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Digest of Education Statistics
2019 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest


Table 102.40. Poverty rates for all persons and poverty status of related children under age 18, by region and state: Selected years, 1990 through 2018
[Standard errors appear in parentheses]
Region and state Percent of persons in poverty1 Poverty status of related children2 under age 18
19903 20004 20105 20155 20185 1990,3
percent in
poverty
2000,4
percent in
poverty
2010,5
percent in
poverty
20155 20185
Number in
poverty (in
thousands)
Percent in
poverty
Number in
poverty (in
thousands)
Percent in
poverty
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
United States 13.1 12.4 14.9 (0.06) 14.3 (0.06) 12.7 (0.05) 17.9 (0.02) 16.1 (0.01) 21.1 (0.13) 14,652 (109.9) 20.3 (0.15) 12,575 (92.5) 17.5 (0.12)
Region                                            
Northeast 10.6 11.4 12.5 (0.09) 12.5 (0.09) 11.4 (0.10) 14.3 (0.54) 14.3 (0.39) 17.4 (0.20) 2,057 (25.4) 17.7 (0.22) 1,772 (25.5) 15.7 (0.22)
Midwest 12.0 10.2 16.5 (0.08) 15.6 (0.09) 14.1 (0.08) 14.9 (0.58) 12.0 (0.37) 23.8 (0.18) 6,291 (58.7) 22.7 (0.21) 5,619 (53.1) 20.1 (0.19)
South 15.7 13.9 14.1 (0.10) 13.5 (0.12) 12.2 (0.10) 20.5 (0.90) 17.6 (0.64) 20.0 (0.24) 2,878 (41.4) 18.8 (0.27) 2,427 (35.8) 16.1 (0.23)
West 12.6 13.0 15.0 (0.09) 14.4 (0.09) 12.1 (0.08) 16.2 (0.79) 16.2 (0.54) 20.6 (0.19) 3,425 (32.6) 19.6 (0.18) 2,758 (32.8) 15.8 (0.18)

Alabama
18.3 16.1 18.6 (0.39) 18.4 (0.37) 16.3 (0.31) 24.0 (0.14) 21.2 (0.10) 27.6 (0.86) 285 (8.7) 26.2 (0.79) 257 (8.2) 24.1 (0.77)
Alaska 9.0 9.4 10.6 (0.75) 9.9 (0.95) 10.4 (0.79) 10.9 (0.24) 11.2 (0.16) 13.5 (1.32) 27 (3.7) 14.7 (2.03) 22 (2.9) 12.5 (1.62)
Arizona 15.7 13.9 17.1 (0.35) 16.9 (0.31) 13.6 (0.27) 21.7 (0.13) 18.8 (0.10) 24.0 (0.74) 381 (10.8) 24.0 (0.67) 313 (10.7) 19.5 (0.66)
Arkansas 19.1 15.8 18.2 (0.41) 18.8 (0.44) 16.9 (0.46) 25.0 (0.17) 21.4 (0.11) 26.6 (1.00) 185 (6.7) 26.9 (0.97) 166 (6.6) 24.2 (0.95)
California 12.5 14.2 15.4 (0.13) 15.0 (0.12) 12.5 (0.12) 17.8 (0.05) 19.0 (0.04) 21.5 (0.28) 1,866 (25.4) 20.9 (0.28) 1,490 (23.8) 16.9 (0.27)

Colorado
11.7 9.3 12.8 (0.33) 11.3 (0.26) 9.5 (0.26) 15.0 (0.11) 10.8 (0.07) 16.6 (0.71) 177 (7.2) 14.3 (0.58) 144 (7.8) 11.6 (0.62)
Connecticut 6.8 7.9 9.6 (0.30) 9.9 (0.33) 10.0 (0.28) 10.4 (0.13) 10.0 (0.09) 12.3 (0.63) 100 (5.6) 13.4 (0.76) 100 (4.9) 13.9 (0.68)
Delaware 8.7 9.2 11.7 (0.73) 13.1 (0.87) 11.5 (0.70) 11.7 (0.23) 11.9 (0.20) 18.2 (1.59) 42 (4.4) 21.0 (2.19) 33 (3.6) 16.9 (1.83)
District of Columbia 16.9 20.2 18.3 (0.87) 15.5 (0.76) 15.8 (0.94) 25.0 (0.49) 31.1 (0.37) 29.3 (2.58) 29 (2.6) 25.4 (2.21) 29 (4.0) 23.3 (3.20)
Florida 12.7 12.5 16.2 (0.16) 15.3 (0.16) 13.1 (0.14) 18.3 (0.09) 17.2 (0.06) 23.2 (0.40) 917 (17.5) 22.9 (0.43) 780 (14.8) 18.9 (0.36)

Georgia
14.7 13.0 17.4 (0.27) 16.6 (0.22) 14.0 (0.22) 19.8 (0.12) 16.7 (0.07) 24.4 (0.46) 590 (12.3) 24.0 (0.50) 491 (12.2) 20.0 (0.49)
Hawaii 8.3 10.7 10.1 (0.50) 10.4 (0.52) 9.0 (0.52) 11.1 (0.21) 13.5 (0.16) 12.5 (1.29) 41 (3.8) 13.4 (1.24) 37 (3.9) 12.3 (1.30)
Idaho 13.3 11.8 15.0 (0.50) 13.8 (0.63) 11.8 (0.55) 15.8 (0.21) 13.8 (0.13) 17.5 (0.96) 66 (4.9) 15.6 (1.16) 62 (5.3) 14.2 (1.22)
Illinois 11.9 10.7 13.6 (0.19) 13.4 (0.21) 11.7 (0.20) 16.8 (0.07) 14.0 (0.04) 19.4 (0.41) 560 (14.7) 19.3 (0.50) 433 (13.1) 15.4 (0.46)
Indiana 10.7 9.5 14.9 (0.28) 14.6 (0.29) 12.7 (0.26) 13.9 (0.09) 11.7 (0.08) 21.7 (0.63) 332 (10.8) 21.6 (0.70) 265 (8.9) 17.4 (0.58)

Iowa
11.5 9.1 12.3 (0.41) 12.5 (0.47) 10.9 (0.35) 14.0 (0.13) 10.5 (0.08) 16.7 (0.94) 111 (7.5) 15.7 (1.07) 95 (6.2) 13.2 (0.86)
Kansas 11.5 9.9 12.7 (0.42) 12.6 (0.40) 11.8 (0.36) 13.9 (0.13) 11.5 (0.09) 17.4 (0.94) 123 (6.2) 17.5 (0.85) 100 (6.0) 14.6 (0.86)
Kentucky 19.0 15.8 18.1 (0.32) 17.6 (0.32) 16.2 (0.32) 24.5 (0.14) 20.4 (0.09) 25.4 (0.76) 245 (7.7) 25.0 (0.77) 215 (7.5) 22.1 (0.75)
Louisiana 23.6 19.6 17.9 (0.31) 18.8 (0.43) 18.1 (0.34) 31.2 (0.16) 26.3 (0.10) 26.9 (0.68) 303 (10.3) 27.6 (0.94) 284 (8.9) 26.3 (0.81)
Maine 10.8 10.9 13.3 (0.58) 12.5 (0.56) 10.8 (0.49) 13.2 (0.18) 13.0 (0.14) 18.3 (1.28) 35 (2.8) 14.3 (1.12) 28 (2.9) 11.7 (1.21)

Maryland
8.3 8.5 9.8 (0.25) 9.8 (0.28) 8.6 (0.25) 10.9 (0.10) 10.3 (0.08) 12.8 (0.51) 173 (8.5) 13.2 (0.64) 141 (7.7) 10.8 (0.58)
Massachusetts 8.9 9.3 11.0 (0.25) 10.9 (0.22) 9.7 (0.20) 12.9 (0.10) 11.6 (0.07) 13.7 (0.55) 194 (7.1) 14.2 (0.52) 158 (6.7) 11.9 (0.50)
Michigan 13.1 10.5 16.2 (0.24) 15.5 (0.28) 13.7 (0.23) 18.2 (0.08) 13.4 (0.05) 22.5 (0.52) 472 (13.3) 22.0 (0.62) 394 (11.5) 18.7 (0.54)
Minnesota 10.2 7.9 11.1 (0.32) 9.7 (0.26) 9.5 (0.29) 12.4 (0.09) 9.2 (0.06) 14.6 (0.72) 153 (7.9) 12.2 (0.62) 143 (9.5) 11.2 (0.74)
Mississippi 25.2 19.9 21.5 (0.51) 21.1 (0.51) 19.3 (0.40) 33.5 (0.18) 26.7 (0.11) 31.7 (1.05) 224 (7.7) 31.2 (1.07) 195 (7.0) 28.2 (0.99)

Missouri
13.3 11.7 15.1 (0.28) 14.2 (0.28) 12.8 (0.26) 17.4 (0.10) 15.3 (0.07) 20.6 (0.59) 266 (10.5) 19.6 (0.77) 235 (8.6) 17.6 (0.64)
Montana 16.1 14.6 14.1 (0.70) 14.2 (0.70) 11.8 (0.52) 19.9 (0.27) 18.4 (0.18) 19.8 (1.43) 41 (3.9) 18.5 (1.74) 28 (3.2) 12.8 (1.44)
Nebraska 11.1 9.7 12.7 (0.56) 12.2 (0.43) 11.2 (0.51) 13.5 (0.16) 11.8 (0.11) 18.2 (1.32) 71 (4.2) 15.4 (0.91) 61 (4.7) 13.3 (1.02)
Nevada 10.2 10.5 14.9 (0.49) 14.7 (0.46) 12.8 (0.35) 12.8 (0.22) 13.5 (0.14) 21.7 (0.97) 136 (7.3) 20.8 (1.11) 115 (5.1) 17.0 (0.78)
New Hampshire 6.4 6.5 8.0 (0.44) 7.7 (0.49) 7.0 (0.39) 7.0 (0.14) 7.3 (0.11) 9.8 (1.09) 26 (3.0) 9.9 (1.16) 23 (3.0) 9.3 (1.19)

New Jersey
7.6 8.5 10.0 (0.22) 10.4 (0.22) 9.2 (0.21) 11.0 (0.08) 10.8 (0.06) 14.0 (0.45) 293 (10.9) 14.9 (0.55) 257 (10.3) 13.4 (0.53)
New Mexico 20.6 18.4 19.9 (0.65) 20.4 (0.66) 19.6 (0.66) 27.5 (0.21) 24.6 (0.15) 29.5 (1.22) 150 (7.0) 30.5 (1.38) 125 (6.4) 26.7 (1.39)
New York 13.0 14.6 14.6 (0.19) 14.8 (0.17) 13.4 (0.17) 18.8 (0.07) 19.6 (0.05) 21.1 (0.36) 879 (17.8) 21.4 (0.43) 743 (17.8) 18.7 (0.44)
North Carolina 13.0 12.3 16.8 (0.24) 16.2 (0.23) 13.6 (0.23) 16.9 (0.09) 15.7 (0.06) 24.1 (0.52) 532 (11.7) 23.7 (0.51) 442 (11.1) 19.7 (0.49)
North Dakota 14.4 11.9 11.8 (0.77) 11.3 (0.57) 9.8 (0.70) 16.9 (0.26) 13.5 (0.15) 14.2 (1.92) 19 (2.2) 11.0 (1.28) 14 (2.1) 8.3 (1.23)

Ohio
12.5 10.6 15.4 (0.21) 14.5 (0.21) 13.5 (0.24) 17.6 (0.07) 14.0 (0.05) 22.9 (0.48) 552 (13.3) 21.5 (0.51) 484 (14.6) 19.1 (0.58)
Oklahoma 16.7 14.7 16.5 (0.39) 15.7 (0.38) 14.9 (0.40) 21.4 (0.14) 19.1 (0.09) 24.9 (0.98) 207 (8.3) 22.1 (0.88) 195 (8.3) 21.0 (0.87)
Oregon 12.4 11.6 15.6 (0.34) 14.8 (0.40) 12.0 (0.35) 15.2 (0.13) 14.0 (0.09) 21.0 (0.77) 165 (7.9) 19.7 (0.95) 124 (7.4) 14.6 (0.86)
Pennsylvania 11.1 11.0 12.8 (0.18) 12.5 (0.21) 11.8 (0.21) 15.4 (0.07) 14.3 (0.05) 18.2 (0.44) 480 (13.2) 18.3 (0.49) 418 (13.0) 16.2 (0.50)
Rhode Island 9.6 11.9 14.0 (0.59) 13.1 (0.61) 12.0 (0.63) 13.5 (0.26) 16.5 (0.22) 19.7 (1.49) 38 (3.3) 18.5 (1.56) 34 (3.3) 17.2 (1.65)

South Carolina
15.4 14.1 17.6 (0.33) 16.0 (0.32) 14.7 (0.32) 20.8 (0.16) 18.5 (0.10) 25.5 (0.73) 245 (7.6) 23.1 (0.70) 235 (9.0) 21.6 (0.82)
South Dakota 15.9 13.2 14.4 (0.89) 12.5 (0.69) 12.8 (0.66) 20.1 (0.28) 16.7 (0.19) 18.7 (1.97) 29 (3.2) 14.0 (1.51) 32 (2.6) 15.3 (1.28)
Tennessee 15.7 13.5 17.2 (0.30) 16.4 (0.31) 15.0 (0.28) 20.7 (0.12) 17.6 (0.09) 25.3 (0.67) 351 (10.9) 24.0 (0.74) 326 (10.7) 22.1 (0.72)
Texas 18.1 15.4 17.3 (0.16) 15.4 (0.17) 14.5 (0.14) 24.0 (0.08) 20.2 (0.05) 25.2 (0.31) 1,591 (25.1) 22.4 (0.35) 1,506 (23.3) 20.7 (0.32)
Utah 11.4 9.4 13.1 (0.46) 11.2 (0.43) 8.6 (0.34) 12.2 (0.14) 9.7 (0.08) 15.8 (0.87) 115 (6.9) 12.8 (0.77) 78 (5.5) 8.5 (0.59)

Vermont
9.9 9.4 11.4 (0.76) 9.2 (0.84) 10.7 (0.71) 11.5 (0.23) 10.7 (0.15) 14.8 (2.12) 14 (2.5) 11.7 (2.16) 10 (1.7) 9.5 (1.58)
Virginia 10.2 9.6 11.0 (0.18) 11.0 (0.22) 10.3 (0.22) 13.0 (0.10) 11.9 (0.07) 15.0 (0.42) 279 (8.7) 15.2 (0.47) 239 (8.4) 13.0 (0.46)
Washington 10.9 10.6 13.2 (0.27) 12.4 (0.25) 10.2 (0.25) 14.0 (0.09) 13.2 (0.08) 17.8 (0.58) 248 (9.8) 15.8 (0.62) 204 (10.8) 12.5 (0.67)
West Virginia 19.7 17.9 17.9 (0.54) 17.3 (0.55) 17.2 (0.59) 25.9 (0.21) 23.9 (0.15) 25.9 (1.37) 93 (5.4) 25.3 (1.44) 84 (5.1) 23.8 (1.44)
Wisconsin 10.7 8.7 12.7 (0.31) 11.3 (0.34) 10.5 (0.28) 14.6 (0.09) 10.8 (0.07) 18.1 (0.76) 191 (10.0) 15.2 (0.79) 172 (8.1) 13.8 (0.64)
Wyoming 11.9 11.4 10.4 (0.80) 9.9 (0.80) 10.8 (0.76) 14.1 (0.30) 13.8 (0.22) 13.4 (1.69) 15 (2.5) 10.9 (1.81) 16 (1.8) 12.7 (1.43)
1 Data exclude institutionalized persons (e.g., those living in prisons or nursing homes) as well as persons living in most types of noninstitutional group quarters (e.g., college housing or military barracks). Data include noninstitutionalized persons living in households as well as those living in group homes and shelters.
2 Related children in a family include all children in the household who are related to the householder by birth, marriage, or adoption (except a child who is the spouse of the householder). The householder is the person (or one of the people) who owns or rents (maintains) the housing unit. This table excludes unrelated children and householders who are themselves under the age of 18.
3 Based on 1989 incomes and family sizes collected in the 1990 census.
4 Based on 1999 incomes and family sizes collected in the 2000 census.
5 Based on income and family size data from the American Community Survey (ACS). ACS respondents were interviewed throughout the given year and reported the income they received during the previous 12 months. Data are based on sample surveys of the entire population residing within the United States.
NOTE: Poverty status is determined by the Census Bureau using a set of money income thresholds that vary by family size and composition. For additional information about poverty status, see https://www.census.gov/topics/income-poverty/poverty/guidance/poverty-measures.html. Poverty estimates in this table may differ from table 102.50's official national poverty estimates, which are based on a different data source (the Current Population Survey). Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Census Bureau, 1990 Summary Tape File 3 (STF 3), "Median Household Income in 1989" and "Poverty Status in 1989 by Family Type and Age"; Decennial Census, 1990, Minority Economic Profiles, unpublished data; Decennial Census, 2000, Summary Social, Economic, and Housing Characteristics; Census 2000 Summary File 4 (SF 4), "Poverty Status in 1999 of Related Children Under 18 Years by Family Type and Age"; and American Community Survey (ACS), 2010, 2015, and 2018. (This table was prepared November 2019.)

2019 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest