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Digest of Education Statistics
2018 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest


Table 316.80. Percentage of degree-granting postsecondary institutions with a tenure system and of full-time faculty with tenure at these institutions, by control and level of institution and selected characteristics of faculty: Selected years, 1993-94 through 2017-18
Selected characteristic and academic year All insti-tutions Public institutions Nonprofit institutions For-profit
institutions
Total 4-year institutions 2-year Total 4-year institutions 2-year
Total Doc-toral1 Mas- ter's2 Other Total Doc-toral1 Mas- ter's2 Other
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
Percent of institutions with a
   tenure system
                           
1993-94 62.6 73.6 92.6 100.0 98.3 76.4 62.1 62.0 66.3 90.5 76.5 58.3 26.1 7.8
1999-2000 55.0 72.8 94.6 100.0 95.5 86.3 60.3 59.0 63.4 81.2 72.6 54.9 14.0 4.0
2003-04 52.7 71.3 90.9 100.0 98.0 70.9 59.4 57.9 61.2 86.6 71.6 49.5 14.4 3.6
2005-06 50.9 71.5 90.9 99.5 98.0 71.6 59.4 56.5 59.8 85.1 67.1 49.2 11.5 2.0
2007-08 49.5 70.7 91.0 100.0 98.6 70.1 57.4 57.5 60.2 81.3 64.2 45.4 13.0 1.4
                             
2009-10 47.8 71.2 90.9 99.6 98.5 71.3 57.7 57.1 59.5 80.6 64.4 44.6 12.9 1.5
2011-12 45.3 71.6 90.8 99.6 98.5 70.5 57.8 55.6 58.6 79.5 64.0 42.7 8.0 1.3
2013-14 49.3 74.6 95.8 99.6 98.1 86.6 58.9 59.7 61.8 79.6 63.2 49.0 12.5 1.2
2015-16 51.9 74.8 95.2 99.6 97.6 85.7 58.9 57.7 60.6 79.8 60.8 47.0 7.5 1.3
2016-17 54.4 74.6 94.6 99.6 97.2 85.0 58.0 58.8 61.5 79.3 61.1 48.8 9.2 1.5
2017-18 55.1 74.7 94.5 99.6 96.8 85.7 57.7 58.3 60.6 80.2 59.4 46.9 7.8 1.6
                             
Faculty with tenure at institutions
   with a tenure system
                           
                             
Percent of all full-time faculty3                            
1993-94 56.2 58.9 56.3 54.5 60.5 51.1 69.9 49.5 49.5 47.6 51.8 50.4 47.9 33.8
1999-2000 53.7 55.9 53.2 50.4 59.1 54.7 67.7 48.2 48.1 43.4 52.3 53.5 59.7 77.4
2003-04 50.4 53.0 50.2 48.9 52.9 51.2 65.2 44.6 44.6 40.1 48.7 51.9 47.7 69.2
2005-06 49.6 51.5 48.7 47.2 52.3 49.1 64.1 45.1 45.1 40.7 49.1 52.5 45.2 69.3
2007-08 48.8 50.5 47.8 45.9 52.7 49.5 63.6 44.7 44.7 41.0 50.5 53.1 41.3 51.3
                             
2009-10 48.7 50.6 47.8 45.7 53.6 51.3 64.1 44.3 44.3 40.4 50.5 54.1 38.5 51.0
2011-12 48.5 50.7 48.0 45.8 54.3 53.4 64.7 43.7 43.7 39.7 50.7 54.3 31.4 31.0
2013-14 48.3 50.4 47.3 44.9 55.4 52.2 67.2 43.8 43.8 39.5 51.7 55.9 31.5 19.8
2015-16 47.2 49.3 46.6 44.2 54.7 53.5 65.0 42.8 42.8 38.6 51.6 55.6 33.9 17.0
2016-17 46.4 48.2 45.8 43.3 53.4 56.9 63.6 42.4 42.4 38.3 51.1 55.4 32.2 17.2
2017-18 45.6 47.3 44.9 42.4 52.7 56.1 63.2 41.8 41.8 37.9 50.7 55.0 27.2 17.6
                             
Percent of full-time
   instructional faculty only
                           
2016-17                            
Total 48.8 50.7 48.5 46.6 53.6 56.9 63.6 44.9 44.9 41.6 51.1 55.5 32.2 17.2
Male 54.7 56.4 55.1 53.8 59.4 60.3 65.7 51.2 51.3 48.5 56.8 60.9 37.2 20.0
Female 41.7 43.9 40.0 36.9 47.1 53.8 61.8 36.9 37.0 32.2 45.0 49.5 29.4 14.8
                             
Professor 90.2 91.4 91.5 89.9 98.1 96.4 90.8 87.8 87.8 85.2 93.0 96.0 78.8 62.2
Male 90.7 92.0 92.0 90.7 98.1 96.7 92.0 88.2 88.2 86.1 93.0 95.9 84.6 71.1
Female 89.1 90.2 90.3 87.8 97.9 95.9 89.8 86.9 86.9 82.9 92.9 96.3 75.0 51.4
                             
Associate professor 75.8 79.4 79.7 76.8 90.0 87.4 75.4 69.1 69.1 62.8 77.8 87.6 54.7 41.6
Male 76.2 79.9 80.1 77.5 90.0 88.0 77.1 68.9 68.9 63.1 77.7 86.9 75.0 34.3
Female 75.4 78.6 79.1 75.9 89.9 86.7 74.1 69.3 69.4 62.3 77.8 88.3 47.9 47.6
                             
Assistant professor 5.5 7.1 4.0 1.7 8.9 23.3 44.1 2.6 2.6 1.6 5.5 3.9 9.8
Male 5.4 6.7 3.8 1.6 9.0 24.0 47.1 2.9 2.8 1.8 5.8 4.5 11.5
Female 5.7 7.5 4.2 1.8 8.7 22.8 41.9 2.4 2.4 1.3 5.2 3.3 8.6
                             
Instructor 26.4 32.4 8.4 0.5 2.0 41.3 56.7 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.8 3.4
Lecturer 1.8 2.3 1.7 1.1 3.5 8.3 25.9 0.2 0.2 0.1 1.5
No academic rank 29.4 36.9 22.0 1.9 2.6 59.5 65.8 4.8 4.6 1.9 22.0 1.8 34.5
                             
2017-18                            
Total 48.0 49.7 47.5 45.5 52.9 56.1 63.2 44.4 44.4 41.2 50.7 55.0 27.2 17.6
Male 54.0 55.6 54.2 52.8 58.8 59.5 65.5 50.8 50.8 48.2 56.4 60.5 32.9 20.1
Female 40.9 42.9 39.2 36.0 46.4 52.8 61.3 36.4 36.4 32.0 44.7 49.0 24.0 15.3
                             
Professor 89.7 90.9 90.9 89.1 98.2 96.2 90.6 87.5 87.5 85.0 92.7 95.9 60.9 70.7
Male 90.2 91.4 91.4 90.0 98.1 96.5 91.6 87.9 87.9 85.9 92.7 95.8 77.8 74.5
Female 88.6 89.7 89.6 86.8 98.3 95.7 89.8 86.6 86.6 82.7 92.8 95.9 50.0 65.7
                             
Associate professor 75.0 78.4 78.6 75.6 89.6 86.4 75.1 68.6 68.6 62.5 77.7 87.6 52.7 41.5
Male 75.5 79.1 79.2 76.4 89.8 86.3 77.4 68.6 68.6 63.0 77.7 86.7 71.4 37.5
Female 74.4 77.4 77.9 74.4 89.4 86.5 73.4 68.6 68.7 61.8 77.8 88.6 46.3 45.5
                             
Assistant professor 5.1 6.5 3.5 1.3 8.3 21.9 44.0 2.5 2.5 1.7 5.4 2.8
Male 5.0 6.3 3.5 1.3 8.6 22.8 47.0 2.6 2.6 1.7 5.7 3.3
Female 5.2 6.8 3.6 1.4 8.0 21.1 41.7 2.4 2.4 1.6 5.2 2.4
                             
Instructor 25.6 31.3 9.5 0.6 1.5 45.3 55.5 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.4 1.1 3.6
Lecturer 1.7 2.2 1.6 1.0 3.2 5.7 28.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 1.7
No academic rank 28.4 35.6 21.3 1.2 6.9 56.6 65.3 4.8 4.6 2.1 21.0 1.5 41.4
†Not applicable.
‡Reporting standards not met (too few cases).
1 Institutions that awarded 20 or more doctor's degrees during the previous academic year.
2 Institutions that awarded 20 or more master's degrees, but less than 20 doctor's degrees, during the previous academic year.
3 Includes instructional, research, and public service faculty.
NOTE: Degree-granting institutions grant associate’s or higher degrees and participate in Title IV federal financial aid programs. Data include imputations for nonrespondent institutions. Some data have been revised from previously published figures.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), "Fall Staff Survey" (IPEDS-S:93-99); and IPEDS Winter 2003-04 through Winter 2011-12 and Spring 2014 through Spring 2018, Human Resources component, Fall Staff section. (This table was prepared November 2018.)

2018 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest