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Digest of Education Statistics
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Table 602.60. Average mathematics literacy scores of 15-year-old students and percentage attaining mathematics literacy proficiency levels, by country or other education system: 2015
[Standard errors appear in parentheses]
Country or other education system Average mathematics literacy score1 Percentage attaining mathematics literacy proficiency levels2
Below level 2 At level 2 At level 3 At level 4 At or above level 5
Total below level 2 Below
level 1
At level 1 Total
at or above level 5
At level 5 At level 6
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
OECD average3 490   (0.4) 23.4   (0.18) 8.5   (0.12) 14.9   (0.13) 22.5   (0.15) 24.8   (0.15) 18.6   (0.14) 10.7   (0.13) 8.4   (0.10) 2.3   (0.06)
                                                             
Australia 494   (1.6) 22.0   (0.61) 7.6   (0.43) 14.4   (0.45) 22.6   (0.70) 25.4   (0.61) 18.7   (0.54) 11.3   (0.62) 8.6   (0.48) 2.7   (0.28)
Austria 497   (2.9) 21.8   (1.08) 7.8   (0.71) 13.9   (0.68) 21.3   (0.82) 24.6   (0.85) 19.9   (0.85) 12.5   (0.87) 9.7   (0.69) 2.7   (0.40)
Belgium 507   (2.4) 20.1   (0.96) 7.2   (0.61) 12.9   (0.61) 18.8   (0.82) 23.4   (0.73) 21.8   (0.70) 15.9   (0.67) 12.3   (0.51) 3.6   (0.35)
Canada 516   (2.3) 14.4   (0.70) 3.8   (0.35) 10.5   (0.50) 20.4   (0.60) 27.1   (0.65) 23.0   (0.74) 15.1   (0.76) 11.4   (0.56) 3.7   (0.34)
Chile 423   (2.5) 49.4   (1.28) 23.0   (1.09) 26.3   (0.99) 25.5   (0.78) 17.4   (0.88) 6.4   (0.54) 1.4   (0.21) 1.3   (0.21) #   (†)
                                                             
Czech Republic 492   (2.4) 21.7   (1.07) 7.4   (0.68) 14.3   (0.76) 23.3   (0.95) 26.2   (0.84) 18.4   (0.74) 10.4   (0.78) 8.1   (0.63) 2.2   (0.30)
Denmark 511   (2.2) 13.6   (0.85) 3.1   (0.33) 10.5   (0.73) 21.9   (0.97) 29.5   (0.90) 23.4   (0.86) 11.7   (0.73) 9.8   (0.67) 1.9   (0.33)
Estonia 520   (2.0) 11.2   (0.71) 2.2   (0.31) 9.0   (0.67) 21.5   (0.94) 28.9   (0.84) 24.2   (0.72) 14.2   (0.81) 11.3   (0.66) 2.9   (0.41)
Finland 511   (2.3) 13.6   (0.83) 3.6   (0.48) 10.0   (0.65) 21.8   (0.80) 29.3   (0.79) 23.7   (0.98) 11.7   (0.70) 9.5   (0.68) 2.2   (0.30)
France 493   (2.1) 23.5   (0.93) 8.8   (0.71) 14.7   (0.69) 20.7   (0.88) 23.8   (0.77) 20.6   (0.71) 11.4   (0.69) 9.5   (0.61) 1.9   (0.27)
                                                             
Germany 506   (2.9) 17.2   (1.00) 5.1   (0.57) 12.1   (0.76) 21.8   (0.94) 26.8   (0.74) 21.2   (0.94) 12.9   (0.78) 10.1   (0.64) 2.9   (0.36)
Greece 454   (3.8) 35.8   (1.77) 15.1   (1.33) 20.7   (0.97) 26.0   (0.89) 22.1   (1.00) 12.3   (0.85) 3.9   (0.48) 3.4   (0.44) 0.5   (0.14)
Hungary 477   (2.5) 28.0   (1.15) 11.3   (0.83) 16.6   (0.78) 23.1   (1.01) 24.5   (0.97) 16.3   (0.81) 8.1   (0.64) 6.7   (0.49) 1.5   (0.26)
Iceland 488   (2.0) 23.6   (1.01) 8.4   (0.59) 15.2   (0.88) 23.7   (1.13) 24.8   (1.10) 17.5   (0.87) 10.3   (0.78) 8.1   (0.71) 2.2   (0.34)
Ireland 504   (2.1) 15.0   (0.89) 3.5   (0.46) 11.5   (0.65) 24.1   (0.89) 30.0   (0.89) 21.2   (0.71) 9.8   (0.58) 8.3   (0.51) 1.5   (0.22)
                                                             
Israel 470   (3.6) 32.1   (1.37) 15.0   (0.99) 17.1   (0.78) 21.1   (0.98) 21.7   (0.99) 16.1   (0.79) 8.9   (0.89) 7.1   (0.65) 1.9   (0.32)
Italy 490   (2.8) 23.3   (1.06) 8.3   (0.64) 14.9   (0.78) 23.3   (0.85) 24.7   (0.80) 18.3   (0.87) 10.5   (0.80) 8.1   (0.60) 2.4   (0.34)
Japan 532   (3.0) 10.7   (0.81) 2.9   (0.40) 7.8   (0.57) 17.2   (0.90) 25.8   (0.87) 25.9   (0.91) 20.3   (1.26) 15.0   (0.90) 5.3   (0.73)
Korea, Republic of 524   (3.7) 15.5   (1.06) 5.4   (0.63) 10.0   (0.74) 17.2   (0.78) 23.7   (0.81) 22.7   (0.94) 20.9   (1.33) 14.3   (0.87) 6.6   (0.68)
Latvia 482   (1.9) 21.4   (1.01) 5.7   (0.63) 15.8   (0.81) 28.3   (0.91) 28.8   (0.95) 16.3   (0.74) 5.2   (0.42) 4.5   (0.40) 0.6   (0.14)
                                                             
Luxembourg 486   (1.3) 25.8   (0.69) 8.8   (0.49) 17.0   (0.71) 22.5   (0.69) 23.6   (0.96) 18.0   (0.67) 10.0   (0.52) 7.8   (0.41) 2.2   (0.30)
Mexico 408   (2.2) 56.6   (1.31) 25.5   (1.11) 31.1   (0.92) 26.9   (0.92) 12.9   (0.76) 3.2   (0.36) #   (†) #   (†) #   (†)
Netherlands 512   (2.2) 16.7   (0.89) 5.2   (0.50) 11.5   (0.70) 19.8   (0.75) 24.9   (0.88) 23.0   (0.83) 15.5   (0.78) 12.3   (0.68) 3.2   (0.33)
New Zealand 495   (2.3) 21.6   (1.02) 7.1   (0.54) 14.6   (0.83) 22.6   (0.99) 25.3   (1.01) 19.0   (0.79) 11.4   (0.71) 8.6   (0.66) 2.8   (0.37)
Norway 502   (2.2) 17.1   (0.77) 4.8   (0.48) 12.3   (0.65) 23.6   (0.89) 27.7   (0.82) 21.0   (1.02) 10.6   (0.67) 8.7   (0.62) 1.9   (0.27)
                                                             
Poland 504   (2.4) 17.2   (1.00) 4.5   (0.52) 12.7   (0.75) 22.9   (0.96) 27.1   (0.78) 20.6   (0.89) 12.2   (0.88) 9.3   (0.64) 2.9   (0.46)
Portugal 492   (2.5) 23.8   (0.95) 8.7   (0.61) 15.1   (0.73) 21.6   (0.71) 23.9   (0.78) 19.2   (0.77) 11.4   (0.70) 8.9   (0.62) 2.5   (0.33)
Slovak Republic 475   (2.7) 27.7   (1.19) 11.6   (0.79) 16.1   (0.74) 23.5   (1.02) 24.3   (0.87) 16.7   (0.71) 7.8   (0.64) 6.6   (0.50) 1.3   (0.26)
Slovenia 510   (1.3) 16.1   (0.58) 4.4   (0.40) 11.7   (0.63) 21.4   (0.80) 26.8   (0.75) 22.3   (0.84) 13.5   (0.68) 10.4   (0.59) 3.0   (0.36)
Spain 486   (2.2) 22.2   (0.97) 7.2   (0.49) 15.0   (0.80) 24.9   (0.83) 27.5   (0.98) 18.1   (0.70) 7.2   (0.62) 6.3   (0.52) 1.0   (0.20)
                                                             
Sweden 494   (3.2) 20.8   (1.20) 7.0   (0.68) 13.8   (0.83) 23.3   (0.96) 26.1   (1.10) 19.4   (0.93) 10.4   (0.86) 8.4   (0.65) 2.0   (0.38)
Switzerland 521   (2.9) 15.8   (1.03) 4.9   (0.54) 10.9   (0.78) 18.1   (0.81) 23.6   (0.89) 23.3   (0.83) 19.2   (1.05) 14.0   (0.80) 5.3   (0.54)
Turkey 420   (4.1) 51.4   (2.17) 22.9   (1.54) 28.4   (1.36) 25.3   (1.14) 16.3   (1.24) 5.9   (0.93) 1.1 ! (0.36) 1.0 ! (0.33) 0.1 ! (0.08)
United Kingdom 492   (2.5) 21.9   (1.01) 7.7   (0.63) 14.1   (0.73) 22.7   (0.76) 26.0   (0.77) 18.8   (0.83) 10.6   (0.69) 8.3   (0.57) 2.3   (0.32)
United States 470   (3.2) 29.4   (1.44) 10.6   (0.81) 18.8   (1.01) 26.2   (1.00) 23.8   (0.89) 14.7   (0.80) 5.9   (0.70) 5.0   (0.61) 0.9   (0.20)
                                                             
Non-OECD education systems                                                            
Albania 413   (3.4) 53.3   (1.92) 26.3   (1.49) 27.0   (1.54) 25.4   (1.18) 14.8   (0.96) 5.4   (0.62) 1.1   (0.25) 1.0   (0.26)   (†)
Algeria 360   (3.0) 81.0   (1.34) 50.6   (1.69) 30.4   (0.92) 14.2   (0.96) 4.0   (0.53) 0.8   (0.23)   (†)   (†)   (†)
Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu,                                                            
Guangdong (China) 531   (4.9) 15.8   (1.21) 5.8   (0.71) 10.0   (0.85) 16.3   (0.95) 20.5   (0.94) 21.8   (0.95) 25.6   (1.90) 16.6   (1.08) 9.0   (1.09)
Brazil 377   (2.9) 70.3   (1.22) 43.7   (1.34) 26.5   (0.79) 17.2   (0.70) 8.6   (0.54) 3.1   (0.36) 0.9   (0.21) 0.8   (0.17)   (†)
Buenos Aires (Argentina) 456   (6.9) 34.1   (3.20) 13.8   (2.09) 20.2   (2.36) 27.0   (1.97) 22.3   (1.92) 12.5   (1.79) 4.0   (1.09) 3.5   (0.96)   (†)
                                                             
Bulgaria 441   (4.0) 42.1   (1.80) 20.8   (1.49) 21.2   (1.08) 23.7   (1.00) 19.3   (0.98) 10.6   (0.82) 4.4   (0.63) 3.6   (0.47) 0.8 ! (0.25)
Chinese Taipei 542   (3.0) 12.7   (0.73) 4.4   (0.41) 8.3   (0.51) 14.6   (0.68) 21.2   (0.85) 23.3   (0.90) 28.1   (1.25) 18.0   (0.65) 10.1   (0.92)
Colombia 390   (2.3) 66.3   (1.18) 35.4   (1.28) 30.9   (0.77) 21.5   (0.82) 9.5   (0.57) 2.4   (0.25) #   (†) #   (†)   (†)
Costa Rica 400   (2.5) 62.5   (1.51) 27.4   (1.16) 35.1   (0.98) 25.8   (1.01) 9.4   (0.77) 2.0   (0.35) #   (†) #   (†)   (†)
Croatia 464   (2.8) 32.0   (1.37) 11.5   (0.92) 20.5   (0.80) 26.3   (0.86) 23.0   (0.83) 13.1   (0.77) 5.6   (0.54) 4.6   (0.47) 1.0   (0.18)
                                                             
Cyprus 437   (1.7) 42.6   (0.80) 20.2   (0.72) 22.4   (0.73) 25.8   (0.82) 18.9   (0.85) 9.5   (0.49) 3.2   (0.41) 2.8   (0.40) #   (†)
Dominican Republic 328   (2.7) 90.5   (1.04) 68.3   (1.61) 22.2   (1.15) 7.7   (0.79) 1.5   (0.39)   (†)   (†)   (†) #   (†)
Georgia 404   (2.8) 57.1   (1.18) 31.2   (1.36) 25.9   (0.98) 22.8   (0.82) 13.4   (0.71) 5.2   (0.53) 1.6   (0.40) 1.4   (0.34)   (†)
Hong Kong (China) 548   (3.0) 9.0   (0.77) 2.5   (0.42) 6.4   (0.56) 13.6   (0.86) 23.4   (0.94) 27.4   (1.05) 26.5   (1.14) 18.8   (0.89) 7.7   (0.71)
Indonesia 386   (3.1) 68.6   (1.56) 37.9   (1.68) 30.7   (1.12) 19.6   (1.01) 8.4   (0.72) 2.7   (0.38) 0.7   (0.19) 0.6   (0.17)   (†)
                                                             
Jordan 380   (2.7) 67.5   (1.31) 38.9   (1.28) 28.7   (0.90) 20.9   (0.90) 9.2   (0.64) 2.1   (0.30) #   (†) #   (†)   (†)
Kosovo 362   (1.6) 77.7   (1.05) 48.7   (1.00) 29.0   (1.26) 16.5   (0.95) 5.1   (0.60) 0.7 ! (0.23)   (†)   (†)   (†)
Lebanon 396   (3.7) 60.2   (1.58) 36.6   (1.73) 23.6   (1.21) 19.5   (0.91) 12.3   (0.93) 5.9   (0.58) 2.0   (0.33) 1.7   (0.30) #   (†)
Lithuania 478   (2.3) 25.4   (1.07) 8.5   (0.75) 16.9   (0.82) 26.4   (1.08) 25.4   (1.04) 15.9   (0.90) 6.9   (0.66) 5.8   (0.58) 1.1   (0.22)
Macao (China) 544   (1.1) 6.6   (0.52) 1.3   (0.20) 5.3   (0.46) 15.1   (0.64) 27.3   (0.84) 29.1   (0.74) 21.9   (0.62) 16.9   (0.67) 5.0   (0.54)
                                                             
Macedonia, Republic of 371   (1.3) 70.2   (0.77) 45.1   (0.74) 25.1   (0.83) 17.3   (0.92) 8.6   (0.59) 3.1   (0.39) 0.8   (0.19) 0.7   (0.17)   (†)
Malta 479   (1.7) 29.1   (0.81) 14.7   (0.61) 14.4   (0.75) 20.0   (0.86) 21.6   (0.69) 17.5   (0.76) 11.8   (0.67) 8.9   (0.59) 3.0   (0.32)
Massachusetts4 (USA) 500   (5.5) 17.2   (1.84) 5.4   (0.99) 11.8   (1.55) 22.6   (1.82) 29.6   (1.66) 20.6   (1.63) 10.0   (1.34) 8.5   (1.25) 1.5 ! (0.49)
Moldova, Republic of f 420   (2.5) 50.3   (1.25) 24.8   (1.05) 25.5   (0.97) 25.0   (1.12) 16.3   (0.77) 6.7   (0.57) 1.7   (0.25) 1.5   (0.24) #   (†)
Montenegro, Republic of 418   (1.5) 51.9   (0.95) 25.0   (0.74) 26.9   (0.80) 24.9   (0.97) 15.7   (0.72) 6.1   (0.42) 1.5   (0.22) 1.4   (0.21) #   (†)
                                                             
North Carolina4 (USA) 471   (4.4) 28.8   (2.08) 9.9   (1.28) 18.9   (1.64) 26.0   (1.48) 24.7   (1.64) 15.0   (1.18) 5.5   (0.89) 4.9   (0.86) 0.7 ! (0.25)
Peru 387   (2.7) 66.2   (1.41) 37.7   (1.18) 28.4   (0.86) 21.0   (0.89) 9.8   (0.71) 2.7   (0.38) #   (†) #   (†) #   (†)
Puerto Rico (USA) 378   (5.6) 72.6   (3.66) 41.6   (3.11) 31.0   (1.92) 17.7   (2.11) 7.2   (1.27) 2.2 ! (0.82)   (†)   (†)   (†)
Qatar 402   (1.3) 58.7   (0.70) 34.7   (0.54) 24.0   (0.56) 19.9   (0.57) 12.8   (0.38) 6.4   (0.32) 2.2   (0.19) 1.9   (0.18) #   (†)
Romania 444   (3.8) 39.9   (1.84) 16.2   (1.26) 23.7   (1.21) 27.4   (1.08) 20.1   (1.11) 9.3   (0.85) 3.3   (0.53) 2.8   (0.44) #   (†)
                                                             
Russian Federation 494   (3.1) 18.9   (1.17) 5.1   (0.67) 13.9   (0.89) 25.5   (0.93) 27.5   (0.93) 19.3   (0.96) 8.8   (0.74) 7.3   (0.62) 1.5   (0.24)
Singapore 564   (1.5) 7.6   (0.39) 2.0   (0.20) 5.5   (0.40) 12.4   (0.63) 20.0   (0.74) 25.1   (0.88) 34.8   (0.77) 21.7   (0.84) 13.1   (0.67)
Thailand 415   (3.0) 53.8   (1.62) 24.2   (1.20) 29.6   (1.13) 26.1   (0.90) 13.8   (0.89) 4.8   (0.56) 1.4   (0.35) 1.2   (0.29)   (†)
Trinidad and Tobago 417   (1.4) 52.3   (0.83) 28.3   (0.76) 23.9   (0.91) 22.1   (0.84) 15.6   (0.75) 7.5   (0.55) 2.5   (0.31) 2.2   (0.29) #   (†)
Tunisia 367   (3.0) 74.8   (1.24) 47.4   (1.46) 27.4   (1.06) 16.4   (0.88) 6.4   (0.63) 1.8   (0.42) 0.5 ! (0.23) #   (†)   (†)
                                                             
United Arab Emirates 427   (2.4) 48.7   (1.21) 24.4   (0.99) 24.4   (0.72) 23.2   (0.76) 15.9   (0.70) 8.5   (0.50) 3.7   (0.34) 3.1   (0.31) 0.6   (0.10)
Uruguay 418   (2.5) 52.4   (1.23) 25.4   (1.22) 27.0   (1.02) 24.4   (0.89) 15.3   (0.77) 6.2   (0.48) 1.7   (0.37) 1.5   (0.32) 0.2 ! (0.09)
Vietnam 495   (4.5) 19.1   (1.67) 4.5   (0.77) 14.6   (1.16) 26.4   (1.19) 27.0   (1.31) 18.2   (1.08) 9.3   (1.34) 7.2   (0.85) 2.1 ! (0.66)
†Not applicable.
#Rounds to zero.
!Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent.
‡Reporting standards not met. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is 50 percent or greater.
1 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) scores are reported on a scale from 0 to 1,000.
2 To reach a particular proficiency level, a student must correctly answer a majority of items at that level. Students were classified into mathematics literacy levels according to their scores. Exact cut scores are as follows: below level 1 (a score less than 357.77); level 1 (a score of at least 357.77 but less than 420.07); level 2 (a score of at least 420.07 but less than 482.38); level 3 (a score of at least 482.38 but less than 544.68); level 4 (a score of at least 544.68 but less than 606.99); level 5 (a score of at least 606.99 but less than 669.30); and level 6 (a score of at least 669.30).
3 Refers to the mean of the data values for all Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries, to which each country contributes equally, regardless of the absolute size of the student population of each country.
4 Results are for public school students only.
NOTE: Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.
SOURCE: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Program for International Student Assessment (PISA), 2015. (This table was prepared December 2016.)

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