 29.9   (5.41) 54.2   (7.89)

Some other race8
49   (5.0) 18.7   (1.61) 8.8   (1.39) 36.1   (3.22) 23.0   (5.52)
Two or more races 599   (15.3) 16.7   (0.39) 6.8   (0.27) 33.9   (0.84) 23.8   (1.40)
---Not available.
†Not applicable.
!Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent.
‡Reporting standards not met. Either there are too few cases for a reliable estimate or the coefficient of variation (CV) is 50 percent or greater.
1 Related children in a family include all children in the household who are related to the householder by birth, marriage, or adoption (except a child who is the spouse of the householder). The householder is the person (or one of the people) who owns or rents (maintains) the housing unit. This table includes only children related to the householder. It excludes unrelated children and householders who are themselves under the age of 18.
2 To determine family structure, children are classified by their parents’ marital status or, if no parents are present in the household, by the marital status of the householder who is related to the children.
3 Includes other Central American subgroups not shown separately.
4 Includes Taiwanese.
5 In addition to the subgroups shown, also includes Sri Lankan.
6 Consists of Indonesian and Malaysian.
7 Includes persons reporting American Indian alone, persons reporting Alaska Native alone, and persons from American Indian and/or Alaska Native tribes specified or not specified.
8 Respondents who wrote in some other race that was not included as an option on the questionnaire.
NOTE: Respondents were interviewed throughout the given year and reported the income they received during the previous 12 months. Data are based on sample surveys of the entire population residing within the United States. Poverty status is determined by the Census Bureau using a set of money income thresholds that vary by family size and composition. For additional information about poverty status, see https://www.census.gov/topics/income-poverty/poverty/guidance/poverty-measures.html. Poverty estimates in this table may differ from table 102.50's official national poverty estimates, which are based on a different data source (the Current Population Survey). Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Census Bureau, American Community Survey (ACS), 2010 and 2018. (This table was prepared November 2019.)

2019 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest