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Digest of Education Statistics
2019 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest


Table 102.51. Supplemental Poverty Measure estimates for all persons, persons in families, and related children under age 18, by race/ethnicity: 2009 through 2018
[Standard errors appear in parentheses]
Race/
ethnicity
and year
Number below the poverty level based on Supplemental Poverty Measure (in thousands) Percent below the poverty level based on Supplemental Poverty Measure
All persons In all families1 In families with female
householder, no spouse
present
All persons In all families1 In families with
female householder,
no spouse present
Total Householder2 Related
children under
183
Total Related
children
under 183
Total House-
holder2
Related
children
under 183
Total Related
children
under 183
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
Total4                                                
2009 45,927 (529.5) 34,003 (482.2) 10,133 (139.0) 12,331 (233.6) 12,912 (323.0) 5,843 (168.8) 15.1 (0.17) 13.6 (0.20) 12.8 (0.17) 16.8 (0.32) 28.5 (0.65) 32.6 (0.82)
2010 48,631 (560.3) 35,603 (491.9) 10,535 (144.1) 12,951 (225.2) 14,133 (307.9) 6,507 (159.7) 15.9 (0.18) 14.2 (0.20) 13.4 (0.18) 17.7 (0.31) 30.4 (0.56) 35.3 (0.73)
2011 49,603 (541.1) 36,709 (506.3) 11,075 (152.7) 12,965 (220.0) 14,926 (302.0) 6,833 (164.2) 16.1 (0.18) 14.5 (0.20) 13.8 (0.18) 17.9 (0.30) 31.0 (0.57) 36.1 (0.77)
2012 49,690 (555.1) 36,709 (505.3) 11,118 (148.3) 12,945 (216.8) 14,105 (348.3) 6,477 (184.1) 16.0 (0.18) 14.5 (0.20) 13.7 (0.18) 17.8 (0.30) 30.0 (0.62) 35.3 (0.79)
2013 48,603 (629.7) 35,550 (549.9) 10,778 (155.0) 11,827 (233.1) 13,694 (378.8) 6,080 (188.6) 15.5 (0.20) 13.9 (0.22) 13.3 (0.19) 16.3 (0.32) 29.1 (0.73) 33.5 (0.88)

2014
48,253 (525.3) 35,217 (471.3) 10,787 (144.3) 11,907 (223.3) 13,784 (295.3) 6,075 (152.3) 15.3 (0.17) 13.7 (0.18) 13.2 (0.17) 16.4 (0.31) 28.7 (0.53) 33.2 (0.69)
2015 45,664 (549.8) 33,243 (518.4) 10,121 (148.4) 11,526 (223.7) 12,749 (304.9) 5,673 (158.9) 14.3 (0.17) 12.9 (0.20) 12.3 (0.17) 15.9 (0.30) 26.3 (0.55) 30.8 (0.74)
2016 44,558 (487.5) 32,216 (452.4) 9,914 (141.1) 10,870 (206.0) 12,593 (300.3) 5,648 (159.0) 13.9 (0.15) 12.4 (0.17) 12.0 (0.17) 15.0 (0.28) 26.1 (0.57) 31.2 (0.77)
2017 44,810 (598.7) 32,163 (518.1) 9,874 (163.0) 11,122 (236.6) 12,357 (292.8) 5,412 (159.8) 13.9 (0.19) 12.3 (0.20) 11.9 (0.19) 15.3 (0.32) 25.7 (0.55) 30.5 (0.75)
20185 41,227 (518.0) 29,266 (453.4) 9,047 (140.7) 9,762 (232.3) 11,317 (297.5) 4,934 (164.6) 12.7 (0.16) 11.2 (0.17) 10.8 (0.17) 13.5 (0.32) 24.3 (0.55) 28.9 (0.83)

White
                                               
2009 20,422 (351.3) 13,393 (299.8) 4,796 (104.0) 3,810 (122.2) 4,046 (164.4) 1,572 (77.5) 10.4 (0.18) 8.4 (0.19) 8.8 (0.19) 9.4 (0.30) 21.3 (0.76) 24.6 (1.05)
2010 21,746 (371.8) 13,972 (303.9) 4,917 (109.0) 3,894 (122.4) 4,242 (162.1) 1,660 (72.1) 11.0 (0.19) 8.9 (0.20) 9.1 (0.20) 9.8 (0.31) 21.9 (0.73) 25.5 (0.99)
2011 21,436 (344.0) 13,972 (305.6) 4,993 (105.1) 3,788 (122.9) 4,299 (156.4) 1,675 (75.3) 11.0 (0.18) 9.0 (0.19) 9.2 (0.19) 9.9 (0.32) 21.6 (0.66) 25.6 (0.96)
2012 20,923 (357.6) 13,561 (289.1) 4,870 (102.4) 3,582 (113.1) 3,972 (147.3) 1,510 (69.0) 10.7 (0.18) 8.7 (0.19) 9.0 (0.19) 9.4 (0.30) 20.7 (0.70) 24.6 (0.98)
2013 20,894 (396.1) 13,203 (336.3) 4,765 (116.7) 3,226 (128.2) 3,988 (201.2) 1,409 (83.9) 10.7 (0.20) 8.5 (0.22) 8.9 (0.21) 8.5 (0.34) 21.1 (0.95) 23.7 (1.26)

2014
20,837 (345.2) 13,278 (301.3) 4,717 (108.1) 3,513 (115.1) 3,980 (159.5) 1,478 (72.8) 10.7 (0.18) 8.6 (0.20) 8.8 (0.20) 9.4 (0.31) 20.9 (0.72) 24.3 (1.02)
2015 19,700 (335.1) 12,794 (303.1) 4,498 (102.9) 3,743 (130.2) 3,836 (156.5) 1,581 (77.9) 10.1 (0.17) 8.3 (0.19) 8.4 (0.18) 10.0 (0.35) 19.8 (0.73) 25.0 (1.08)
2016 19,327 (346.3) 12,191 (282.5) 4,468 (106.9) 3,132 (101.8) 3,770 (142.9) 1,513 (70.1) 9.9 (0.18) 7.9 (0.18) 8.3 (0.19) 8.5 (0.28) 19.4 (0.70) 24.5 (1.10)
2017 19,198 (356.2) 12,260 (302.6) 4,319 (102.1) 3,429 (116.1) 3,529 (152.1) 1,363 (76.2) 9.8 (0.18) 8.0 (0.19) 8.0 (0.18) 9.4 (0.31) 19.0 (0.72) 23.2 (1.08)
20185 16,863 (316.4) 10,416 (274.7) 3,832 (099.2) 2,489 (100.7) 3,132 (133.0) 1,111 (63.9) 8.7 (0.16) 6.7 (0.18) 7.1 (0.18) 6.9 (0.27) 17.2 (0.61) 20.1 (1.02)

Black
                                               
2009 8,452 (214.3) 6,487 (191.4) 1,903 (55.9) 2,640 (96.4) 4,257 (168.4) 1,964 (89.4) 22.9 (0.58) 21.7 (0.64) 21.1 (0.56) 25.3 (0.94) 32.6 (1.07) 35.0 (1.35)
2010 9,327 (230.4) 7,080 (211.8) 2,081 (65.9) 2,936 (105.2) 4,739 (167.8) 2,218 (93.8) 25.1 (0.61) 23.8 (0.72) 23.0 (0.67) 28.7 (1.03) 34.8 (1.13) 38.0 (1.41)
2011 9,380 (242.4) 7,096 (227.8) 2,066 (69.8) 2,895 (114.6) 4,728 (185.2) 2,232 (102.1) 25.3 (0.65) 24.0 (0.76) 22.6 (0.71) 28.9 (1.13) 35.7 (1.16) 39.6 (1.54)
2012 9,623 (235.6) 7,348 (233.0) 2,213 (72.2) 2,877 (114.0) 4,633 (190.7) 2,147 (103.3) 25.6 (0.63) 24.6 (0.77) 23.8 (0.74) 28.8 (1.14) 35.6 (1.24) 39.1 (1.54)
2013 9,294 (275.9) 7,066 (252.1) 2,017 (67.3) 2,777 (121.2) 4,395 (200.6) 2,056 (111.1) 24.6 (0.74) 23.5 (0.85) 21.7 (0.74) 28.0 (1.22) 34.3 (1.39) 37.8 (1.80)

2014
8,904 (207.2) 6,664 (180.0) 1,979 (56.9) 2,621 (101.2) 4,232 (150.3) 1,964 (86.4) 23.1 (0.53) 21.9 (0.59) 21.2 (0.54) 26.1 (0.99) 32.1 (1.02) 35.7 (1.40)
2015 8,944 (242.2) 6,539 (229.3) 1,945 (64.8) 2,415 (102.4) 4,049 (186.8) 1,768 (94.7) 22.8 (0.62) 21.2 (0.73) 20.8 (0.64) 24.0 (1.00) 29.7 (1.17) 31.7 (1.48)
2016 8,411 (225.1) 6,177 (215.0) 1,830 (64.1) 2,440 (109.6) 3,986 (189.4) 1,856 (101.3) 21.5 (0.57) 20.0 (0.69) 19.5 (0.63) 24.2 (1.07) 30.7 (1.26) 34.6 (1.60)
2017 8,642 (245.1) 6,173 (218.4) 1,873 (67.4) 2,425 (113.0) 4,080 (182.9) 1,813 (98.3) 21.8 (0.61) 20.0 (0.71) 19.8 (0.68) 24.3 (1.12) 31.0 (1.23) 34.6 (1.66)
20185 8,104 (252.2) 5,918 (226.8) 1,727 (65.1) 2,376 (114.4) 3,619 (187.0) 1,690 (94.7) 20.4 (0.63) 19.3 (0.74) 18.9 (0.68) 23.8 (1.16) 28.7 (1.26) 33.5 (1.65)

Hispanic
                                               
2009 13,329 (281.7) 11,239 (271.8) 2,674 (64.6) 4,879 (132.5) 3,842 (168.4) 1,953 (89.5) 27.3 (0.58) 26.3 (0.63) 25.7 (0.59) 29.3 (0.80) 37.4 (1.36) 41.9 (1.58)
2010 13,845 (279.4) 11,669 (262.5) 2,791 (63.3) 5,109 (136.5) 4,331 (160.6) 2,227 (94.3) 27.8 (0.56) 26.7 (0.59) 26.2 (0.53) 30.0 (0.80) 41.5 (1.19) 46.8 (1.51)
2011 14,571 (303.9) 12,397 (284.6) 3,081 (71.5) 5,210 (132.0) 4,907 (180.7) 2,473 (99.6) 27.9 (0.58) 27.1 (0.63) 26.6 (0.62) 30.2 (0.77) 43.2 (1.25) 47.5 (1.45)
2012 14,799 (273.5) 12,443 (264.0) 3,170 (69.8) 5,212 (127.6) 4,492 (172.7) 2,315 (99.3) 27.9 (0.52) 26.9 (0.56) 26.5 (0.52) 30.1 (0.74) 39.9 (1.16) 45.1 (1.49)
2013 14,062 (338.9) 11,883 (318.0) 3,032 (80.7) 4,747 (143.6) 4,371 (193.5) 2,175 (103.4) 26.0 (0.62) 25.1 (0.67) 25.0 (0.65) 27.0 (0.82) 37.4 (1.46) 41.2 (1.70)

2014
14,106 (269.5) 11,878 (258.3) 3,123 (65.7) 4,684 (130.6) 4,551 (177.6) 2,190 (92.8) 25.4 (0.49) 24.6 (0.53) 25.1 (0.51) 26.6 (0.73) 38.2 (1.20) 42.7 (1.41)
2015 12,711 (290.3) 10,780 (278.9) 2,787 (75.0) 4,363 (131.6) 3,995 (174.1) 1,918 (96.6) 22.4 (0.51) 21.8 (0.57) 21.8 (0.56) 24.3 (0.73) 33.6 (1.21) 37.9 (1.59)
2016 12,645 (262.6) 10,733 (258.7) 2,748 (68.1) 4,305 (129.7) 3,901 (166.0) 1,872 (94.3) 22.0 (0.46) 21.2 (0.51) 21.1 (0.49) 23.7 (0.72) 32.7 (1.16) 37.3 (1.49)
2017 12,601 (294.5) 10,455 (274.3) 2,745 (71.5) 4,192 (140.9) 3,873 (159.9) 1,847 (94.2) 21.3 (0.50) 20.3 (0.53) 20.8 (0.51) 22.9 (0.76) 31.6 (1.08) 36.6 (1.53)
20185 12,134 (267.3) 9,919 (246.9) 2,580 (68.0) 3,957 (133.6) 3,606 (167.2) 1,699 (94.3) 20.2 (0.45) 19.1 (0.47) 19.4 (0.49) 21.4 (0.72) 30.2 (1.24) 34.3 (1.58)

Asian
                                               
2009 2,403 (109.7) 1,894 (102.8) 529 (28.1) 547 (42.3) 308 (43.0) 107 (17.7) 17.6 (0.78) 15.8 (0.84) 15.0 (0.76) 17.3 (1.30) 23.5 (3.00) 31.5 (4.46)
2010 2,262 (113.2) 1,747 (113.4) 504 (29.8) 440 (42.4) 346 (50.0) 105 (17.1) 16.1 (0.80) 14.3 (0.91) 14.5 (0.84) 13.9 (1.31) 26.7 (3.25) 31.1 (4.30)
2011 2,618 (125.6) 2,006 (114.5) 620 (34.5) 475 (40.5) 357 (52.5) 94 (21.3) 17.0 (0.80) 14.9 (0.84) 15.5 (0.84) 14.2 (1.20) 25.0 (3.27) 26.1 (5.25)
2012 2,628 (127.7) 2,018 (123.4) 556 (33.6) 556 (48.0) 368 (49.0) 122 (23.4) 16.5 (0.79) 14.7 (0.88) 13.9 (0.78) 16.5 (1.43) 26.2 (2.80) 37.1 (5.47)
2013 2,760 (160.0) 2,138 (149.5) 658 (42.9) 494 (51.7) 360 (58.4) 94 (21.2) 16.6 (0.93) 14.7 (1.00) 15.4 (0.93) 14.2 (1.45) 22.5 (3.39) 25.7 (5.46)

2014
2,908 (148.7) 2,200 (132.2) 664 (36.7) 521 (47.0) 412 (46.8) 108 (17.6) 16.8 (0.83) 14.7 (0.87) 15.0 (0.79) 14.7 (1.31) 24.9 (2.55) 28.3 (4.06)
2015 2,847 (138.8) 2,036 (126.1) 631 (36.9) 484 (46.6) 296 (42.3) 81 (15.7) 16.1 (0.77) 13.4 (0.82) 13.8 (0.79) 13.7 (1.30) 21.6 (2.75) 30.2 (4.99)
2016 2,656 (118.7) 1,895 (108.1) 578 (33.4) 428 (39.2) 371 (48.1) 94 (17.1) 14.5 (0.65) 12.0 (0.68) 12.5 (0.71) 11.7 (1.06) 23.5 (2.74) 32.0 (5.26)
2017 2,872 (122.6) 2,153 (120.8) 675 (35.0) 541 (45.1) 361 (50.5) 90 (18.8) 15.2 (0.65) 13.4 (0.75) 14.0 (0.70) 14.3 (1.19) 21.7 (2.82) 24.4 (4.52)
20185 2,670 (130.1) 1,909 (123.1) 635 (39.4) 429 (43.9) 416 (55.4) 122 (22.7) 13.9 (0.68) 11.7 (0.75) 12.7 (0.80) 11.3 (1.14) 26.0 (3.15) 31.8 (4.77)
1 Persons in family households, which consist of two or more people who are related by birth, marriage, or adoption and are residing together.
2 Refers to the person who owns or rents (maintains) the housing unit.
3 Refers to all children in the household who are related to the householder by birth, marriage, or adoption (except a child who is the spouse of the householder).
4 Total includes other racial/ethnic groups not shown separately.
5 The U.S. Census Bureau has been engaged in implementing improvements to the income, health insurance, and demographic content of the Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplement (CPS ASEC). Due to changes to the data processing system, which resulted in statistically significant differences in the Supplemental Poverty Measure estimates between the new and legacy processing systems, use caution when comparing 2018 data to earlier years. For more information, see https://www.census.gov/newsroom/blogs/research-matters/2019/09/cps-asec.html.
NOTE: Data are based on sample surveys of the noninstitutionalized population, which excludes persons living in institutions (e.g., prisons or nursing facilities); data include military personnel who live in households with civilians, but exclude those who live in military barracks. The estimates in this table are for the Supplemental Poverty Measure (SPM), whereas poverty estimates in other tables are for the official poverty measure. The official poverty measure consists of a set of thresholds for families of different sizes and compositions that are compared with before-tax cash income to determine a family's poverty status. The SPM extends the information provided by the official poverty measure by adding to family income the value of benefits from many government programs designed to assist low-income families, subtracting taxes and necessary expenses such as child care costs (for working families) and medical expenses, and adjusting poverty thresholds for differences in housing costs. For more information about the SPM, see https://www.census.gov/topics/income-poverty/supplemental-poverty-measure.html. SPM estimates can be generated only from the Current Population Survey (CPS). Official poverty estimates generated from the CPS are presented in table 102.50. To match the population included in the official poverty measure, SPM estimates presented in this table exclude unrelated children under age 15. Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Census Bureau, Supplemental Poverty Measure (SPM) Research Files, 2009 through 2017; and Current Population Survey (CPS), Annual Social and Economic Supplement, 2019. (This table was prepared April 2020.)

2019 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest