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Digest of Education Statistics
2018 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest


Table 602.32b. Average mathematics score and percentage of eighth-graders, by mathematics teachers' reports of student access to computers and frequency of computer use during mathematics lessons and country or other education system: 2015
[Standard errors appear in parentheses]
Country or other education system1 Total, all eighth-graders Student access to computers (including tablets) to use during mathematics lessons Among students who have computers (including tablets) available, frequency of computer use during mathematics lessons2
No computers are available to students during lessons Computers are available to students during lessons
Total, all students who have computers available3 Each student has a computer Class has computers that students can share School has computers that the class can use sometimes Every day or almost every day Once or twice a week Once or twice a month Never or almost never
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
  Average mathematics score4 
International average5 487   (0.6) 486   (0.7) 490   (1.3) 499   (3.0) 494   (3.4) 486   (1.9) 489   (3.4) 484   (3.7) 491   (2.0) 489   (4.8)
                                                             
Australia 505   (3.1) 506   (5.4) 512   (3.5) 522   (3.8) 490   (10.9) 500   (9.2) 509   (10.8) 510   (5.9) 518   (7.4) 495   (16.3)
Bahrain 454   (1.4) 452   (2.2) 458   (3.8) 482   (21.3) 462   (17.6) 455   (4.3) 473   (12.2) 448   (5.2) 454   (7.1) 562   (67.9)
Canada6,7,8 527   (2.2) 533   (3.2) 528   (3.7) 539   (7.5) 523   (5.8) 526   (6.1) 535   (9.6) 527   (7.5) 525   (4.7) 526   (8.4)
Chile 427 9  (3.2) 437   (5.8) 423   (5.5) 419   (11.4) 412   (10.0) 444   (9.9) 428   (17.9) 397   (24.9) 417   (6.8) 468   (16.8)
Chinese Taipei 599   (2.4) 597   (2.9) 604   (6.8) 545   (8.4) 616   (7.7) 581   (11.4) 590   (26.3) 624   (88.8) 612   (9.3) 597   (10.4)
                                                             
Egypt 392 9  (4.1) 390   (5.8) 395   (6.1) 408   (46.9) 402   (20.9) 392   (5.3) 397   (15.0) 397   (11.5) 388   (7.1) 438   (15.0)
England (United Kingdom) 518   (4.2) 520   (6.0) 511   (9.7) 514   (14.9) 507   (56.1) 509   (13.8) 532   (31.7) 493   (14.0) 504   (15.4) 529   (24.2)
Georgia7,10 453   (3.4) 452   (4.5) 453   (6.6) 464   (11.9) 414   (13.8) 456   (8.2) 439   (17.4) 453   (12.7) 458   (8.7) 452   (26.8)
Hong Kong (China) 594   (4.6) 596   (5.5) 591   (10.7) 593   (25.2) 586   (15.8) 597   (21.3) 584   (43.2) 587   (23.1) 594   (17.0) 597   (21.8)
Hungary 514   (3.8) 516   (4.6) 509   (8.0) 509   (14.4) 529   (19.3) 503   (9.4) 498   (15.1) 510   (15.6) 517   (16.4) 454   (49.8)
                                                             
Iran, Islamic Republic of 436 9  (4.6) 429   (5.1) 457   (8.6) 508   (32.1) 488   (17.2) 452   (10.7) 543   (44.0) 460   (14.3) 453   (13.6) 434   (25.0)
Ireland 523   (2.7) 525   (3.4) 515   (6.2) 527   (7.3) 512   (21.3) 509   (8.5) 500   (22.4) 508   (15.6) 519   (12.3) 517   (9.8)
Israel11 511   (4.1) 508   (4.3) 536   (11.8) 569   (16.8) 537   (34.9) 508   (16.0) 542   (21.6) 525   (30.6) 550   (19.8) 500   (18.7)
Italy10 494   (2.5) 495   (4.1) 493   (4.3) 503   (12.6) 489   (6.4) 499   (7.0) 499   (10.8) 480   (15.0) 496   (5.8) 501   (10.6)
Japan 586   (2.3) 588   (3.4) 585   (4.1) 588   (9.4) 590   (7.6) 584   (5.5) 543   (2.5)   (†) 581   (7.9) 588   (4.7)
                                                             
Jordan 386 12  (3.2) 378   (4.0) 394   (6.5) 410   (11.4) 385   (16.4) 394   (7.9) 399   (22.1) 391   (11.4) 396   (10.7) 381   (15.5)
Kazakhstan 528   (5.3) 525   (7.4) 531   (7.6) 531   (12.9) 531   (11.3) 514   (17.7) 533   (13.3) 523   (11.2) 542   (14.8)   (†)
Korea, Republic of 606   (2.6) 607   (3.6) 604   (4.3) 607   (14.9) 605   (5.6) 600   (11.1) 617   (8.8) 591   (8.5) 601   (7.7) 612   (9.2)
Kuwait 392 9  (4.6) 393   (4.2) 393   (16.7) 391   (43.3) 402   (24.9) 395   (10.1) 392   (31.8) 393   (11.8) 396   (14.7) 394   (32.3)
Lebanon 442   (3.6) 442   (3.9) 451   (11.8) 482   (23.5)   (†) 437   (10.6) 470   (18.9) 448   (17.1) 451   (28.9) 419   (12.3)
                                                             
Lithuania10 511   (2.8) 512   (4.5) 508   (4.9) 463   (12.7) 495   (8.1) 516   (5.8) 500   (11.7) 515   (21.7) 511   (6.5) 499   (12.2)
Malaysia 465   (3.6) 465   (4.6) 477   (11.7) 508   (21.4) 507   (53.5) 476   (16.3)   (†) 545   (18.2) 480   (14.1) 443   (22.1)
Malta 494   (1.0) 495   (1.1) 470   (5.4)   (†) 565   (7.3) 424   (7.7)   (†)   (†) 506   (5.4) 466   (10.1)
Morocco 384 12  (2.3) 382   (2.6) 400   (6.9) 508   (33.9) 441   (18.3) 402   (7.3) 417   (20.2) 475   (19.5) 396   (10.4) 379   (8.9)
New Zealand8 493   (3.4) 488   (5.7) 501   (4.8) 511   (10.0) 496   (11.9) 493   (8.9) 493   (11.2) 490   (8.5) 502   (9.1) 535   (14.2)
                                                             
Norway13 512   (2.3) 513   (3.2) 513   (3.5) 508   (4.3) 517   (5.6) 517   (6.2) 539   (2.3) 510   (8.6) 514   (3.4) 514   (15.5)
Oman 403 9  (2.4) 404   (3.1) 403   (9.9) 411   (8.8) 371   (23.4) 415   (14.3) 425   (8.9) 398   (21.3) 399   (11.5)   (†)
Qatar 437 9  (3.0) 445   (4.3) 422   (6.6) 418   (8.5) 470   (34.3) 404   (12.0) 413   (13.1) 425   (13.6) 426   (17.4) 401   (75.7)
Russian Federation 538   (4.7) 540   (6.4) 535   (5.1) 539   (12.8) 545   (10.2) 530   (8.0) 542   (13.5) 548   (8.0) 521   (8.5) 461   (18.8)
Saudi Arabia 368 12  (4.6) 361   (4.6) 396   (12.7) 375   (23.2) 418   (20.2) 391   (24.1) 355   (11.0) 414   (21.1) 379   (9.5)   (†)
                                                             
Singapore10 621   (3.2) 621   (4.1) 617   (6.0) 634   (8.6) 584   (27.7) 609   (9.6) 639   (19.3) 609   (19.7) 619   (8.1) 607   (14.9)
Slovenia 516   (2.1) 516   (2.1) 517   (6.7) 509   (7.6) 518   (19.8) 520   (9.1)   (†) 508   (24.2) 516   (8.2) 528   (10.0)
Sweden 501   (2.8) 502   (4.0) 499   (4.0) 498   (5.1) 486   (11.0) 510   (7.9) 491   (9.8) 478   (8.7) 501   (5.7) 510   (6.7)
Thailand 431   (4.8) 425   (6.1) 442   (8.5) 453   (12.0) 417   (15.5) 453   (21.0) 454   (39.3) 432   (14.3) 452   (12.2) 433   (16.0)
Turkey 458   (4.7) 456   (5.0) 471   (13.2) 515   (4.9) 508   (25.7) 443   (16.0) 501   (25.5) 470   (12.4) 466   (21.3) 405   (85.8)
                                                             
United Arab Emirates 465   (2.0) 456   (3.8) 481   (4.5) 470   (6.2) 493   (10.0) 503   (12.3) 477   (7.1) 475   (8.0) 498   (12.1) 473   (10.3)
United States8 518   (3.1) 518   (4.3) 519   (5.0) 526   (9.7) 514   (6.8) 514   (10.8) 509   (11.7) 515   (9.7) 528   (9.6) 537   (16.5)
                                                             
Benchmarking education systems                                                            
Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates) 442   (4.7) 431   (8.0) 468   (14.6) 510   (27.9) 426   (10.1) 474   (26.2) 477   (25.7) 449   (26.8) 468   (24.3) 522   (45.1)
Buenos Aires8 (Argentina) 396 12  (4.2) 414   (15.7) 371   (8.1) 373   (9.7) 371   (31.9) 371   (26.2) 419   (28.3) 381   (34.9) 368   (8.3) 330   (20.9)
Dubai (United Arab Emirates) 512   (2.1) 499   (3.8) 524   (3.8) 513   (6.5) 540   (9.0) 529   (8.1) 524   (6.7) 512   (6.7) 551   (8.9) 474   (22.7)
Florida7,14 (United States) 493   (6.4) 513   (8.3) 483   (15.9) 492   (46.3) 481   (18.5) 481   (15.8) 491   (21.1) 480   (33.2) 476   (28.4)   (†)
Ontario (Canada) 522   (2.9) 519   (4.3) 527   (4.7) 532   (13.6) 523   (6.0) 531   (7.5) 525   (13.5) 528   (8.1) 526   (5.6) 529   (9.6)
Quebec15 (Canada) 543   (3.9) 548   (3.8) 556   (6.2) 554   (6.9) 532   (15.7) 564   (15.4) 562   (4.3) 542   (11.1) 551   (16.2) 559   (15.0)
  Percent of students      
International average5 100.0   (†) 67.2   (0.53) 32.8   (0.53) 9.8   (0.35) 8.2   (0.32) 13.5   (0.41) 16.6   (0.87) 25.8   (0.91) 42.0   (1.09) 15.6   (0.79)
                                                             
Australia 100.0   (†) 38.1   (3.43) 61.9   (3.43) 38.1   (2.92) 8.9   (1.66) 13.8   (2.47) 21.3   (3.71) 38.7   (3.82) 33.9   (4.15) 6.1 ! (2.20)
Bahrain 100.0   (†) 70.5   (2.78) 29.5   (2.78) 4.6 ! (1.78) 3.6 ! (1.54) 18.8   (2.58) 22.3   (6.12) 28.2   (6.27) 47.3   (6.93)   (†)
Canada6,7,8 100.0   (†) 50.2   (3.35) 49.8   (3.35) 9.3   (1.92) 21.6   (2.82) 18.7   (2.87) 18.5   (3.39) 25.1   (3.53) 38.9   (4.78) 17.5   (4.24)
Chile 100.0   (†) 51.2   (4.60) 48.8   (4.60) 13.0   (3.18) 21.4   (3.79) 14.1   (3.36) 10.4 ! (4.26) 6.1 ! (2.91) 70.3   (6.66) 13.2 ! (4.40)
Chinese Taipei 100.0   (†) 71.8   (3.47) 28.2   (3.47)   (†) 20.8   (3.12) 6.3   (1.65)   (†)   (†) 57.8   (7.17) 33.4   (7.11)
                                                             
Egypt 100.0   (†) 51.9   (3.88) 48.1   (3.88) 3.0 ! (1.44) 6.3 ! (1.88) 38.1   (3.73) 23.8   (5.01) 32.8   (5.13) 40.2   (5.41)   (†)
England (United Kingdom) 100.0   (†) 71.2   (4.06) 28.8   (4.06) 10.4   (2.79)   (†) 17.0   (3.14) 15.5 ! (6.49) 17.2 ! (5.72) 50.4   (7.83) 17.0 ! (5.43)
Georgia7,10 100.0   (†) 62.3   (3.65) 37.7   (3.65) 8.2   (1.75) 3.7 ! (1.65) 25.7   (3.36) 13.4   (3.98) 31.5   (5.90) 46.5   (6.54)   (†)
Hong Kong (China) 100.0   (†) 78.7   (3.64) 21.3   (3.64) 6.3 ! (2.29) 5.5 ! (1.86) 7.9 ! (2.45) 16.8 ! (6.86) 18.5 ! (5.82) 39.8   (8.82) 24.9 ! (8.43)
Hungary 100.0   (†) 70.3   (3.77) 29.7   (3.77) 2.0 ! (0.72) 7.1   (2.11) 20.2   (3.18) 11.1 ! (4.49) 37.1   (6.75) 47.0   (7.16)   (†)
                                                             
Iran, Islamic Republic of 100.0   (†) 71.9   (3.04) 28.1   (3.04) 0.7 ! (0.25) 3.2 ! (0.98) 21.1   (2.84) 7.7 ! (3.68) 31.3   (7.20) 47.9   (7.07) 13.1 ! (4.99)
Ireland 100.0   (†) 74.6   (2.79) 25.4   (2.79) 6.3   (1.68) 2.3 ! (0.73) 15.6   (2.60) 6.4 ! (2.67) 23.3   (5.18) 33.1   (5.94) 37.3   (5.55)
Israel11 100.0   (†) 83.4   (2.36) 16.6   (2.36) 6.1   (1.71) 2.2 ! (0.70) 7.7   (1.40) 22.7   (5.69) 22.7   (5.74) 41.6   (6.99) 12.9 ! (4.16)
Italy10 100.0   (†) 57.5   (3.68) 42.5   (3.68) 2.9 ! (1.39) 25.2   (3.17) 14.4   (2.42) 16.6   (4.70) 26.7   (4.98) 44.8   (5.84) 12.0 ! (4.02)
Japan 100.0   (†) 56.7   (3.70) 43.3   (3.70) 10.1   (2.36) 7.9   (1.90) 24.2   (3.53)   (†)   (†) 22.3   (4.50) 76.9   (4.67)
                                                             
Jordan 100.0   (†) 61.0   (3.25) 39.0   (3.25) 7.0   (1.64) 8.9   (2.23) 22.4   (2.53) 14.8 ! (4.90) 29.9   (6.03) 49.5   (6.97)   (†)
Kazakhstan 100.0   (†) 47.2   (3.93) 52.8   (3.93) 22.6   (3.75) 22.0   (2.99) 5.6 ! (1.72) 36.0   (4.66) 49.1   (6.34) 13.9 ! (4.35)   (†)
Korea, Republic of 100.0   (†) 61.4   (3.59) 38.6   (3.59) 2.6 ! (1.03) 22.7   (3.02) 11.4   (2.33) 19.7   (5.00) 20.3   (3.88) 40.3   (4.52) 19.6   (3.83)
Kuwait 100.0   (†) 81.3   (3.44) 18.7   (3.44) 7.2 ! (2.63)   (†) 6.3 ! (1.90) 53.2   (10.37) 26.9 ! (8.25) 14.2 ! (6.87)   (†)
Lebanon 100.0   (†) 92.2   (2.29) 7.8   (2.29)   (†)   (†)   (†) 43.7 ! (15.17)   (†)   (†)   (†)
                                                             
Lithuania10 100.0   (†) 62.0   (4.04) 38.0   (4.04)   (†) 11.0   (2.61) 26.1   (3.66) 5.4 ! (2.21) 8.9 ! (4.11) 68.3   (4.77) 17.5   (4.98)
Malaysia 100.0   (†) 89.9   (1.98) 10.1   (1.98)   (†)   (†) 6.7   (1.59)   (†) 9.2 ! (4.46) 71.0   (8.98) 15.7 ! (7.83)
Malta 100.0   (†) 96.5   (0.05) 3.5   (0.05)   (†) 1.2   (0.03) 2.3   (0.04) 3.8   (0.05) 6.9   (0.10) 48.5   (0.71) 40.8   (0.67)
Morocco 100.0   (†) 89.3   (2.17) 10.7   (2.17)   (†) 1.1 ! (0.39) 6.4   (1.75)   (†)   (†) 45.3   (10.15) 40.4   (9.49)
New Zealand8 100.0   (†) 52.7   (3.53) 47.3   (3.53) 15.9   (3.41) 8.5   (2.02) 21.9   (2.78) 17.9   (3.73) 34.5   (4.33) 33.3   (3.61) 14.4   (2.58)
                                                             
Norway13 100.0   (†) 59.6   (3.93) 40.4   (3.93) 18.2   (3.36) 8.2   (2.32) 14.0   (2.68)   (†) 28.3   (5.89) 60.8   (6.85) 9.0 ! (3.94)
Oman 100.0   (†) 90.8   (1.84) 9.2   (1.84) 3.2   (0.92) 1.9 ! (0.94) 3.9 ! (1.28) 14.4 ! (4.87) 35.6   (8.94) 50.0   (10.52)   (†)
Qatar 100.0   (†) 64.4   (2.63) 35.6   (2.63) 20.0   (1.46) 4.8 ! (2.07) 7.6   (1.37) 28.3   (5.21) 46.9   (6.44) 23.7   (5.24)   (†)
Russian Federation 100.0   (†) 52.7   (3.49) 47.3   (3.49) 6.9 ! (2.13) 16.3   (2.57) 22.4   (3.66) 13.8   (3.67) 47.9   (5.37) 36.2   (5.82)   (†)
Saudi Arabia 100.0   (†) 82.9   (2.95) 17.1   (2.95)   (†) 5.4 ! (1.72) 7.7 ! (2.50) 16.6 ! (7.71) 57.3   (9.53) 26.2 ! (8.44)   (†)
                                                             
Singapore10 100.0   (†) 65.5   (2.45) 34.5   (2.45) 16.9   (1.79) 3.8 ! (1.16) 13.6   (1.84) 15.2   (3.29) 18.6   (3.62) 54.0   (4.41) 12.3   (2.90)
Slovenia 100.0   (†) 80.8   (2.54) 19.2   (2.54) 3.9   (1.03) 1.8 ! (0.73) 13.5   (2.24)   (†) 11.4   (2.96) 73.0   (4.88) 12.3 ! (4.07)
Sweden 100.0   (†) 34.8   (3.64) 65.2   (3.64) 48.3   (4.63) 4.6 ! (1.75) 12.3   (2.94) 9.0 ! (3.30) 16.1   (3.61) 43.2   (5.30) 31.8   (5.61)
Thailand 100.0   (†) 61.0   (4.49) 39.0   (4.49) 21.2   (3.39) 9.5   (2.57) 6.1 ! (1.84) 12.6 ! (4.52) 30.2   (5.64) 35.7   (5.54) 21.5   (5.18)
Turkey 100.0   (†) 83.8   (2.31) 16.2   (2.31)   (†) 5.5   (1.43) 7.4   (1.84) 22.6 ! (8.73) 37.9   (7.98) 32.7   (8.80)   (†)
                                                             
United Arab Emirates 100.0   (†) 56.1   (2.19) 43.9   (2.19) 23.6   (1.59) 8.2   (1.10) 9.5   (1.44) 38.5   (3.19) 34.6   (3.19) 24.2   (3.03) 2.7 ! (0.84)
United States8 100.0   (†) 61.3   (2.90) 38.7   (2.90) 16.3   (2.43) 13.4   (2.31) 8.3   (1.67) 25.0   (4.16) 38.3   (4.50) 28.0   (4.35) 8.8 ! (2.64)
                                                             
Benchmarking education systems                                                            
Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates) 100.0   (†) 69.7   (4.99) 30.3   (4.99) 8.7 ! (3.07) 9.0   (2.32) 11.5   (3.28) 33.1   (7.85) 24.2   (6.99) 39.9   (7.97)   (†)
Buenos Aires8 (Argentina) 100.0   (†) 42.3   (6.89) 57.7   (6.89) 43.9   (6.68)   (†) 7.9 ! (3.40) 11.9 ! (5.66) 13.3 ! (6.30) 62.4   (8.33) 12.3 ! (5.31)
Dubai (United Arab Emirates) 100.0   (†) 37.1   (2.55) 62.9   (2.55) 27.4   (1.52) 15.8   (2.57) 15.7   (2.35) 38.5   (2.77) 36.0   (3.47) 23.4   (3.14)   (†)
Florida7,14 (United States) 100.0   (†) 71.6   (5.13) 28.4   (5.13)   (†) 17.5   (4.27) 6.6 ! (3.28) 40.5   (10.49) 21.7   (6.32) 37.7 ! (11.34)   (†)
Ontario (Canada) 100.0   (†) 36.7   (5.07) 63.3   (5.07) 7.7 ! (2.70) 36.8   (4.79) 18.5   (3.25) 18.0   (3.89) 30.9   (4.66) 41.8   (5.61) 9.4 ! (3.55)
Quebec15 (Canada) 100.0   (†) 80.1   (2.46) 19.9   (2.46) 12.1   (2.56)   (†) 6.6 ! (2.74) 30.4   (8.11) 13.3 ! (5.10) 25.5   (7.57) 30.8   (8.81)
†Not applicable.
!Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent.
‡Reporting standards not met. Either there are too few cases for a reliable estimate or the coefficient of variation (CV) is 50 percent or greater.
1 Most of the education systems represent complete countries, but some represent subnational entities; examples include two Canadian provinces (Ontario and Quebec), a component of the United Kingdom (England), the U.S. state of Florida, and a few individual cities (such as Abu Dhabi within the United Arab Emirates).
2 Teachers were asked how often they had students do the following four activities on computers during mathematics lessons: explore mathematics principles and concepts; practice skills and procedures; look up ideas and information; and process and analyze data. The overall frequency of computer use corresponds to the highest frequency reported for any one of these activities.
3 The total of all students who have computers available during lessons includes students for whom data on the specific type of computer access is missing. Their teachers indicated that computers were available to students during lessons, but either failed to answer the three follow-up questions about specific type of computer access or answered “No” to each of the three types of access. Among sampled students with computers available during mathematics lessons, 4 percent are missing data on the type of computer access; however, the percentage varies widely by country (from 0 to 33 percent). These students are included in the total shown in column 4, but are not included in columns 5 through 7.
4 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) scores are reported on a scale from 0 to 1,000, with the scale centerpoint set at 500 and the standard deviation set at 100.
5 The international average includes only education systems that are members of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), which develops and implements TIMSS at the international level. "Benchmarking" education systems are not members of the IEA and are therefore not included in the average.
6 Data for Canada include only students from the provinces of Manitoba, Newfoundland, Ontario, and Quebec.
7 National Target Population does not include all of the International Target Population.
8 Met guidelines for sample participation rates only after replacement schools were included.
9 The TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center has reservations about the reliability of the average achievement score because the percentage of students with achievement too low for estimation exceeds 15 percent, though it is less than 25 percent.
10 National Defined Population covers 90 to 95 percent of National Target Population.
11 National Defined Population covers less than 90 percent of the National Target Population (but at least 77 percent).
12 The TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center has reservations about the reliability of the average achievement score because the percentage of students with achievement too low for estimation exceeds 25 percent.
13 Norway collected data from students in their ninth year of schooling rather than in grade 8 because year 1 in Norway is considered the equivalent of kindergarten rather than the first year of primary school.
14 U.S. state-level data are based on public school students only.
15 Did not satisfy guidelines for sample participation rates.
NOTE: Countries and other education systems were required to draw probability samples of students who were nearing the end of their eighth year of formal schooling (counting the first year of primary school as year 1), provided that the mean age at the time of testing was at least 13.5 years. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding and missing data.
SOURCE: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), 2015. (This table was prepared January 2017.)

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