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Digest of Education Statistics
2018 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest


Table 605.20. Government and private expenditures on education institutions as a percentage of gross domestic product, by level of education and country: Selected years, 2005 through 2015
Country All institutions1 Elementary and secondary institutions Higher education institutions
Government expenditures All expenditures, 2015 Government expenditures All expenditures, 2015 Government expenditures All expenditures, 2015
2005 2010 2012 2013 2014 Govern-ment Private Total 2005 2010 2012 2013 2014 Govern-ment Private Total 2005 2010 2012 2013 2014 Govern-ment Private Total
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
OECD average2 4.2   4.5   4.3   4.3 4.3 4.1 0.8 5.0 3.3   3.4   3.3   3.3   3.2   3.1   0.3   3.5   1.0 1.0 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0 0.5 1.5
Australia 3.9   4.6   4.0 3 4.0 3.9 4.0 2.0 6.0 3.2   3.8   3.3   3.3   3.2   3.2   0.7   3.9   0.7 0.8 0.7 3 0.7   0.7   0.8 1.3 2.0
Austria     4.7   4.7 4.6 4.6 0.3 4.9     3.0   3.1   3.0   3.0   0.1   3.1   1.7   1.6   1.6   1.6 0.1 1.7
Belgium 4.9   5.3   5.4   5.5 5.4 5.4 0.4 5.7 3.9   4.1   4.2   4.2   4.2   4.1   0.1   4.3   1.1 1.2 1.2   1.3   1.3   1.2 0.2 1.5
Canada 4.2   4.8   4.5   4.4 4.3 4.4 1.6 6.0 2.9   3.3   3.2 4,5 3.2 4,5 3.1 4,5 3.2 4,5 0.3 4,5 3.5 4,5 1.3 1.5 1.3   1.2   1.2   1.2 1.2 2.4
Chile 2.8   3.2   3.5   3.5 3.3 3.4 1.9 5.2 2.5   2.7   2.9   2.6   2.5   2.6   0.5   3.2   0.3 0.5 0.6   0.8   0.9   0.7 1.3 2.0
                                                                             
Czech Republic 3.3   3.3   3.5   3.3 3.2 3.2 0.5 3.8 2.5   2.5   2.5   2.4   2.4   2.4   0.2   2.6   0.8 0.9 1.0   0.9   0.8   0.8 0.2 1.2
Denmark 5.9   6.2   6.0   6.0 6.2 4.3   4.6   4.5   4.4   4.7         1.6 1.7 1.5   1.5   1.6  
Estonia 4.2   4.8   4.1   4.3 4.0 4.0 0.6 4.7 3.4   3.8   3.1   3.1   2.7   2.7   0.2   3.0   0.8 1.0 0.9   1.2   1.4   1.3 0.4 1.8
Finland 5.3   5.7   5.7   5.6 5.6 5.6 0.1 5.7 3.7   3.9   3.9   3.9   3.9   4.0   #   4.0   1.6 1.8 1.8   1.7   1.7   1.6 0.1 1.7
France 4.6   4.8   4.6   4.6 4.6 4.5 0.6 5.2 3.5   3.6   3.4   3.4   3.4   3.4   0.3   3.7   1.1 1.2 1.1   1.1   1.1   1.1 0.3 1.5
                                                                             
Germany 3.7   3.9   3.7   3.7 3.7 3.6 0.6 4.2 2.8   2.9   2.7   2.7   2.7   2.6   0.4   3.0   0.9 1.0 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.0 0.2 1.2
Greece 3.9     3.4   3.3 3.3 3.4 0.3 3.8 2.5     2.6   2.7   2.7   2.7   0.2 5 2.9 5 1.4 0.7   0.6   0.6   0.7 0.1 1.0
Hungary 4.1   3.6   3.1   3.1 3.3 3.2 0.5 3.8 3.2   2.7   2.4   2.3   2.7   2.7   0.2   2.9   0.8 0.8 0.7   0.8   0.7 3 0.6 0.3 0.9
Iceland 6.1 5 5.5 5 5.5   5.5 5.6 5.5 0.3 5.8 5.0 5 4.5 5 4.4   4.3   4.5   4.4   0.2   4.5   1.1 1.1 1.1   1.1   1.1   1.1 0.1 1.3
Ireland 4.0   5.4   5.3   4.7 4.3 3.1 0.4 3.5 3.1   4.3   4.1   3.8   3.5   2.5   0.1   2.7   0.9 1.2 1.1   0.9   0.8   0.6 0.2 0.8
                                                                             
Israel 4.4   4.5   4.7   4.7 4.7 4.9 1.1 6.0 3.5   3.7   3.9   3.9   3.9   4.0   0.5   4.5   0.8 0.8 0.8   0.8   0.8   0.9 0.6 1.5
Italy 3.6   3.6   3.4   3.5 3.4 3.3 0.5 3.9 3.0   3.0   2.8   2.8   2.8   2.8   0.2   3.0   0.6 0.6 0.6   0.6   0.6   0.6 0.3 0.9
Japan6 2.9   3.2   3.1   3.1 3.0 2.9 1.1 4.1 2.5   2.6   2.6   2.5   2.5   2.5   0.2   2.7   0.5 0.5 0.5   0.5   0.5   0.5 0.9 1.4
Korea, Republic of 3.5   4.2   4.4   4.4 4.3 4.1 1.7 5.8 2.9   3.5   3.7   3.6   3.5   3.5   0.5   4.0   0.5 0.7 0.7   0.7   0.8   0.7 1.2 1.8
Latvia 3.9   4.0   3.6   3.9 4.3 4.3 0.4 4.9 3.1   3.2   2.8   3.0   3.2   3.3   0.1   3.3   0.8 0.7 0.8   0.9   1.0   1.1 0.3 1.5
                                                                             
Lithuania 3.9   4.4   4.0   3.8 3.7 3.4 0.5 3.9 3.0   3.3   2.7   2.6   2.5   2.3   0.1   2.4   0.8 1.1 1.3   1.2   1.2   1.1 0.4 1.5
Luxembourg     3.5   3.3 3.3 3.3 0.1 3.5 3.7   3.5   3.1   2.8   2.9   2.8   0.1   2.9   0.4   0.5   0.5   0.5 # 0.5
Mexico 4.0   4.2   4.1   4.1 4.2 4.2 1.1 5.3 3.2   3.2   3.2   3.2   3.2   3.2   0.7   3.9   0.8 0.9 0.9   0.8   1.0   1.0 0.4 1.4
Netherlands 4.2   4.4   4.4   4.5 4.4 4.3 1.0 5.4 3.1   3.3   3.3   3.3   3.2   3.2   0.5   3.6   1.0 1.1 1.2   1.2   1.2   1.2 0.5 1.7
New Zealand     4.9   4.7 4.7 4.7 1.6 6.3     3.9   3.8   3.8   3.8   0.8   4.5   0.9   0.9   0.9   0.9 0.9 1.8
                                                                             
Norway 6.6   6.4   6.1   6.2 6.1 6.3 0.1 6.4 4.9   4.9   4.6   4.7 7 4.5   4.6   #   4.6   1.7 1.6 1.5   1.5 7 1.6   1.7 0.1 1.7
Poland 4.8 5 4.4 5 4.1   4.1 4.1 4.0 0.5 4.6 3.6 5 3.4 5 3.1   3.1   3.0   2.9   0.3   3.2   1.2 1.0 1.0   1.1   1.0   1.1 0.2 1.4
Portugal6 4.4   4.6   4.2   4.5 4.4 4.1 0.9 5.2 3.6   3.7   3.5   3.8   3.6   3.4   0.4   3.9   0.8 0.9 0.7   0.7   0.8   0.7 0.4 1.3
Slovak Republic 3.1   3.3   3.1   3.2 3.3 3.8 0.6 4.4 2.4   2.6   2.3   2.4   2.5   2.6   0.3   2.9   0.7 0.6 0.7   0.8   0.8   1.2 0.3 1.6
Slovenia 4.7   4.5   4.4   4.3 4.1 3.8 0.5 4.3 3.7   3.5   3.4   3.3   3.2   3.0   0.3   3.3   0.9 1.0 1.0   1.0   0.9   0.9 0.1 1.0
                                                                             
Spain 3.5   4.0   3.7   3.6 3.5 3.5 0.8 4.4 2.7   2.9   2.7   2.7   2.6   2.7   0.4   3.1   0.8 1.0 0.9   0.9   0.9   0.9 0.4 1.3
Sweden 5.3   5.2   5.2   5.2 5.1 5.0 0.2 5.3 4.0   3.8   3.7   3.7   3.7   3.6     3.6   1.3 1.5 1.4   1.5   1.4   1.4 0.2 1.6
Switzerland 4.7   4.4 5 4.6   4.6 4.6 4.5 3.5   3.2 5 3.4   3.4   3.4   3.2       1.3 1.2 1.2   1.2   1.3   1.3
Turkey 2.7   3.3   3.9   3.9 3.9 3.8 1.0 4.8 1.9   2.4   2.6   2.6   2.6   2.5   0.6   3.1   0.7 0.9 1.3   1.3   1.3   1.2 0.4 1.7
United Kingdom     4.6   4.9 4.6 4.2 1.9 6.2 3.3   3.3   3.6   3.9   4.1   3.8   0.6   4.4   1.0   1.0   0.5   0.5 1.3 1.9
United States 4.5 5 4.7 5 4.4   4.2 4.1 4.1 2.0 6.1 3.5 5 3.6 5 3.3   3.2   3.2   3.2   0.3   3.5   1.0 1.1 1.0   1.0   0.9   0.9 1.7 2.6
                                                                             
Other reporting                                                                            
countries                                                                            
Russian
   Federation
2.5   2.7   2.8   2.9 2.8 2.6 0.5 3.1 1.7   1.8   2.0   2.0   1.9   1.8   0.1   1.9   0.7 0.9 0.8   0.8   0.8   0.7 0.4 1.1
—Not available.
†Not applicable.
# Rounds to zero.
1 Includes expenditures that could not be reported by level of education.
2 Refers to the mean of the data values for all reporting Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries, to which each country reporting data contributes equally. The average includes all current OECD countries for which a given year’s data are available, even if they were not members of OECD in that year.
3 Includes expenditures on education institutions from international sources.
4 Includes preprimary education.
5 Excludes postsecondary non-higher-education.
6 Postsecondary non-higher-education included in both secondary and higher education.
7 Short-cycle tertiary education corresponding to that offered at the vocational associate’s degree level in the United States is included in elementary and secondary education instead of in higher education.
NOTE: Government expenditures on education include both amounts spent directly by governments to hire education personnel and to procure other resources, and amounts provided by governments to public or private institutions. Types of expenditures may include direct expenditures, research and development activities, ancillary expenditures, and capital expenditures. Government expenditures may also include subsidies to households for payments to education institutions. Private expenditures exclude government subsidies that are used for payments to education institutions. All data in this table were calculated using International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011. Expenditures for ISCED level 4 (postsecondary non-higher-education) are included in elementary and secondary education unless otherwise noted. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. Some data have been revised from previously published figures. This table includes only data that had been validated for consistency and accuracy by OECD and the relevant country as of November 28, 2018.
SOURCE: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Online Education Database, retrieved November 28, 2018, from https://stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx. (This table was prepared December 2018.)

2018 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest