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Digest of Education Statistics: 2018
Digest of Education Statistics: 2018

NCES 2020-009
December 2019


Table 605.10. Gross domestic product per capita and expenditures on education institutions per full-time-equivalent (FTE) student, by level of education and country: Selected years, 2005 through 2015
Country Gross domestic product per capita Elementary and secondary education expenditures per FTE student1 Higher education expenditures per FTE student1
2005 2010 2012 2013 2014 2015 2005 2010 2012 2013 2014 2015 2005 2010 2012 2013 2014 2015
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
  Current dollars
OECD average2 $28,852 $34,788 $37,278 3 $38,853 3 $39,973 3 $41,259 3 $6,079   $8,195 $8,901   $9,009   $9,232   $9,258   $9,749   $12,882 $14,565   $15,032   $15,359   $15,611  
Australia 35,545 42,740 43,810   47,679   47,551   47,273   6,891   10,325 9,560   10,318   10,319   10,766   14,172   16,326 16,003   18,253   19,494   20,344  
Austria 35,025 42,018 46,478   47,937   48,814   49,954     12,481   13,391   13,454   13,931     16,476   16,900   16,868   17,555  
Belgium 33,331 40,050 42,585   43,746   44,720   45,729   7,583   10,467 11,280   11,719   11,866   11,856   12,286   15,464 15,953   16,697   17,002   17,320  
Canada4,5 36,213 40,012 42,145   44,101   45,520   44,407     9,950 10,398   10,536   10,502   10,468     20,987 6 21,474 6 21,458 6 21,848 6
Chile 12,668 18,129 21,447   22,353   22,692   22,601   2,140   3,284 4,534   4,376   4,167   4,227   5,969   7,171 8,354   7,974   7,813   6,677  
                                                                 
Czech Republic 21,907 27,555 29,051   30,496   32,265   33,701   4,051   5,768 6,482   6,639   6,887   7,075   6,572   7,961 10,422   10,308   10,490   10,891  
Denmark 34,153 43,005 44,809   46,743   47,905   49,071   8,942   11,760 11,477   11,808   12,827     14,867   19,571 14,746 6 15,698   15,626    
Estonia 16,466 21,552 25,973   27,450   28,937   29,260   3,706   6,219 6,534   6,897   6,436   6,663   3,838   6,756 8,490   11,798   11,965   12,867  
Finland 31,993 38,737 40,620   41,293   41,463   42,144   6,637   8,835 9,448   9,659   9,769   10,025   12,332   17,189 18,046   18,018   17,875   17,591  
France 30,504 35,909 37,684   39,529   40,145   40,833   7,483   9,265 9,312   9,778   9,918   9,897   11,220   15,160 15,392   16,234   16,354   16,145  
                                                                 
Germany 32,414 39,916 43,564   45,232   47,190   47,979   7,061   9,203 9,821   10,300   10,779   10,863   13,056   17,309 17,143   16,949   17,144   17,036  
Greece4 25,577 28,148 25,284 7 26,098 7 26,839 7 26,902 7 5,354   6,006   6,277   6,192   6,191   6,320   3,811 6 3,713 6 3,881 6 4,095 6
Hungary 17,082 21,535 23,094   24,464   25,518   26,356   3,555   4,452   4,642   5,552   5,852   5,522   9,039   10,374   8,647   8,761  
Iceland 37,338 39,582 41,928   44,153   45,713   48,730   8,962 8 8,806 9,241   9,757   10,599   11,207   9,665 8 8,945 10,898   11,200   11,418   12,671  
Ireland 40,437 43,296 46,304   48,006   51,250   69,050   6,481   9,751 10,071   9,434   9,170   8,671   10,582   16,350 15,622   12,993   13,702   13,229  
                                                                 
Israel 24,700 28,840 31,738   34,193   34,278   35,527   4,579   5,696 6,765   7,215   7,302     9,952   10,340 11,681   13,592   13,103   11,003 4
Italy4 29,938 34,685 35,757   35,885   36,071   36,836   7,103   8,170 8,609   8,840   8,727   8,996   7,274   10,064 10,669   11,303   11,439   11,257  
Japan8 31,668 34,994 37,214   39,008   39,183   40,457   7,452   8,886 9,564   9,802   10,022   10,167   13,915   17,399 18,828   19,724   19,547   19,289  
Korea, Republic of 24,196 30,365 32,097   32,616   33,587   35,761   5,696   9,123 10,344   10,524   10,804   11,688   7,736   11,018 11,391   11,402   11,711   10,109  
Latvia 13,848 17,561 21,260   22,675   23,802   24,726   3,033   4,758 5,098   5,968   6,631   6,824   4,270   5,859 7,411   8,051   8,974   10,137  
                                                                 
Lithuania 14,526 20,091 24,658   26,661   28,174   28,910     4,539 4,803   5,212   5,383   5,292   4,496   7,182 8,964   9,147   10,049   9,657  
Luxembourg 68,141 85,515 91,527   95,246   100,934   102,817     19,943   18,758   20,939   20,451     34,761 6 41,995 6 45,801 6 48,907 6
Mexico 12,522 15,239 17,195   17,437   18,143 3 18,414 3 2,025   2,547 2,826   2,925   3,033   2,998   6,225   8,138 8,188   7,693   8,901   8,170  
Netherlands 37,632 45,050 47,280   49,255   49,239   50,329   7,760   9,899 10,338   10,995   10,674   10,960   15,411   17,617 18,758   19,588   19,234   19,286  
New Zealand 25,590 31,165 32,912   36,074   37,083   37,341     8,360   8,770   9,064   9,266     13,603   14,234   15,109   15,166  
                                                                 
Norway 47,775 57,969 65,442   67,051   66,018   60,492   9,793   12,945 13,508 9 14,396 9 14,194   14,353     18,873 20,052 9 21,179 9 21,009   20,973  
Poland 13,898 20,789 23,542   24,423   25,298   26,529   3,181   5,585 6,362   6,608   6,824   6,725   4,774   7,136 7,731   8,423   8,793   9,687  
Portugal 22,740 27,308 26,454   27,899   28,747   29,685   5,620   8,232 8 9,514 8 9,411 8 8,533 8 9,636   10,270 9,798 8 11,094 8 11,788 8 11,766 8
Slovak Republic 16,572 24,785 26,654   27,900   28,928   29,700   2,770   5,282 5,382   5,929   6,369   6,747   5,846   7,198 9,282   10,225   11,234   15,874  
Slovenia 23,941 27,736 28,906   29,803   30,857   31,627   6,972   8,676 8,838   8,950   8,875   8,406   7,936   8,991 10,015   9,865   10,037   10,208  
                                                                 
Spain 27,696 31,933 31,993   32,623   33,728   35,055   6,329   8,371 7,963   7,753   7,814   8,189   9,924   13,204 12,083   12,699   12,524   12,605  
Sweden 34,006 41,633 44,774   45,722   46,573   48,437   7,672   10,106 10,860   11,061   11,007   11,052   15,550   20,654 23,142   23,817   24,509   24,417  
Switzerland. 40,327 52,860 57,850   60,109   61,902   63,939     16,862           24,848        
Turkey 11,773 17,264 20,549 3 22,314 3 24,159 3 25,986 3   2,977   3,203   3,560   3,715     10,116   10,298   10,393   8,901  
United Kingdom 32,486 36,016 37,908   39,519   40,878   42,055   7,698   9,432 9,967   11,487   11,875   11,028     24,112   25,614   24,346   26,320  
United States 44,044 48,394 51,521   53,016   54,935   56,701   9,775   11,815 11,743   11,881   12,176   12,424   23,637   25,681 27,527   27,579   29,328   30,003  
  Constant 2017 dollars
OECD average2 $36,813 $38,819 $39,498 3 $40,552 3 $41,273 3 $42,368 3 $7,730   $9,117 $9,389   $9,396   $9,529   $9,520   $12,318   $14,295 $15,470   $15,754   $15,905   $16,063  
Australia 47,626 49,444 48,211   51,215   49,837   48,810   9,233   11,945 10,521   11,083   10,815   11,116   18,988   18,887 17,610   19,606   20,431   21,005  
Austria 43,707 47,900 50,054   50,613   50,724   51,448     13,442   14,139   13,981   14,348     17,744   17,843   17,528   18,080  
Belgium 41,709 45,309 45,248   45,969   46,834   47,623   9,489   11,842 11,985   12,315   12,427   12,347   15,374   17,494 16,950   17,546   17,805   18,038  
Canada4,5 44,151 44,807 45,176   46,833   47,435   45,760     11,142 11,146   11,188   10,943   10,787     22,496 6 22,804 6 22,361 6 22,514 6
Chile 18,965 22,724 25,254   25,823   25,111   23,968   3,204   4,117 5,339   5,055   4,611   4,483   8,936   8,989 9,838   9,212   8,646   7,081  
                                                                 
Czech Republic 27,926 30,549 30,597   31,663   33,385   34,763   5,163   6,395 6,827   6,893   7,126   7,298   8,378   8,827 10,976   10,702   10,854   11,234  
Denmark 41,219 46,718 46,261   47,880   48,796   49,758   10,792   12,776 11,849   12,095   13,066     17,943   21,260 15,224 6 16,079   15,917    
Estonia 24,034 24,883 27,483   28,260   29,822   30,305   5,410   7,181 6,914   7,101   6,633   6,901   5,602   7,801 8,983   12,146   12,331   13,327  
Finland 38,583 42,611 42,026   42,100   41,837   42,613   8,004   9,718 9,775   9,848   9,857   10,137   14,872   18,908 18,670   18,370   18,036   17,787  
France 35,144 38,374 38,682   40,229   40,649   41,331   8,621   9,901 9,559   9,951   10,043   10,018   12,927   16,201 15,800   16,521   16,559   16,341  
                                                                 
Germany 38,313 43,622 45,722   46,769   48,356   49,049   8,346   10,058 10,308   10,650   11,045   11,106   15,433   18,916 17,993   17,525   17,568   17,415  
Greece4 . 30,296 28,447 24,363 7 25,381 7 26,448 7 26,979 7 6,342   5,787   6,104   6,102   6,208   7,486   3,673 6 3,611 6 3,824 6 4,106 6
Hungary 25,418 24,647 24,072   25,065   26,204   27,082   5,290   4,640   4,756   5,701   6,013   8,217   9,422   10,629   8,880   9,003  
Iceland 67,894 48,273 46,743   47,388   48,079   50,429   16,295 8 10,739 10,302   10,472   11,148   11,598   17,574 8 10,909 12,149   12,021   12,009   13,113  
Ireland 45,622 45,495 46,652   48,122   51,280   69,291   7,312   10,246 10,147   9,457   9,175   8,701   11,939   17,180 15,739   13,024   13,710   13,276  
                                                                 
Israel 29,927 30,685 32,092   34,046   33,969   35,419   5,548   6,061 6,841   7,184   7,236     12,058   11,002 11,811   13,534   12,985   10,970 4
Italy4 35,776 37,708 36,705   36,393   36,493   37,253   8,488   8,882 8,837   8,965   8,830   9,098   8,692   10,941 10,952   11,463   11,573   11,384  
Japan8 32,790 36,381 38,812   40,544   39,631   40,598   7,716   9,238 9,975   10,188   10,137   10,203   14,408   18,088 19,636   20,500   19,770   19,357  
Korea, Republic of 31,750 34,328 34,135   34,241   34,817   36,810   7,474   10,314 11,001   11,049   11,200   12,031   10,152   12,456 12,114   11,970   12,140   10,406  
Latvia 21,279 19,466 22,081   23,558   24,577   25,487   4,661   5,274 5,295   6,200   6,847   7,034   6,562   6,494 7,698   8,365   9,266   10,448  
                                                                 
Lithuania. 21,070 22,631 25,874   27,686   29,227   30,258     5,113 5,040   5,413   5,585   5,538   6,522   8,090 9,406   9,499   10,425   10,107  
Luxembourg 84,642 95,275 96,052   98,252   103,468   104,901     20,929   19,350   21,464   20,865     36,480 6 43,320 6 46,951 6 49,898 6
Mexico 20,252 19,841 20,795   20,315   20,320 3 20,077 3 3,275   3,316 3,418   3,408   3,396   3,269   10,068   10,596 9,902   8,963   9,969   8,908  
Netherlands 45,088 50,024 50,071   50,886   50,378   51,185   9,298   10,992 10,948   11,359   10,921   11,147   18,464   19,562 19,865   20,237   19,679   19,615  
New Zealand 32,541 34,485 34,641   37,543   38,125   38,278     8,799   9,127   9,319   9,498     14,317   14,813   15,533   15,546  
                                                                 
Norway 61,251 66,403 73,501   73,745   71,156   63,814   12,556   14,828 15,171 9 15,833 9 15,299   15,142     21,619 22,521 9 23,293 9 22,644   22,125  
Poland 17,537 22,793 23,910   24,561   25,427   26,900   4,014   6,123 6,461   6,645   6,859   6,819   6,025   7,824 7,852   8,470   8,838   9,823  
Portugal 27,052 29,811 27,110   28,512   29,460   30,274   6,686   8,436 8 9,723 8 9,645 8 8,703 8 11,463   11,211 10,041 8 11,338 8 12,081 8 11,999 8
Slovak Republic 20,923 27,162 27,130   28,006   29,060   29,933   3,497   5,789 5,478   5,951   6,398   6,800   7,381   7,888 9,447   10,264   11,285   15,999  
Slovenia 29,617 29,789 29,724   30,113   31,116   32,062   8,625   9,318 9,089   9,043   8,950   8,521   9,818   9,656 10,298   9,968   10,121   10,348  
                                                                 
Spain 33,739 34,608 32,797   32,978   34,147   35,668   7,709   9,072 8,163   7,837   7,911   8,332   12,090   14,310 12,386   12,837   12,679   12,826  
Sweden 39,063 44,335 45,902   46,894   47,852   49,791   8,813   10,762 11,133   11,345   11,310   11,361   17,862   21,995 23,724   24,428   25,182   25,100  
Switzerland. 41,404 51,944 57,111   59,471   61,253   64,001     16,647           24,531        
Turkey 31,280 30,207 31,012 3 31,328 3 31,159 3 31,128 3   4,493   4,497   4,591   4,450     15,267   14,458   13,404   10,662  
United Kingdom 42,387 41,413 40,910   41,692   42,519   43,569   10,044   10,845 10,756   12,118   12,352   11,425     26,021   27,022   25,323   27,268  
United States 55,281 54,400 55,005   55,784   56,881   58,639   12,269   13,281 12,537   12,502   12,607   12,849   29,668   28,869 29,388   29,019   30,367   31,029  
—Not available.
1 Includes both government and private expenditures. Includes expenditures on both public and private institutions unless otherwise noted.
2 Refers to the mean of the data values for all reporting Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries, to which each country reporting data contributes equally. The average includes all current OECD countries for which a given year's data are available, even if they were not members of OECD in that year.
3 Estimated value.
4 Education expenditures exclude postsecondary non-higher-education.
5 Elementary and secondary education expenditures include preprimary education (for children ages 3 and older).
6 Includes public institutions only.
7 Provisional value; data subject to revision.
8 Postsecondary non-higher-education included in both secondary and higher education.
9 Short-cycle tertiary education corresponding to that offered at the vocational associate's degree level in the United States is included in elementary and secondary education instead of in higher education.
NOTE: All education expenditure data in this table were calculated using International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011. Expenditures for International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) level 4 (postsecondary non-higher-education) are included in elementary and secondary education unless otherwise noted. Data adjusted to U.S. dollars using the purchasing power parity (PPP) index. Constant dollars based on national Consumer Price Indexes, available on the OECD database cited in the SOURCE note below. Some data have been revised from previously published figures. This table includes only data that had been validated for consistency and accuracy by OECD and the relevant country as of January 11, 2019.
SOURCE: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Online Education Database, retrieved January 11, 2019, from https://stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx. (This table was prepared January 2019.)