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Digest of Education Statistics
2018 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest


Table 602.20. Average fourth-grade scores and annual instructional time in mathematics and science, by country or other education system: 2015
[Standard errors appear in parentheses]
Country or other education system1 Total instructional hours per year Mathematics Science
Average score2 Instructional time in mathematics Average score2 Instructional time in science
Hours per year As a percent of total instructional hours Hours per year As a percent of total instructional hours
1     2 3 4 5 6 7 8
International average3  888   (2.0) 500   (†) 155   (0.5) 17 (0.1) 500   (†) 76   (0.4) 9 (#)
Australia 1,014 4  (8.4) 517   (3.1) 202 4  (3.5) 20 (0.4) 524   (2.9) 57 4  (1.5) 6 (0.2)
Bahrain5 976   (0.6) 451   (1.6) 159 4  (2.9) 16 (0.3) 459   (2.6) 103 4  (0.6) 11 (0.1)
Belgium (Flemish)6 955 4  (11.6) 546   (2.1) 218 4  (3.2) 23 (0.4) 512   (2.3)   (†) (†)
Bulgaria 707 4  (27.3) 524   (5.3) 105   (2.9) 15 (0.7) 536   (5.9) 42   (2.3) 6 (0.4)
Canada5,6,7,8 951   (4.1) 511   (2.3) 196 4  (3.2) 21 (0.3) 525   (2.6) 81 4  (2.0) 9 (0.2)
                                       
Chile 1,094 4  (16.9) 459   (2.4) 206 9  (6.4) 19 (0.7) 478   (2.7) 93 9  (2.5) 9 (0.3)
Chinese Taipei 969   (14.4) 597   (1.9) 128 4  (4.3) 13 (0.5) 555   (1.8) 91   (1.9) 9 (0.2)
Croatia 778   (21.6) 502   (1.8) 124   (1.8) 16 (0.5) 533   (2.1) 82   (1.5) 11 (0.4)
Cyprus 827 4  (12.4) 523   (2.7) 161 4  (5.5) 19 (0.7) 481   (2.6) 48 4  (0.9) 6 (0.1)
Czech Republic 771   (10.4) 528   (2.2) 125   (4.1) 16 (0.6) 534   (2.4) 38   (2.0) 5 (0.3)
                                       
Denmark5,6 1,051 4  (11.2) 539   (2.7) 150 9  (3.1) 14 (0.3) 527   (2.1) 80 9  (2.3) 8 (0.2)
England (United Kingdom) 994   (9.9) 546   (2.8) 189 4  (4.5) 19 (0.5) 536   (2.4) 61 4  (2.2) 6 (0.2)
Finland 737   (8.9) 535   (2.0) 115   (2.2) 16 (0.4) 554   (2.3) 82   (1.8) 11 (0.3)
France 858 4  (8.2) 488   (2.9) 193 4  (3.9) 22 (0.5) 487   (2.7) 56 4  (1.8) 7 (0.2)
Georgia8 743 4  (19.5) 463   (3.6) 138 4  (2.1) 19 (0.6) 451   (3.7) 80   (1.4) 11 (0.3)
                                       
Germany 820 4  (9.1) 522   (2.0) 147 4  (2.0) 18 (0.3) 528   (2.4) 61 9  (3.8) 7 (0.5)
Hong Kong6 (China) 999   (13.1) 615   (2.9) 159   (4.7) 16 (0.5) 557   (2.9)   (†) (†)
Hungary 784   (11.8) 529   (3.2) 129   (2.5) 16 (0.4) 542   (3.3) 63   (1.7) 8 (0.2)
Indonesia 1,095 4  (20.9) 397   (3.7) 149 4  (5.0) 14 (0.5) 397   (4.8) 116 4  (4.0) 11 (0.4)
Iran, Islamic Republic of 645 4  (6.4) 431   (3.2) 112 4  (2.3) 17 (0.4) 421   (4.0) 87 4  (3.0) 13 (0.5)
                                       
Ireland 854   (#) 547   (2.1) 165   (2.4) 19 (0.3) 529   (2.4) 32   (0.7) 4 (0.1)
Italy5 1,061   (20.5) 507   (2.6) 231 4  (4.5) 22 (0.6) 516   (2.6) 76   (1.6) 7 (0.2)
Japan 903   (3.7) 593   (2.0) 151   (1.1) 17 (0.1) 569   (1.8) 91   (0.5) 10 (0.1)
Jordan 931   (14.2) 388   (3.1) 133   (3.3) 14 (0.4)   (†)   (†) (†)
Kazakhstan 813   (16.2) 544   (4.5) 132   (3.8) 16 (0.6) 550   (4.4) 58   (2.9) 7 (0.4)
                                       
Korea, Republic of 712   (8.9) 608   (2.2) 100   (1.4) 14 (0.3) 589   (2.0) 76   (1.0) 11 (0.2)
Kuwait10 912 9  (27.9) 353   (4.6) 128 9  (4.4) 14 (0.6) 337   (6.2) 77 9  (3.5) 8 (0.5)
Lithuania5 629   (5.5) 535   (2.5) 111   (1.6) 18 (0.3) 528   (2.5) 53   (1.0) 8 (0.2)
Morocco 1,054 4  (18.8) 377   (3.4) 172 4  (2.8) 16 (0.4) 352 10  (4.7) 54 4  (0.9) 5 (0.1)
Netherlands6 1,073 9  (16.2) 530   (1.7)   (†) (†) 517   (2.7)   (†) (†)
                                       
New Zealand 923   (5.5) 491   (2.3) 163 4  (2.3) 18 (0.3) 506   (2.7) 43 4  (2.0) 5 (0.2)
Northern Ireland11 (United
      Kingdom)
962 4  (10.2) 570   (2.9) 215 9  (6.5) 22 (0.7) 520   (2.2) 38 9  (2.1) 4 (0.2)
Norway12 817   (8.7) 549   (2.5) 117 4  (2.4) 14 (0.3) 538   (2.6) 59 4  (1.7) 7 (0.2)
Oman 962 4  (11.7) 425   (2.5) 148 9  (4.5) 15 (0.5) 431   (3.1) 123 9  (3.1) 13 (0.4)
Poland 752 4  (6.9) 535   (2.1) 112 4  (1.1) 15 (0.2) 547   (2.4) 84 4  (1.1) 11 (0.2)
                                       
Portugal5 864   (8.5) 541   (2.2) 275 4  (4.0) 32 (0.6) 508   (2.2) 111 4  (3.8) 13 (0.5)
Qatar 1,056 4  (16.1) 439   (3.4) 185 4  (4.6) 18 (0.5) 436   (4.1) 125 4  (4.4) 12 (0.5)
Russian Federation 661   (6.9) 564   (3.4) 106   (1.4) 16 (0.3) 567   (3.2) 49   (0.9) 7 (0.2)
Saudi Arabia 1,080 4  (19.6) 383 10  (4.1) 148 9  (4.5) 14 (0.5) 390   (4.9) 77 4  (3.7) 7 (0.4)
Serbia13 737   (16.2) 518   (3.5) 154   (1.6) 21 (0.5) 525   (3.7) 75   (3.5) 10 (0.5)
                                       
Singapore5 986   (#) 618   (3.8) 201   (1.6) 20 (0.2) 590   (3.7) 85   (1.4) 9 (0.1)
Slovak Republic 759   (8.1) 498   (2.5) 129   (2.1) 17 (0.3) 520   (2.6) 52   (2.0) 7 (0.3)
Slovenia 716 4  (7.2) 520   (1.9) 144 4  (1.2) 20 (0.3) 543   (2.4) 86 4  (1.3) 12 (0.2)
Spain5 864   (10.2) 505   (2.5) 161   (2.3) 19 (0.3) 518   (2.6) 124 4  (2.6) 14 (0.3)
Sweden5 839 4  (10.6) 519   (2.8) 110 4  (2.3) 13 (0.3) 540   (3.6) 79   (1.8) 9 (0.2)
                                       
Turkey 847   (18.0) 483   (3.1) 120   (3.3) 14 (0.5) 483   (3.3) 83   (1.7) 10 (0.3)
United Arab Emirates 1,009 4  (4.6) 452   (2.4) 162 9  (2.4) 16 (0.2) 451   (2.8) 111 9  (2.1) 11 (0.2)
United States5,6 1,088   (9.2) 539   (2.3) 216 4  (4.1) 20 (0.4) 546   (2.2) 100 4  (3.7) 9 (0.3)
                                       
Benchmarking education systems                                      
Abu Dhabi5 (United Arab
      Emirates)
1,025 4  (11.1) 419 10  (4.7) 163 9  (4.5) 16 (0.5) 415   (5.6) 116 9  (4.3) 11 (0.4)
Buenos Aires (Argentina) 951 9  (31.3) 432   (2.9)   (†) (†) 418   (4.7)   (†) (†)
Dubai (United Arab Emirates) 996 4  (0.4) 511   (1.4) 160 9  (1.4) 16 (0.1) 518   (1.8) 110 4  (1.2) 11 (0.1)
Florida14 (United States) 1,075 4  (21.6) 546   (4.7) 212 9  (11.1) 20 (1.1) 549   (4.8) 105 9  (5.8) 10 (0.6)
Ontario (Canada) 953   (6.2) 512   (2.3) 195 4  (3.2) 20 (0.4) 530   (2.5) 88 4  (3.1) 9 (0.3)
Quebec15 (Canada) 910   (8.0) 536   (4.0) 221   (8.9) 24 (1.0) 525   (4.1) 43   (2.9) 5 (0.3)
—Not available.
†Not applicable.
#Rounds to zero.
‡Reporting standards not met. Either data are available for less than 50 percent of students or the coefficient of variation (CV) is 50 percent or greater.
1 Most of the education systems represent complete countries, but some represent subnational entities; examples include the Flemish community of Belgium, two components of the United Kingdom (England and Northern Ireland), a few individual cities (such as Abu Dhabi within the United Arab Emirates), and the U.S. state of Florida.
2 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) scores are reported on a scale from 0 to 1,000, with the scale centerpoint set at 500 and the standard deviation set at 100.
3 The international average includes only education systems that are members of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), which develops and implements TIMSS at the international level. "Benchmarking" education systems are not members of the IEA and are therefore not included in the average.
4 Data are available for at least 70 percent but less than 85 percent of students.
5 National Defined Population covers 90 to 95 percent of National Target Population.
6 Met guidelines for sample participation rates only after replacement schools were included.
7 Data for Canada include only students from the provinces of Alberta, Manitoba, Newfoundland, Ontario, and Quebec.
8 National Target Population does not include all of the International Target Population.
9 Data are available for at least 50 percent but less than 70 percent of students.
10 The TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center has reservations about the reliability of the average achievement score because the percentage of students with achievement too low for estimation exceeds 15 percent, though it is less than 25 percent.
11 Nearly satisfied guidelines for sample participation rates after replacement schools were included.
12 Norway collected data from students in their fifth year of schooling rather than in grade 4 because year 1 in Norway is considered the equivalent of kindergarten rather than the first year of primary school.
13 National Defined Population covers less than 90 percent of National Target Population (but at least 77 percent).
14 U.S. state-level data are based on public school students only.
15 Did not satisfy guidelines for sample participation rates.
NOTE: Countries and other education systems were required to draw probability samples of students who were nearing the end of their fourth year of formal schooling (counting the first year of primary school as year 1), provided that the mean age at the time of testing was at least 9.5 years. Instructional times shown in this table are actual or implemented times (as opposed to intended times prescribed by the curriculum). Principals reported total instructional hours per day and school days per year. Total instructional hours per year were calculated by multiplying the number of school days per year by the number of instructional hours per day. Teachers reported instructional hours per week in mathematics and science. Instructional hours per year in mathematics and science were calculated by dividing weekly instructional hours by the number of school days per week and then multiplying by the number of school days per year.
SOURCE: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), 2015; International Results in Mathematics and Science, retrieved from Boston College, TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center website (http://timssandpirls.bc.edu/timss2015/international-results/). (This table was prepared December 2016.)

2018 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest