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Digest of Education Statistics
2018 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest


Table 602.86. Percentage distribution of fourth- and eighth-graders, by severity of school discipline problems reported by their principal and country or other education system: 2015
[Standard errors appear in parentheses]
Country or other education system1 Hardly any problems Minor problems Moderate to severe problems
Fourth grade Eighth grade Fourth grade Eighth grade Fourth grade Eighth grade
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
International average2  60   (0.5) 43   (0.6) 31   (0.5) 45   (0.6) 10     (0.3) 11     (0.4)
Australia 64   (3.4) 48   (3.2) 30   (3.4) 51   (3.2)     (†)     (†)
Bahrain 59 3  (0.2) 51   (0.2) 26 3  (0.2) 36   (0.2) 14   3  (0.1) 13     (0.2)
Belgium (Flemish) 68 4  (3.6)   (†) 31 4  (3.8)   (†) 1   4  (1.1)     (†)
Bulgaria 72   (4.2)   (†) 20   (3.8)   (†) 8 !   (2.9)     (†)
Canada4,5,6 66 3  (3.1) 45   (4.1) 31 3  (2.9) 54   (4.1) 2 ! 3  (1.0)     (†)
                                         
Chile 46   (4.0) 29   (3.8) 47   (4.3) 58   (3.9) 6 !   (2.2) 13     (3.0)
Chinese Taipei 70   (4.1) 57   (3.8) 28   (3.8) 42   (3.7)     (†)     (†)
Croatia 76   (4.1)   (†) 24   (4.1)   (†) #     (†)     (†)
Cyprus 50   (4.8)   (†) 42   (4.5)   (†) 8 !   (2.6)     (†)
Czech Republic 65   (3.6)   (†) 31   (3.5)   (†) 4 !   (1.8)     (†)
                                         
Denmark 53 3,4,7  (4.3)   (†) 45 3,4,7  (4.4)   (†) 1   3,4,7  (1.0)     (†)
Egypt   (†) 19   (3.4)   (†) 42   (3.6)     (†) 40     (3.6)
England (United Kingdom) 78   (3.7) 73 7  (4.5) 21   (3.6) 27 7  (4.5)     (†) #   7  (†)
Finland 68   (3.8)   (†) 31   (3.7)   (†) 1     (1.0)     (†)
France 58   (4.6)   (†) 33   (4.3)   (†) 9 !   (2.7)     (†)
                                         
Georgia6 70   (3.9) 57 3  (3.8) 22   (3.5) 40 3  (3.8) 8 !   (2.6) 3 ! 3  (1.0)
Germany 39   (3.8)   (†) 50   (3.7)   (†) 10     (2.4)     (†)
Hong Kong (China) 71 4  (4.6) 66   (4.5) 29 4  (4.6) 33   (4.6) #   4  (†) 1     (1.1)
Hungary 55   (3.7) 29   (3.9) 37   (3.6) 63   (4.1) 8     (1.7) 8     (2.1)
Indonesia 18   (2.9)   (†) 28   (3.3)   (†) 54     (3.6)     (†)
                                         
Iran, Islamic Republic of 65   (3.5) 55   (3.4) 26   (3.3) 41   (3.4) 9     (2.4) 4     (1.1)
Ireland 84   (3.3) 64   (3.9) 14   (3.1) 34   (4.0)     (†)     (†)
Israel   (†) 26 8  (3.6)   (†) 61 8  (3.6)     (†) 13   8  (2.3)
Italy3 60   (4.5) 27   (4.2) 25   (3.7) 61   (4.5) 15     (3.0) 12     (2.6)
Japan 74   (3.2) 54   (3.9) 20   (3.0) 37   (4.2) 6 !   (2.0) 9     (2.3)
                                         
Jordan 36   (4.0) 34   (3.5) 40   (3.9) 43   (3.9) 24     (3.2) 23     (3.3)
Kazakhstan 71   (3.9) 65   (4.2) 13   (2.7) 18   (3.3) 15     (2.8) 17     (3.2)
Korea, Republic of 81   (3.4) 55   (4.7) 14   (3.0) 38   (4.6) 5 !   (1.8) 7 !   (2.3)
Kuwait 25   (3.9) 27   (3.3) 40   (4.4) 50   (4.0) 35     (3.5) 23     (3.5)
Lebanon   (†) 51   (4.6)   (†) 29   (4.3)     (†) 20     (3.5)
                                         
Lithuania3 79   (3.4) 40   (4.2) 20   (3.4) 57   (4.2) 1     (1.0)     (†)
Malaysia   (†) 50   (4.6)   (†) 48   (4.4)     (†)     (†)
Malta   (†) 50   (0.1)   (†) 45   (0.1)     (†) 5     (0.1)
Morocco 21   (3.0) 13   (2.1) 30   (3.0) 34   (3.4) 49     (3.2) 53     (3.2)
Netherlands 83 4,9  (4.1)   (†) 17 4,9  (4.1)   (†) #   4,9  (†)     (†)
                                         
New Zealand 71   (2.8) 31 4  (4.6) 28   (2.9) 66 4  (4.6)     (†) 3 ! 4  (1.5)
Northern Ireland (United Kingdom) 78 7,10  (4.0)   (†) 22 7,10  (4.0)   (†) #   7,10  (†)     (†)
Norway11 74   (4.3) 67   (4.5) 25   (4.2) 33   (4.5)     (†) #     (†)
Oman 34   (3.4) 50   (3.9) 36   (3.0) 27   (3.6) 29     (2.8) 23     (3.1)
Poland 52   (3.6)   (†) 45   (3.8)   (†) 3 !   (1.4)     (†)
                                         
Portugal 43 3  (4.5)   (†) 46 3  (4.7)   (†) 11   3  (2.6)     (†)
Qatar 63   (3.0) 51   (0.7) 26   (2.8) 34   (0.7) 11     (1.8) 15     (0.3)
Russian Federation 67   (3.9) 56   (3.7) 32   (3.9) 43   (3.5) #     (†)     (†)
Saudi Arabia 49   (3.9) 49   (4.3) 26   (3.1) 31   (3.9) 25     (3.4) 20     (3.5)
Serbia 56 8  (4.3)   (†) 35 8  (3.8)   (†) 9   8  (2.0)     (†)
                                         
Singapore3 72   (0.0) 74   (0.0) 28   (0.0) 26   (#) #     (†) #     (†)
Slovak Republic 63   (3.6)   (†) 32   (3.4)   (†) 5 !   (1.7)     (†)
Slovenia 52   (4.3) 32   (3.6) 45   (4.5) 63   (3.7) 3 !   (1.3) 5 !   (1.8)
Spain 70 3  (3.4)   (†) 22 3  (3.0)   (†) 8   3  (1.5)     (†)
Sweden 49 3  (4.1) 26   (4.3) 40 3  (4.0) 70   (4.6) 10   3  (2.6) 4 !   (1.8)
                                         
Thailand   (†) 42   (4.0)   (†) 53   (4.0)     (†) 5 !   (1.7)
Turkey 44   (3.5) 19   (2.6) 29   (3.2) 49   (3.8) 26     (2.9) 32     (3.4)
United Arab Emirates 61   (2.4) 54   (2.3) 31   (2.5) 40   (2.2) 8     (1.2) 6     (0.9)
United States4 69 3  (3.3) 34   (3.0) 29 3  (3.3) 64   (3.4) 3 ! 3  (0.9) 2 !   (1.0)
                                         
Benchmarking education systems                                        
Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates) 51 3  (4.6) 41   (4.2) 41 3  (4.7) 53   (4.1) 8 ! 3  (2.5) 7     (1.7)
Buenos Aires9 (Argentina) 53   (5.7) 21 4  (4.2) 35   (5.5) 61 4  (5.7) 13 !   (3.8) 18   4  (4.4)
Dubai (United Arab Emirates) 83   (0.2) 76   (0.3) 14   (0.2) 22   (0.3) 3     (0.1) 2     (0.1)
Florida12 (United States) 57 7  (8.1) 29 6,9  (8.2) 39 7  (8.3) 71 6,9  (8.2)   7  (†) #   6,9  (†)
Ontario (Canada) 58   (5.5) 39   (5.3) 38   (5.3) 59   (5.2) 4 !   (1.7)     (†)
Quebec13 (Canada) 77   (4.8) 56   (6.1) 23   (4.8) 44   (6.1) #     (†)     (†)
—Not available.
†Not applicable.
#Rounds to zero.
!Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent.
‡Reporting standards not met. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is 50 percent or greater.
1 Most of the education systems represent complete countries, but some represent subnational entities; examples include the Flemish community of Belgium, two components of the United Kingdom (England and Northern Ireland), a few individual cities (such as Abu Dhabi within the United Arab Emirates), and the U.S. state of Florida.
2 The international average includes only education systems that are members of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), which develops and implements the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) at the international level. In this table, the fourth-grade international average includes grade 5 data from South Africa, and the eighth-grade international average includes grade 9 data from Botswana; these IEA countries are not shown separately because they did not participate at the target grade levels. "Benchmarking" education systems are not members of the IEA and are therefore not included in the average.
3 National Defined Population covers 90 to 95 percent of the National Target Population.
4 Met guidelines for sample participation rates only after replacement schools were included.
5 Fourth-grade data include only students from the provinces of Alberta, Manitoba, Newfoundland, Ontario, and Quebec. Eighth-grade data include only students from the provinces of Manitoba, Newfoundland, Ontario, and Quebec.
6 National Target Population does not include all of the International Target Population.
7 Data are available for at least 70 percent but less than 85 percent of the students.
8 National Defined Population covers less than 90 percent of the National Target Population (but at least 77 percent).
9 Data are available for at least 50 percent but less than 70 percent of the students.
10 Nearly satisfied guidelines for sample participation rates after replacement schools were included.
11 Norway collected data from students in their fifth and ninth year of schooling rather than in grades 4 and 8 because year 1 in Norway is considered the equivalent of kindergarten rather than the first year of primary school.
12 U.S. state-level data are based on public school students only.
13 Did not satisfy guidelines for sample participation rates.
NOTE: Principals responded to a series of questions about the extent of different types of discipline problems among fourth- and eighth-graders at their school, and their responses were collapsed into the single discipline-problem scale shown in this table. TIMSS required countries and other education systems to draw probability samples of students who were nearing the end of their fourth and eighth years of formal schooling (counting the first year of primary school as year 1), provided that the mean age at the time of testing was at least 9.5 years for fourth-year students and 13.5 years for eighth-year students. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.
SOURCE: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), 2015. (This table was prepared December 2016.)

2018 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest