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Digest of Education Statistics
2018 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest


Table 332.10. Amount borrowed, aid status, and sources of aid for full-time, full-year postbaccalaureate students, by level of study and control and level of institution: Selected years, 1992-93 through 2015-16
[Standard errors appear in parentheses]
Level of study,
control and level of institution
Cumulative borrowing for undergraduate and graduate education1 Aid status (percent of students)
Percent who borrowed Average amount for those who borrowed Nonaided Source of aid
Current dollars Constant 2017-18 dollars2 Any aid3 Federal4 State Institu-
tional
Employer
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1992-93, all institutions ---   (†) ---   (†) ---   (†) 30.7   (1.43) 69.3   (1.43) 44.3   (1.42) 6.9   (0.64) 40.6   (2.02) 5.3   (0.59)
Master's degree ---   (†) ---   (†) ---   (†) 35.5   (2.54) 64.5   (2.54) 33.8   (1.91) 5.8   (0.79) 42.4   (2.97) 8.3   (1.01)
Public ---   (†) ---   (†) ---   (†) 32.7   (2.40) 67.3   (2.40) 33.9   (2.04) 7.8   (1.10) 44.1   (2.68) 7.6   (1.24)
4-year doctoral ---   (†) ---   (†) ---   (†) 32.4   (2.59) 67.6   (2.59) 32.4   (2.23) 6.7   (0.96) 46.4   (3.19) 7.7   (1.28)
Other 4-year ---   (†) ---   (†) ---   (†) 34.6   (4.38) 65.4   (4.38) 42.5   (5.30) 14.4   (4.13) 30.5   (3.67) 6.8 ! (2.66)
Private ---   (†) ---   (†) ---   (†) 39.2   (4.74) 60.8   (4.74) 33.7   (3.62) 3.2   (0.89) 40.2   (6.34) 9.4   (1.88)
4-year doctoral ---   (†) ---   (†) ---   (†) 37.4   (4.70) 62.6   (4.70) 34.2   (4.09) 2.9 ! (1.00) 42.9   (6.75) 8.9   (1.88)
Other 4-year ---   (†) ---   (†) ---   (†) 50.5   (10.60) 49.5   (10.60) 30.5   (7.06)   (†) 22.8 ! (9.39)   (†)
                                                       
Doctor's degree ---   (†) ---   (†) ---   (†) 30.1   (2.32) 69.9   (2.32) 28.3   (2.14) 4.4   (0.71) 51.6   (2.70) 3.0   (0.79)
Public ---   (†) ---   (†) ---   (†) 29.9   (2.99) 70.1   (2.99) 22.3   (2.26) 6.5   (1.14) 55.5   (3.01) 3.9   (1.00)
Private ---   (†) ---   (†) ---   (†) 30.4   (3.27) 69.6   (3.27) 37.8   (3.54)   (†) 45.5   (3.52)   (†)
                                                       
First-professional ---   (†) ---   (†) ---   (†) 22.6   (0.96) 77.4   (0.96) 68.2   (1.54) 9.9   (1.34) 37.0   (1.81) 2.3   (0.52)
Public ---   (†) ---   (†) ---   (†) 20.4   (1.02) 79.6   (1.02) 72.5   (1.29) 13.4   (1.75) 37.7   (1.67) 2.3   (0.59)
Private ---   (†) ---   (†) ---   (†) 24.6   (1.66) 75.4   (1.66) 64.2   (2.42) 6.8   (1.19) 36.4   (3.29) 2.3 ! (0.70)
                                                       
Other graduate ---   (†) ---   (†) ---   (†) 38.3   (6.82) 61.7   (6.82) 42.1   (4.26) 6.6   (1.81) 23.0   (4.05) 6.0 ! (2.98)
                                                       
1999-2000, all institutions 69.4   (0.74) $41,920   (863) $61,450   (1,265) 18.3   (0.66) 81.7   (0.66) 52.5   (0.76) 6.0   (0.60) 49.7   (1.03) 6.0   (0.57)
Master's degree 68.3   (1.12) 31,930   (1,097) 46,800   (1,608) 20.6   (1.15) 79.4   (1.15) 50.6   (1.23) 5.1   (0.66) 45.4   (1.61) 9.2   (1.03)
Public 63.2   (1.60) 28,070   (1,079) 41,140   (1,581) 22.3   (1.52) 77.7   (1.52) 44.8   (1.82) 7.3   (1.14) 49.8   (2.16) 7.0   (1.04)
4-year doctoral 62.5   (1.56) 27,510   (1,234) 40,320   (1,808) 20.2   (1.46) 79.8   (1.46) 43.3   (1.71) 7.0   (1.31) 54.3   (2.02) 7.3   (1.20)
Other 4-year 70.9   (6.04) 31,920   (2,822) 46,790   (4,137) 29.9   (5.08) 70.1   (5.08) 54.7   (6.88) 10.2 ! (3.32) 27.4   (6.85) 5.1 ! (1.79)
Private 74.4   (1.55) 35,890   (1,855) 52,610   (2,719) 18.6   (1.59) 81.4   (1.59) 57.8   (1.88) 2.5   (0.63) 40.2   (2.63) 11.8   (1.89)
4-year doctoral 73.3   (1.76) 38,420   (2,521) 56,310   (3,695) 17.1   (1.93) 82.9   (1.93) 58.3   (2.36) 2.9 ! (0.90) 50.5   (3.22) 8.3   (1.31)
Other5 76.9   (3.74) 30,770   (1,850) 45,100   (2,711) 21.8   (2.75) 78.2   (2.75) 56.6   (4.41)   (†) 18.1   (3.91) 19.1   (5.24)
                                                       
Doctor's degree 56.8   (1.95) 38,990   (3,421) 57,150   (5,014) 12.0   (1.38) 88.0   (1.38) 29.6   (2.80) 2.6   (0.54) 77.4   (1.65) 5.4   (0.64)
Public 54.5   (1.92) 33,600   (1,564) 49,240   (2,293) 11.4   (1.38) 88.6   (1.38) 26.1   (1.86) 3.2   (0.75) 80.0   (1.59) 7.3   (0.88)
Private 60.5   (3.62) 46,680   (7,288) 68,420   (10,682) 13.0   (2.80) 87.0   (2.80) 35.2   (6.26)   (†) 73.2   (3.22) 2.3   (0.55)
                                                       
First-professional 85.1   (1.14) 60,860   (1,713) 89,200   (2,511) 13.4   (1.18) 86.6   (1.18) 77.1   (1.29) 9.9   (1.65) 41.4   (2.40) 1.7 ! (0.53)
Public 86.8   (1.70) 52,790   (1,954) 77,380   (2,864) 13.8   (1.82) 86.2   (1.82) 78.3   (2.13) 12.7   (2.57) 38.9   (2.84) 1.8 ! (0.87)
Private 83.6   (1.63) 67,820   (3,213) 99,400   (4,710) 13.1   (1.49) 86.9   (1.49) 76.1   (1.84) 7.5   (2.11) 43.4   (3.65) 1.7 ! (0.66)
                                                       
Other graduate 57.5   (3.81) 27,840   (2,036) 40,800   (2,984) 39.3   (3.68) 60.7   (3.68) 44.9   (3.72) 8.1   (2.37) 25.3   (3.22) 2.8 ! (1.20)
                                                       
2007-08, all institutions 71.3   (1.04) $55,110   (993) $64,590   (1,164) 13.1   (0.80) 86.9   (0.80) 56.6   (1.18) 3.8   (0.28) 43.9   (1.17) 11.6   (0.93)
Master's degree 71.8   (1.77) 43,250   (1,374) 50,700   (1,610) 15.6   (1.34) 84.4   (1.34) 55.5   (1.93) 2.9   (0.40) 35.5   (1.48) 16.3   (1.76)
Public 66.5   (1.79) 37,770   (1,473) 44,270   (1,727) 13.3   (1.27) 86.7   (1.27) 50.7   (1.91) 4.1   (0.83) 52.2   (2.40) 13.4   (1.49)
4-year doctoral 65.1   (1.95) 38,450   (1,644) 45,070   (1,927) 12.1   (1.34) 87.9   (1.34) 50.1   (2.07) 4.2   (0.93) 56.0   (2.62) 14.5   (1.68)
Other 4-year 77.1   (4.81) 33,440   (2,285) 39,190   (2,678) 22.7   (3.92) 77.3   (3.92) 55.6   (5.96)   (†) 23.5   (4.89) 5.1 ! (1.92)
Private 75.5   (2.58) 46,590   (1,974) 54,600   (2,313) 17.2   (1.96) 82.8   (1.96) 58.8   (2.81) 2.0   (0.35) 24.0   (1.59) 18.3   (2.79)
4-year doctoral 71.4   (1.85) 46,510   (1,654) 54,510   (1,939) 19.1   (1.45) 80.9   (1.45) 55.1   (1.51) 2.4   (0.50) 36.0   (2.46) 14.4   (1.17)
Other5 80.8   (5.13) 46,670   (3,671) 54,710   (4,303) 14.8   (3.91) 85.2   (3.91) 63.6   (5.96) 1.6   (0.43) 8.4   (1.44) 23.4   (6.23)
                                                       
Doctor's degree 59.8   (1.73) 55,200   (2,108) 64,700   (2,471) 7.1   (0.88) 92.9   (0.88) 38.4   (2.18) 2.9   (0.41) 70.7   (3.03) 7.9   (0.79)
Public 52.3   (2.17) 44,190   (1,604) 51,790   (1,880) 7.9   (1.48) 92.1   (1.48) 29.7   (1.80) 3.6   (0.65) 81.1   (1.89) 7.7   (0.93)
Private 67.8   (2.41) 64,120   (3,123) 75,160   (3,661) 6.2   (1.08) 93.8   (1.08) 47.6   (3.43) 2.2 ! (0.65) 59.8   (5.02) 8.0   (1.36)
                                                       
First-professional 84.9   (1.29) 81,400   (1,782) 95,410   (2,088) 11.5   (1.12) 88.5   (1.12) 81.7   (1.35) 7.5   (0.83) 35.7   (1.89) 4.6   (0.75)
Public 84.4   (1.96) 73,230   (2,717) 85,830   (3,185) 11.5   (1.65) 88.5   (1.65) 81.8   (2.12) 10.6   (1.46) 34.0   (2.67) 4.9   (1.44)
Private 85.4   (1.57) 87,800   (2,183) 102,900   (2,559) 11.5   (1.46) 88.5   (1.46) 81.5   (1.67) 5.1   (0.85) 37.0   (2.56) 4.4   (0.72)
                                                       
Other graduate 62.4   (6.48) 43,740   (3,904) 51,270   (4,576) 30.8   (6.54) 69.2   (6.54) 51.0   (6.62)   (†) 25.5   (5.78) 6.2 ! (2.33)
                                                       
2011-12, all institutions 73.3   (0.90) $74,710   (996) $81,460   (1,086) 13.9   (0.77) 86.1   (0.77) 62.3   (0.93) 2.4   (0.34) 42.2   (1.19) 10.2   (0.48)
Master's degree 73.5   (1.45) 58,590   (1,142) 63,880   (1,245) 17.4   (1.28) 82.6   (1.28) 63.0   (1.44) 1.8   (0.35) 35.1   (1.53) 8.8   (0.70)
Public 71.8   (2.24) 50,200   (1,816) 54,740   (1,980) 16.2   (1.84) 83.8   (1.84) 58.2   (2.41) 3.7   (0.80) 45.6   (2.35) 10.3   (1.17)
4-year doctoral 70.7   (2.41) 50,620   (2,015) 55,190   (2,197) 16.3   (2.03) 83.7   (2.03) 57.0   (2.60) 4.0   (0.89) 47.1   (2.56) 10.8   (1.28)
Other 4-year 82.2   (3.71) 46,900   (2,538) 51,130   (2,768) 15.4   (4.13) 84.6   (4.13) 69.5   (5.18)   (†) 31.2   (3.46) 5.9   (1.68)
Private 74.8   (1.95) 64,510   (1,456) 70,340   (1,587) 18.2   (1.80) 81.8   (1.80) 66.5   (2.13) 0.4 ! (0.19) 27.5   (2.09) 7.8   (0.88)
4-year doctoral 70.1   (2.41) 67,130   (2,165) 73,200   (2,361) 19.6   (2.06) 80.4   (2.06) 59.5   (2.45)   (†) 35.2   (2.96) 7.8   (1.23)
Other5 81.8   (3.20) 61,140   (1,816) 66,660   (1,980) 16.1   (3.09) 83.9   (3.09) 77.0   (3.66)   (†) 15.9   (2.70) 7.6   (1.04)
                                                       
Doctor's degree--research/                                                      
scholarship 50.5   (1.42) 65,090   (2,343) 70,980   (2,555) 6.6   (0.73) 93.4   (0.73) 27.8   (1.19) 1.5 ! (0.49) 79.8   (1.27) 24.0   (1.25)
Public 47.9   (2.23) 55,500   (2,291) 60,520   (2,498) 5.9   (1.04) 94.1   (1.04) 24.2   (1.41) 2.1 ! (0.78) 87.2   (1.59) 27.0   (1.93)
Private 54.0   (1.86) 76,180   (4,351) 83,070   (4,744) 7.5   (1.07) 92.5   (1.07) 32.3   (2.30)   (†) 70.1   (2.28) 20.1   (1.06)
                                                       
Doctor’s degree--professional                                                      
practice and other6 88.3   (0.90) 110,570   (1,848) 120,560   (2,015) 9.3   (0.88) 90.7   (0.88) 84.4   (1.03) 4.5   (0.96) 35.1   (1.66) 4.4   (0.51)
Public 88.3   (1.00) 102,220   (2,726) 111,460   (2,973) 8.9   (1.09) 91.1   (1.09) 84.4   (1.31) 8.1   (2.27) 40.6   (2.51) 5.4   (0.82)
Private 88.3   (1.28) 116,000   (2,490) 126,480   (2,715) 9.6   (1.22) 90.4   (1.22) 84.4   (1.50) 2.2   (0.53) 31.5   (2.19) 3.7   (0.62)
                                                       
Other graduate 74.9   (6.28) 57,540   (5,456) 62,740   (5,948) 29.1   (6.46) 70.9   (6.46) 61.4   (7.24)   (†) 16.9   (4.78) 5.5 ! (2.47)
                                                       
2015-16, all institutions 68.3   (0.93) $80,750   (2,158) $84,090   (2,247) 17.0   (0.82) 83.0   (0.82) 54.0   (0.89) 3.3   (0.52) 46.6   (1.25) 6.9   (0.54)
Master's degree 66.6   (1.45) 59,100   (1,608) 61,550   (1,674) 20.0   (1.17) 80.0   (1.17) 51.9   (1.48) 3.1   (0.46) 41.6   (1.62) 9.0   (0.75)
Public 63.7   (2.22) 49,450   (2,109) 51,500   (2,197) 21.6   (1.77) 78.4   (1.77) 45.0   (2.10) 5.5   (0.93) 44.4   (2.17) 6.6   (0.89)
4-year doctoral 63.1   (2.34) 49,950   (2,287) 52,010   (2,382) 21.2   (1.86) 78.8   (1.86) 44.2   (2.23) 5.4   (1.00) 46.2   (2.28) 6.6   (0.96)
Other 4-year 71.7   (3.46) 44,240   (2,997) 46,070   (3,121) 25.9   (3.22) 74.1   (3.22) 54.7   (3.65) 5.8 ! (1.82) 23.6   (4.31) 6.3 ! (2.28)
Private 69.1   (1.74) 66,890   (2,295) 69,660   (2,390) 18.5   (1.52) 81.5   (1.52) 57.9   (1.98) 1.0 ! (0.35) 39.1   (2.52) 11.1   (1.14)
4-year doctoral 65.3   (2.35) 67,870   (3,010) 70,680   (3,134) 20.4   (1.97) 79.6   (1.97) 54.3   (2.57) 1.2 ! (0.48) 39.7   (3.06) 9.2   (1.44)
Other5 78.4   (2.23) 64,910   (2,838) 67,590   (2,955) 14.0   (1.56) 86.0   (1.56) 66.7   (2.52) 0.7 ! (0.28) 37.7   (4.15) 15.8   (1.46)
                                                       
Doctor's degree--research/                                                      
scholarship 52.5   (2.13) 74,510   (3,435) 77,590   (3,577) 9.9   (1.05) 90.1   (1.05) 27.9   (1.94) 1.2   (0.31) 71.9   (1.93) 6.2   (0.78)
Public 46.6   (2.93) 61,200   (4,167) 63,730   (4,339) 10.9   (1.82) 89.1   (1.82) 18.3   (2.49) 1.5   (0.44) 78.7   (2.56) 5.0   (0.90)
Private 58.2   (3.11) 84,910   (5,368) 88,420   (5,590) 8.8   (1.18) 91.2   (1.18) 37.3   (2.86) 0.9 ! (0.40) 65.2   (3.08) 7.4   (1.24)
                                                       
Doctor’s degree--professional                                                      
practice and other6 80.3   (1.56) 121,940   (6,425) 126,980   (6,691) 14.0   (1.48) 86.0   (1.48) 73.0   (1.54) 4.6 ! (1.57) 45.9   (2.17) 2.3   (0.68)
Public 79.8   (2.45) 99,450   (3,685) 103,560   (3,837) 15.9   (2.29) 84.1   (2.29) 71.8   (2.26) 4.5   (1.06) 48.6   (3.18) 2.2 ! (0.84)
Private 80.7   (2.02) 138,370   (11,011) 144,090   (11,466) 12.6   (2.00) 87.4   (2.00) 74.0   (2.11)   (†) 43.9   (2.93) 2.5 ! (1.04)
                                                       
Other graduate 70.8958   (4.84) 80,210   (8,667) 83,520   (9,026) 20.7374   (3.95) 79.2626   (3.95) 54.0   (5.41)   (†) 28.1555   (5.29) 10.6604   (3.09)
---Not available.
†Not applicable.
!Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent.
‡Reporting standards not met. Either there are too few cases for a reliable estimate or the coefficient of variation (CV) is 50 percent or greater.
1 Includes all loans ever taken out for both graduate and undergraduate education. Does not include Parent Loans for Undergraduate Students (PLUS) or loans from families and friends.
2 Constant dollars based on the Consumer Price Index, prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, adjusted to a school-year basis.
3 Includes students who reported they were awarded aid but did not specify the source of aid.
4 Includes Department of Veterans Affairs and Department of Defense benefits.
5 Includes nonprofit 4-year nondoctoral institutions and for-profit 2-year-and-above institutions.
6 Professional practice doctor's degrees include most degrees that were classified as first-professional degrees prior to 2010-11 (such as M.D., D.D.S., and J.D.). "Other" doctor’s degrees are those that are neither research/scholarship degrees nor professional practice degrees.
NOTE: Full-time, full-year students are those who were enrolled full time for 9 or more months. Excludes students whose attendance status was not reported. Total includes some students whose level of study or control of institution was unknown. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding and because some students receive multiple types of aid and aid from different sources. Data exclude students attending institutions in Puerto Rico.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 1992-93, 1999-2000, 2007-08, 2011-12, and 2015-16 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:93, NPSAS:2000, NPSAS:08, NPSAS:12, and NPSAS:16). (This table was prepared May 2019.)

2018 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest