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Digest of Education Statistics
2018 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest


Table 302.45. Percentage distribution of all 2009 9th-graders and those who ever attended a postsecondary institution, by poverty status in 2009 and 2012 and selected postsecondary outcomes: 2016
[Standard errors appear in parentheses]
Selected postsecondary outcome as of February 2016 Total Poverty status1
In 2009 In 2012 In 2009 and 2012
Not in poverty In poverty Not in poverty In poverty Not in poverty at either wave In poverty only in 2009 In poverty only in 2012 In poverty both in 2009 and in 2012
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
All 2009 9th-graders                                                      
Total 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†)
Timing and status of postsecondary enrollment                                                      
Enrolled within year after high school
   and persisted2
52.8   (0.95) 58.0   (1.00) 30.7   (1.56) 58.5   (0.98) 33.4   (2.41) 60.8   (1.02) 36.0   (3.63) 40.6   (3.69) 28.1   (2.64)
Delayed enrollment but persisted3 5.3   (0.37) 5.2   (0.39) 5.5   (0.84) 5.3   (0.41) 5.9   (0.99) 5.2   (0.42) 6.5   (1.56) 6.4   (1.44) 5.5   (1.11)
Enrolled within year but left without credential4 13.1   (0.69) 12.9   (0.61) 14.3   (1.68) 12.8   (0.66) 14.0   (1.79) 12.7   (0.66) 13.6   (2.20) 13.5   (1.99) 14.4   (2.57)
Delayed enrollment and left without credential5 2.9   (0.23) 2.8   (0.27) 3.4   (0.53) 2.7   (0.28) 3.4   (0.54) 2.6   (0.31) 3.0   (0.82) 2.9 ! (0.89) 3.8   (0.71)
Never enrolled 25.8   (0.82) 21.1   (0.80) 46.1   (1.93) 20.7   (0.79) 43.3   (1.91) 18.7   (0.77) 41.0   (3.01) 36.6   (3.19) 48.2   (2.59)
                                                       
Postsecondary enrollment and employment status6                                                      
Enrolled and employed 33.8   (0.76) 37.5   (0.83) 18.2   (1.42) 37.6   (0.80) 21.4   (1.87) 39.4   (0.86) 20.0   (2.51) 27.1   (2.92) 17.4   (2.16)
Enrolled but not employed 19.1   (0.63) 20.4   (0.76) 13.4   (1.97) 21.1   (0.75) 12.5   (1.50) 21.7   (0.84) 15.7   (2.99) 12.0   (2.08) 12.8   (2.29)
Employed but not enrolled 34.2   (0.87) 31.8   (0.88) 44.5   (2.08) 30.8   (0.94) 45.0   (1.86) 29.7   (0.90) 41.6   (3.72) 44.1   (3.18) 45.6   (2.67)
Neither enrolled nor employed 12.9   (0.62) 10.3   (0.52) 23.9   (1.71) 10.5   (0.54) 21.1   (1.92) 9.3   (0.55) 22.7   (2.47) 16.8   (2.21) 24.2   (2.43)
                                                       
2009 9th-graders who ever attended a
   postsecondary institution
                                                     
Total 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†)
First credential pursued at first institution                                                      
No degree or certificate program, just
   undergraduate classes
8.5   (0.50) 8.3   (0.53) 10.0   (1.45) 8.1   (0.5) 10.3   (1.49) 7.9   (0.59) 10.1   (2.22) 11.7   (2.49) 9.0   (1.82)
Certificate or diploma 7.7   (0.51) 6.5   (0.51) 15.1   (2.03) 6.0   (0.5) 15.4   (2.40) 5.7   (0.50) 10.8   (2.33) 12.7   (2.56) 17.8   (3.55)
Associate’s degree 28.5   (0.94) 26.6   (0.92) 40.0   (3.10) 26.4   (1.0) 39.3   (2.83) 25.4   (1.00) 40.0   (4.75) 37.5   (4.10) 40.9   (4.32)
Bachelor’s degree 55.3   (1.05) 58.6   (1.05) 34.9   (2.45) 59.5   (1.2) 35.0   (3.18) 61.0   (1.13) 39.1   (4.98) 38.2   (4.58) 32.3   (4.37)
                                                       
Control and level of first postsecondary institution                                                      
Public 2-year or less 35.8   (1.01) 33.5   (1.04) 49.7   (2.87) 32.8   (1.15) 50.7   (3.32) 31.8   (1.11) 47.3   (5.65) 49.3   (4.62) 52.0   (5.02)
Private nonprofit 2-year or less 0.5   (0.11) 0.4   (0.11) 0.9 ! (0.40) 0.4   (0.12) 0.3 ! (0.16) 0.4 ! (0.12)   (†)   (†)   (†)
Private for-profit 2-year or less 3.2   (0.36) 2.7   (0.37) 6.4   (1.09) 2.5   (0.38) 7.2   (1.26) 2.4   (0.39) 4.0 ! (1.50) 5.7 ! (2.03) 8.5   (1.72)
Public 4-year 41.6   (0.97) 43.3   (1.06) 31.4   (2.72) 43.9   (1.05) 31.0   (2.51) 44.8   (1.08) 30.8   (3.96) 30.9   (3.48) 31.1   (3.86)
Private nonprofit 4-year 17.0   (0.68) 18.3   (0.75) 9.0   (1.77) 18.7   (0.79) 8.0   (1.60) 19.0   (0.84) 14.8 ! (4.78) 11.6   (2.71) 4.8   (1.25)
Private for-profit 4-year 1.9   (0.24) 1.8   (0.27) 2.5   (0.70) 1.7   (0.25) 2.6   (0.61) 1.6   (0.26) 2.2 ! (0.98) 2.2 ! (0.77) 3.1 ! (1.03)
                                                       
Selectivity of first postsecondary institution7                                                      
Selectivity not classified, 2-year or
   less-than-2-year institution
39.4   (1.09) 36.5   (1.13) 57.1   (2.59) 35.7   (1.28) 58.4   (3.32) 34.5   (1.21) 52.3   (5.79) 55.2   (4.72) 61.1   (4.37)
Selectivity not classified, 4-year institution 7.3   (0.43) 7.0   (0.48) 9.1   (1.86) 7.0   (0.42) 7.7   (1.24) 6.8   (0.46) 10.2 ! (3.18) 7.8   (1.90) 7.6   (1.68)
Inclusive, 4-year institution 8.1   (0.58) 7.9   (0.55) 9.7   (1.64) 8.1   (0.60) 8.5   (1.42) 8.0   (0.59) 9.0   (2.27) 6.1   (1.26) 10.5   (2.56)
Moderately selective, 4-year institution 26.7   (0.78) 28.4   (0.84) 16.0   (2.16) 28.2   (0.95) 19.1   (2.98) 29.1   (0.97) 16.0   (3.21) 23.5   (4.49) 15.4   (2.76)
Highly selective, 4-year institution 18.6   (0.79) 20.3   (0.81) 8.1   (2.21) 21.0   (0.85) 6.3   (0.95) 21.7   (0.85) 12.4 ! (4.94) 7.4   (1.71) 5.3   (1.21)
†Not applicable.
!Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent.
‡Reporting standards not met. Either there are too few cases for a reliable estimate or the coefficient of variation (CV) is 50 percent or greater.
1 "Not in poverty" indicates that the student’s family was at or above the poverty threshold, while "in poverty" indicates that the student’s family was below the poverty threshold. The poverty threshold is a dollar amount computed by the U.S. Census Bureau that varies depending on a family’s size and composition and is updated annually to account for inflation. Poverty status in 2009 is based on the 2008 poverty threshold. Poverty status in 2012 is based on the 2011 poverty threshold.
2 Enrolled in postsecondary education within 1 year of high school completion date and either was still enrolled or had completed a postsecondary credential as of February 2016.
3 First enrolled in postsecondary education more than 1 year after high school completion date and either was still enrolled or had completed a postsecondary credential as of February 2016.
4 Enrolled in postsecondary education within 1 year of high school completion date but was no longer enrolled as of February 2016 and had not completed a postsecondary credential.
5 First enrolled in postsecondary education more than 1 year after high school completion date, was no longer enrolled as of February 2016, and had not completed a postsecondary credential.
6 Indicates whether respondents were enrolled and whether they were employed in February 2016. Respondents are classified as not employed if they were not working in February 2016, regardless of whether they were actively looking for work.
7 Selectivity classification based on the Carnegie Classification 2010: Undergraduate Profile. "Highly selective" 4-year institutions are those whose first-year students’ test scores place them in roughly the top fifth of baccalaureate institutions; "moderately selective" 4-year institutions are those whose first-year students’ test scores place them in roughly the middle two-fifths of baccalaureate institutions; and "inclusive" 4-year institutions either did not report test score data or reported score data indicating that they extend educational opportunity to a wide range of students with respect to academic preparation and achievement.
NOTE: Poverty status was measured in fall 2009, when respondents were 9th-graders, and in spring 2012, when most respondents were in 11th grade. Table includes only respondents for whom data on poverty status in 2009 and 2012 were available. Postsecondary outcomes are as of February 2016, approximately 3 years after most respondents had completed high school.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09), Base Year, First Follow-up, and Second Follow-up. (This table was prepared January 2019).

2018 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest