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Digest of Education Statistics
2018 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest


Table 227.40. Percentage of elementary and secondary school students who do homework, average time spent doing homework, percentage whose parents check that homework is done, and percentage whose parents help with homework, by frequency and selected characteristics: 2007, 2012, and 2016
[Standard errors appear in parentheses]
Year and selected characteristic Percent of students who do homework outside of school Students who do homework outside of school
Average hours spent per week doing homework Percentage distribution by how frequently they do homework Percent whose parents1  check that homework is done2 Percentage distribution by how frequently their parents1  help with homework
Less than once per week 1 or 2 days per week 3 or 4 days per week 5 or more days per week No help given Less than once per week 1 or 2 days per week 3 or 4 days per week 5 or more days per week
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
2007                                                                        
All students 94.4    (0.30)  5.4    (0.06)  3.1    (0.34)  13.1    (0.47)  43.6    (0.62)  40.2    (0.60)  85.4    (0.46)  10.2    (0.41)  20.3    (0.51)  31.7    (0.64)  25.3    (0.59)  12.4    (0.41) 
                                                                         
All elementary school
     students (kindergarten
     through grade 8)
95.0    (0.37)  4.7    (0.07)  2.1    (0.23)  12.3    (0.56)  46.2    (0.73)  39.4    (0.68)  95.0    (0.34)  4.3    (0.34)  13.1    (0.52)  32.6    (0.77)  32.9    (0.76)  17.0    (0.56) 
Sex                                                                        
Male 94.6   (0.51) 4.6   (0.09) 2.1   (0.31) 12.4   (0.71) 47.9   (1.19) 37.6   (1.09) 95.3   (0.47) 4.3   (0.39) 12.9   (0.63) 32.3   (1.02) 32.7   (1.28) 17.8   (0.85)
Female 95.4   (0.53) 4.9   (0.10) 2.1   (0.31) 12.2   (0.96) 44.4   (1.13) 41.3   (1.08) 94.6   (0.48) 4.3   (0.56) 13.4   (0.76) 32.9   (1.17) 33.2   (1.17) 16.1   (0.79)
                                                                         
Race/ethnicity                                                                        
White 94.7   (0.48) 4.4   (0.07) 2.7   (0.36) 13.7   (0.74) 48.3   (1.05) 35.3   (0.99) 94.0   (0.42) 3.8   (0.37) 15.7   (0.74) 34.9   (0.94) 31.3   (0.92) 14.3   (0.63)
Black 95.5   (1.07) 5.6   (0.27) 1.3 ! (0.53) 7.0   (1.19) 44.4   (3.40) 47.2   (3.11) 98.1   (0.63) 3.5   (1.03) 7.4   (1.14) 25.2   (2.22) 38.3   (3.36) 25.5   (2.38)
Hispanic 94.8   (0.85) 4.7   (0.11) 1.3   (0.33) 13.5   (1.39) 40.7   (1.94) 44.4   (1.74) 96.1   (0.70) 7.1   (0.95) 10.3   (0.91) 30.1   (1.79) 34.0   (1.78) 18.6   (1.52)
Asian/Pacific Islander 95.9   (2.14) 5.7   (0.36)   (†) 4.7   (1.35) 40.1   (4.35) 54.3   (4.73) 89.4   (3.22) 3.7 ! (1.35) 15.4   (4.07) 34.7   (4.39) 29.3   (4.03) 17.0   (2.54)
Asian 97.7   (0.97) 5.7   (0.39)   (†) 5.1 ! (1.53) 39.1   (4.31) 54.8   (4.48) 88.5   (3.44) 3.1 ! (1.36) 12.8   (2.84) 37.5   (4.52) 30.7   (4.22) 15.9   (2.56)
Pacific Islander 79.3   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)
American Indian/Alaska
    Native
98.3   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)
Other3 96.7   (1.24) 4.8   (0.25) 1.2 ! (0.56) 8.5   (1.73) 57.1   (3.81) 33.1   (3.69) 95.1   (1.81)   (†) 12.3   (2.30) 35.5   (3.99) 33.8   (3.81) 16.1   (2.71)
                                                                         
School control                                                                        
Public 95.1   (0.38) 4.7   (0.08) 2.0   (0.25) 12.4   (0.62) 46.1   (0.76) 39.4   (0.73) 95.4   (0.36) 4.4   (0.38) 13.1   (0.55) 32.4   (0.86) 32.9   (0.81) 17.2   (0.64)
Private 94.0   (1.01) 4.8   (0.19) 2.7   (0.63) 11.4   (1.96) 46.7   (2.64) 39.2   (2.46) 91.5   (1.19) 3.6   (0.85) 13.6   (1.48) 34.3   (2.10) 33.5   (2.36) 15.2   (1.68)
                                                                         
Poverty status4                                                                        
Poor 94.2   (0.99) 4.7   (0.20) 2.9   (0.72) 16.3   (2.18) 39.0   (2.53) 41.7   (2.21) 97.9   (0.55) 6.1   (1.01) 8.8   (1.29) 28.5   (2.44) 35.2   (2.41) 21.3   (1.90)
Near-poor 93.1   (1.03) 4.7   (0.16) 2.2   (0.49) 13.4   (1.37) 47.0   (1.89) 37.5   (1.91) 95.8   (1.05) 5.2   (0.92) 11.5   (1.13) 31.8   (1.79) 33.3   (1.63) 18.2   (1.60)
Nonpoor 95.9   (0.38) 4.8   (0.08) 1.8   (0.24) 10.7   (0.59) 48.3   (0.94) 39.2   (0.89) 93.7   (0.48) 3.5   (0.32) 15.1   (0.68) 34.2   (0.85) 32.1   (0.79) 15.2   (0.59)
                                                                         
Locale                                                                        
City 95.2   (0.65) 5.1   (0.13) 1.5   (0.31) 9.1   (0.91) 43.4   (1.58) 46.0   (1.43) 95.4   (0.54) 4.8   (0.67) 11.3   (1.02) 29.1   (1.39) 36.0   (1.41) 18.7   (1.15)
Suburban 95.4   (0.51) 4.9   (0.11) 1.9   (0.37) 9.3   (0.71) 46.1   (1.24) 42.7   (1.19) 93.5   (0.67) 4.4   (0.55) 14.5   (0.85) 33.1   (1.05) 30.8   (1.14) 17.1   (0.91)
Town 93.0   (1.50) 4.1   (0.14) 2.7   (0.79) 18.8   (1.98) 46.4   (2.29) 32.2   (2.08) 96.0   (1.04) 3.2   (0.80) 14.2   (1.62) 35.7   (2.68) 31.1   (2.31) 15.7   (1.62)
Rural 95.0   (0.85) 4.2   (0.15) 3.2   (0.69) 19.5   (1.79) 50.6   (1.90) 26.8   (1.63) 96.3   (0.72) 4.1   (0.94) 13.1   (1.30) 35.5   (2.29) 32.8   (2.23) 14.6   (1.37)
                                                                         
All secondary school
     students (grades 9
     through 12)
93.0    (0.55)  6.8    (0.11)  5.4    (0.85)  14.8    (0.96)  38.0    (1.15)  41.9    (1.18)  64.6    (1.21)  23.1    (1.08)  35.9    (1.26)  29.7    (1.19)  8.8    (0.81)  2.5    (0.34) 
Sex                                                                        
Male 91.2   (0.80) 6.0   (0.19) 7.4   (1.53) 18.3   (1.59) 38.2   (1.78) 36.0   (1.64) 67.8   (1.88) 24.1   (1.56) 36.9   (1.97) 29.1   (1.84) 8.2   (1.11) 1.8   (0.41)
Female 94.9   (0.79) 7.5   (0.16) 3.3   (0.72) 11.2   (1.10) 37.7   (1.79) 47.9   (1.85) 61.4   (1.78) 22.0   (1.32) 35.0   (1.44) 30.4   (1.35) 9.3   (1.11) 3.3   (0.60)
                                                                         
Race/ethnicity                                                                        
White 94.5   (0.52) 6.8   (0.13) 4.2   (0.58) 12.9   (0.91) 38.6   (1.51) 44.3   (1.42) 57.2   (1.54) 22.5   (1.28) 41.1   (1.36) 27.7   (1.43) 6.3   (0.66) 2.3   (0.42)
Black 91.8   (1.98) 6.3   (0.38)   (†) 20.1   (3.86) 41.0   (4.72) 29.7   (3.43) 83.1   (2.84) 19.5   (2.97) 26.5   (4.77) 34.4   (4.03) 16.7   (4.45) 2.9 ! (1.13)
Hispanic 90.7   (2.11) 6.4   (0.34) 5.9   (1.29) 17.7   (3.55) 36.6   (2.93) 39.9   (3.03) 75.6   (2.71) 26.2   (2.94) 25.8   (2.38) 33.8   (3.49) 11.0   (1.76) 3.3 ! (1.00)
Asian/Pacific Islander 94.2   (4.66) 10.9   (1.22)   (†) 12.2 ! (4.84) 22.3   (6.26) 63.6   (7.16) 65.0   (7.41) 27.1   (7.15) 34.0   (6.73) 27.0   (6.87) 9.2 ! (3.24)   (†)
Asian 93.6   (5.45) 10.3   (1.37) #   (†) 13.8 ! (5.51) 18.5 ! (6.12) 67.7   (7.18) 59.0   (7.69) 26.4   (7.58) 36.1   (7.55) 26.8   (7.61) 7.6 ! (3.11)   (†)
Pacific Islander   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)
American Indian/Alaska
    Native
  (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)
Other 86.7   (4.90) 7.2   (0.72)   (†) 9.9   (2.55) 34.1   (4.90) 50.2   (5.29) 64.4   (6.36) 27.2   (6.80) 35.6   (5.57) 27.8   (5.30) 7.9 ! (2.41)   (†)
                                                                         
School control                                                                        
Public 92.3   (0.60) 6.5   (0.11) 5.9   (0.96) 15.9   (1.06) 39.7   (1.26) 38.5   (1.17) 66.1   (1.24) 22.8   (1.16) 35.4   (1.29) 30.0   (1.26) 9.1   (0.87) 2.7   (0.37)
Private 98.5   (0.54) 9.3   (0.39) 0.8 ! (0.35) 5.9   (1.34) 24.0   (2.72) 69.4   (2.89) 53.1   (3.98) 25.0   (2.64) 40.1   (3.68) 27.5   (4.07) 6.1   (1.36) 1.4 ! (0.61)
                                                                         
Poverty status4                                                                        
Poor 89.5   (2.21) 5.5   (0.32)   (†) 19.2   (3.62) 38.7   (4.32) 33.7   (3.69) 81.0   (3.03) 24.2   (3.80) 24.0   (4.21) 36.1   (3.76) 14.0   (3.21) 1.7 ! (0.63)
Near-poor 89.5   (1.86) 6.4   (0.35) 6.6   (1.58) 20.5   (3.32) 44.2   (3.43) 28.7   (3.10) 70.8   (3.38) 22.9   (2.90) 32.4   (2.97) 28.7   (3.42) 13.0   (2.22) 3.0 ! (1.02)
Nonpoor 94.9   (0.57) 7.2   (0.13) 4.3   (0.54) 12.1   (0.74) 36.1   (1.41) 47.5   (1.34) 58.9   (1.28) 22.8   (1.11) 39.9   (1.29) 28.4   (1.17) 6.3   (0.68) 2.6   (0.45)
                                                                         
Coursework                                                                        
Enrolled in AP classes 96.9   (0.59) 8.5   (0.22) 2.4   (0.70) 7.5   (0.93) 31.9   (1.81) 58.2   (1.97) 56.3   (2.06) 27.4   (1.90) 36.3   (1.69) 28.3   (1.74) 6.0   (0.99) 1.9   (0.43)
Not enrolled in AP classes 90.6   (0.81) 5.7   (0.13) 7.3   (1.31) 19.5   (1.40) 41.9   (1.56) 31.2   (1.42) 70.1   (1.46) 20.2   (1.14) 35.7   (1.70) 30.7   (1.59) 10.5   (1.23) 2.9   (0.51)
                                                                         
Locale                                                                        
City 92.8   (1.01) 6.8   (0.22) 6.3 ! (2.46) 14.1   (1.90) 35.9   (2.32) 43.7   (2.53) 71.5   (1.89) 22.6   (1.88) 33.4   (2.64) 29.3   (2.00) 12.0   (1.80) 2.7   (0.55)
Suburban 93.6   (0.95) 7.5   (0.17) 4.8   (0.86) 11.4   (1.27) 36.5   (1.71) 47.4   (2.07) 58.9   (2.00) 23.6   (1.74) 39.1   (1.79) 27.8   (1.68) 7.5   (1.01) 2.0   (0.47)
Town 89.7   (2.16) 6.4   (0.27) 5.4   (1.48) 13.2   (1.74) 45.9   (3.46) 35.5   (3.17) 64.8   (3.12) 24.3   (2.81) 34.4   (2.96) 27.9   (3.41) 9.3   (1.80) 4.2 ! (1.54)
Rural 93.9   (1.23) 5.6   (0.29) 5.1   (1.20) 22.7   (2.76) 39.6   (3.04) 32.6   (2.79) 65.5   (2.94) 22.1   (2.69) 34.4   (2.71) 34.8   (3.43) 6.2   (1.53) 2.5 ! (0.88)
                                                                         
2012                                                                        
All students 96.0    (0.27)  5.2    (0.05)  5.3    (0.22)  15.3    (0.46)  43.5    (0.58)  35.9    (0.59)  96.6    (0.18)  8.5    (0.24)  22.0    (0.43)  26.5    (0.43)  26.5    (0.52)  16.6    (0.41) 
                                                                         
All elementary school
    students (kindergarten
    through grade 8)
96.3    (0.29)  4.7    (0.06)  4.1    (0.27)  12.8    (0.50)  46.7    (0.74)  36.3    (0.68)  99.0    (0.12)  3.0    (0.24)  14.5    (0.40)  27.0    (0.54)  33.7    (0.64)  21.9    (0.57) 
                                                                         
All secondary school
    students (grades 9
    through 12)
95.1    (0.58)  6.6    (0.10)  8.4    (0.48)  21.8    (0.92)  35.0    (0.91)  34.9    (0.97)  90.4    (0.55)  22.7    (0.70)  41.5    (1.00)  25.3    (0.84)  7.8    (0.63)  2.8    (0.28) 
                                                                         
2016                                                                        
All students 94.0    (0.33)  5.4    (0.07)  6.3    (0.36)  15.6    (0.58)  42.3    (0.74)  35.9    (0.61)  96.6    (0.19)  9.2    (0.32)  23.4    (0.51)  26.6    (0.62)  24.8    (0.71)  16.0    (0.51) 
                                                                         
All elementary school
     students (kindergarten
     through grade 8)
95.0    (0.42)  4.7    (0.08)  5.4    (0.45)  14.4    (0.68)  45.6    (0.96)  34.6    (0.83)  99.1    (0.12)  4.0    (0.31)  16.6    (0.59)  26.9    (0.79)  31.4    (0.89)  21.0    (0.70) 
Sex                                                                        
Male 94.2   (0.71) 4.5   (0.10) 6.2   (0.67) 14.5   (0.92) 46.2   (1.36) 33.1   (1.19) 99.4   (0.13) 4.2   (0.50) 15.5   (0.76) 26.2   (1.16) 32.2   (1.18) 21.8   (1.11)
Female 95.9   (0.46) 4.8   (0.09) 4.4   (0.59) 14.3   (0.92) 44.9   (1.19) 36.3   (1.14) 98.7   (0.20) 3.9   (0.38) 17.8   (0.97) 27.7   (1.17) 30.5   (1.16) 20.2   (1.08)
                                                                         
Race/ethnicity                                                                        
White 95.4   (0.41) 4.2   (0.09) 6.3   (0.58) 16.2   (0.78) 48.0   (1.14) 29.5   (1.15) 98.9   (0.16) 3.3   (0.42) 19.5   (0.73) 29.5   (0.90) 31.0   (1.00) 16.7   (0.91)
Black 93.6   (1.83) 5.8   (0.33) 4.8   (1.15) 13.4   (2.14) 41.9   (2.62) 39.9   (2.88) 99.6   (0.23) 3.7   (0.91) 10.5   (1.58) 23.1   (2.52) 32.4   (2.63) 30.2   (2.64)
Hispanic 95.4   (0.99) 4.6   (0.12) 4.3   (0.96) 11.7   (1.48) 44.0   (2.09) 40.0   (2.11) 99.4   (0.22) 5.2   (0.87) 14.0   (1.34) 23.7   (1.47) 32.5   (2.03) 24.6   (1.68)
Asian/Pacific Islander 96.5   (0.95) 5.9   (0.30)   (†) 14.4 ! (5.23) 35.0   (3.70) 47.0   (3.48) 99.0   (0.42) 6.6   (1.29) 19.9   (3.13) 25.2   (4.83) 24.3   (2.85) 24.0   (3.01)
Asian 96.3   (1.00) 5.9   (0.31)   (†) 14.8 ! (5.46) 34.4   (3.82) 47.1   (3.70) 99.0   (0.44) 5.9   (1.20) 19.5   (3.27) 25.8   (4.99) 24.9   (2.96) 23.9   (3.10)
Pacific Islander   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)
American Indian/Alaska
    Native
91.5   (6.64) 4.2   (0.49)   (†) 27.3 ! (13.19) 50.3   (11.70)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†) 50.8   (11.96)   (†)
Two or more races 91.8   (1.87) 4.6   (0.25) 4.4 ! (1.38) 11.3   (1.67) 53.1   (4.21) 31.1   (3.42) 97.7   (0.96) 4.2   (1.21) 13.2   (1.95) 30.4   (3.38) 34.4   (4.86) 17.8   (2.76)
                                                                         
School control                                                                        
Public 95.0   (0.46) 4.5   (0.08) 5.4   (0.51) 14.8   (0.74) 46.1   (1.07) 33.7   (0.88) 99.1   (0.13) 4.2   (0.34) 16.4   (0.65) 26.7   (0.84) 31.6   (0.96) 21.0   (0.76)
Private 94.8   (1.25) 5.6   (0.24) 4.8   (1.24) 10.6   (1.66) 40.8   (2.59) 43.9   (2.57) 99.0   (0.30) 2.1   (0.50) 18.4   (1.73) 28.8   (2.21) 29.1   (2.32) 21.5   (2.34)
                                                                         
Poverty status4                                                                        
Poor 92.9   (1.40) 4.5   (0.27) 7.2   (1.32) 16.4   (2.26) 40.3   (2.33) 36.0   (2.29) 99.5   (0.17) 4.9   (0.99) 12.0   (1.63) 25.6   (2.71) 27.9   (2.28) 29.6   (2.31)
Near-poor 94.3   (1.14) 4.6   (0.17) 5.7   (0.87) 15.3   (1.59) 45.9   (2.35) 33.1   (2.17) 99.5   (0.20) 4.9   (0.93) 15.6   (1.29) 26.2   (1.92) 32.1   (2.21) 21.2   (1.73)
Nonpoor 95.9   (0.42) 4.7   (0.08) 4.7   (0.45) 13.5   (0.61) 47.1   (1.02) 34.8   (1.00) 98.8   (0.18) 3.5   (0.37) 18.4   (0.68) 27.6   (0.78) 32.2   (0.95) 18.4   (0.78)
                                                                         
Locale                                                                        
City 93.9   (0.97) 4.9   (0.13) 5.6   (0.77) 13.3   (1.37) 42.0   (1.68) 39.1   (1.51) 99.5   (0.15) 3.6   (0.45) 15.4   (1.19) 26.4   (1.79) 31.6   (1.81) 23.1   (1.45)
Suburban 96.1   (0.52) 4.8   (0.12) 4.0   (0.61) 12.8   (0.85) 46.4   (1.27) 36.9   (1.23) 98.7   (0.22) 4.6   (0.53) 16.6   (0.85) 27.0   (1.06) 30.5   (1.04) 21.2   (1.03)
Town 93.5   (1.29) 3.8   (0.16) 8.2   (1.95) 20.1   (2.16) 46.9   (2.50) 24.8   (2.33) 99.4   (0.30) 4.6   (1.25) 16.1   (2.24) 27.1   (2.28) 32.6   (2.73) 19.6   (2.71)
Rural 95.1   (0.87) 4.1   (0.14) 7.3   (0.92) 18.2   (1.44) 50.1   (2.34) 24.4   (1.99) 99.3   (0.21) 3.1   (0.75) 19.4   (1.43) 27.8   (1.52) 32.7   (2.16) 16.9   (2.11)
                                                                         
All secondary school
     students (grades 9
     through 12)
91.5    (0.72)  7.5    (0.13)  8.7    (0.56)  18.7    (0.85)  33.4    (0.93)  39.2    (1.03)  89.9    (0.61)  23.0    (0.81)  41.4    (1.02)  25.7    (0.96)  7.3    (0.65)  2.6    (0.30) 
Sex                                                                        
Male 88.7   (1.27) 6.4   (0.14) 12.0   (0.97) 22.2   (1.36) 33.9   (1.08) 31.8   (1.51) 91.5   (0.96) 23.2   (1.19) 41.4   (1.25) 25.4   (1.21) 7.4   (0.94) 2.5   (0.42)
Female 94.4   (0.68) 8.5   (0.19) 5.3   (0.68) 15.3   (1.04) 32.9   (1.53) 46.5   (1.51) 88.2   (0.74) 22.8   (1.19) 41.4   (1.46) 26.0   (1.40) 7.2   (0.89) 2.6   (0.48)
                                                                         
Race/ethnicity                                                                        
White 90.6   (1.07) 7.2   (0.13) 9.2   (0.71) 19.6   (1.08) 32.7   (1.09) 38.5   (1.23) 88.4   (0.72) 20.8   (1.08) 49.4   (1.35) 22.2   (1.08) 5.8   (0.74) 1.8   (0.32)
Black 92.7   (1.58) 7.0   (0.33) 9.9   (1.98) 22.1   (2.71) 36.1   (3.35) 31.9   (2.75) 93.5   (2.52) 19.0   (2.76) 33.3   (3.32) 31.7   (3.04) 11.1   (1.81) 4.8   (1.24)
Hispanic 91.2   (1.67) 7.1   (0.33) 8.3   (1.25) 17.8   (1.69) 35.7   (2.39) 38.2   (2.51) 92.0   (0.96) 28.9   (2.20) 28.8   (1.86) 30.3   (2.30) 8.5   (2.01) 3.5   (0.63)
Asian/Pacific Islander 96.4   (2.42) 11.2   (0.81) 1.4 ! (0.65) 7.7   (1.84) 23.2   (3.56) 67.8   (3.85) 84.9   (2.62) 28.6   (3.42) 33.6   (3.58) 27.5   (4.06) 8.9   (1.79)   (†)
Asian 96.3   (2.50) 11.4   (0.83) 1.4 ! (0.67) 6.5   (1.42) 22.9   (3.56) 69.2   (3.68) 84.4   (2.69) 29.1   (3.53) 32.3   (3.56) 28.2   (4.14) 9.0   (1.85)   (†)
Pacific Islander   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)
American Indian/Alaska
    Native
  (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)
Two or more races 92.6   (2.33) 8.3   (0.83) 6.5   (1.72) 15.9   (2.92) 37.0   (3.92) 40.5   (3.97) 89.8   (2.42) 19.9   (3.41) 50.1   (4.33) 22.2   (4.29) 5.7   (1.59)   (†)
                                                                         
School control                                                                        
Public 91.2   (0.74) 7.2   (0.13) 9.3   (0.62) 20.0   (0.92) 34.4   (1.02) 36.3   (1.12) 90.4   (0.64) 23.1   (0.85) 40.6   (1.13) 26.1   (1.04) 7.5   (0.72) 2.7   (0.34)
Private 94.0   (2.44) 9.9   (0.32) 2.4 ! (0.86) 6.5   (1.21) 23.3   (2.22) 67.8   (2.36) 84.6   (1.75) 21.7   (2.01) 49.5   (2.29) 22.0   (2.16) 5.3   (0.97) 1.5 ! (0.44)
                                                                         
Poverty status4                                                                        
Poor 85.5   (3.58) 6.2   (0.33) 14.9   (2.45) 23.1   (2.80) 36.7   (3.41) 25.3   (2.88) 91.5   (2.54) 30.0   (2.92) 21.7   (2.49) 29.2   (3.23) 14.4   (3.49) 4.7   (1.22)
Near-poor 90.9   (1.30) 6.7   (0.24) 9.7   (1.44) 22.0   (2.14) 35.1   (2.56) 33.2   (2.49) 93.5   (1.09) 21.7   (2.09) 34.7   (2.22) 33.2   (1.92) 6.7   (1.19) 3.7   (0.71)
Nonpoor 93.0   (0.71) 7.9   (0.13) 7.0   (0.53) 16.8   (0.84) 32.2   (0.93) 43.9   (1.07) 88.4   (0.59) 21.9   (0.87) 47.6   (1.13) 22.7   (1.16) 6.0   (0.57) 1.8   (0.32)
                                                                         
Coursework                                                                        
Enrolled in AP classes 96.9   (0.62) 9.4   (0.24) 4.5   (0.58) 13.0   (1.08) 30.3   (1.38) 52.2   (1.57) 86.7   (0.87) 28.7   (1.25) 42.7   (1.51) 21.8   (1.44) 5.8   (0.86) 1.0   (0.21)
Not enrolled in AP classes 88.1   (1.04) 6.1   (0.12) 11.5   (0.81) 22.7   (1.15) 35.5   (1.23) 30.3   (1.32) 92.1   (0.80) 19.1   (1.05) 40.5   (1.47) 28.4   (1.22) 8.3   (0.86) 3.7   (0.50)
                                                                         
Locale                                                                        
City 91.6   (1.25) 7.8   (0.27) 8.7   (1.14) 17.2   (1.59) 32.7   (1.73) 41.4   (2.14) 91.3   (0.91) 22.8   (1.90) 38.0   (1.93) 27.9   (1.90) 8.6   (1.28) 2.7   (0.61)
Suburban 93.6   (1.11) 7.9   (0.17) 6.1   (0.73) 16.7   (1.38) 33.7   (1.47) 43.5   (1.37) 89.3   (1.07) 22.6   (1.20) 43.3   (1.53) 24.2   (1.37) 7.2   (1.04) 2.7   (0.51)
Town 85.7   (3.15) 6.1   (0.33) 11.9   (1.96) 26.3   (3.48) 31.7   (3.10) 30.1   (3.68) 91.5   (2.01) 24.6   (3.42) 41.8   (3.83) 24.1   (2.90) 6.6   (1.79) 3.0 ! (1.10)
Rural 87.8   (2.02) 6.1   (0.22) 14.6   (1.83) 24.3   (1.98) 34.8   (1.97) 26.3   (1.83) 88.3   (1.15) 23.7   (2.04) 41.9   (2.19) 26.9   (2.22) 5.4   (1.15) 2.1 ! (0.64)
†Not applicable.
#Rounds to zero.
!Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent.
‡Reporting standards not met. Either there are too few cases for a reliable estimate or the coefficient of variation (CV) is 50 percent or greater.
1 Refers to one or more parent or other household adult.
2 The 2007 and 2016 questionnaire items differed. In 2007, parents responded "yes" or "no" to an item asking whether they check that homework is done. In 2016, parents responded to a multiple-choice question asking how often they check that homework is done, and the 2016 estimates include all parents who "rarely," "sometimes," or "always" check. Therefore, the 2007 and 2016 estimates are not comparable.
3 Includes children of Two or more races as well as those for whom "Other race" was reported. "Other race" was not included on the 2012 and 2016 questionnaires.
4 Poor children are those whose family incomes were below the Census Bureau's poverty threshold in the year prior to data collection; near-poor children are those whose family incomes ranged from the poverty threshold to 199 percent of the poverty threshold; and nonpoor children are those whose family incomes were at or above 200 percent of the poverty threshold. The poverty threshold is a dollar amount that varies depending on a family's size and composition and is updated annually to account for inflation. In 2015, for example, the poverty threshold for a family of four with two children was $24,257. Survey respondents are asked to select the range within which their income falls, rather than giving the exact amount of their income; therefore, the measure of poverty status is an approximation.
NOTE: While National Household Education Surveys Program (NHES) administrations prior to 2012 were administered via telephone with an interviewer, NHES:2012 and NHES:2016 used self-administered paper-and-pencil questionnaires that were mailed to respondents. Measurable differences between estimates for years prior to 2012 and estimates for later years could reflect actual changes in the population, or the changes could be due to the mode change from telephone to mail. Includes children enrolled in kindergarten through grade 12 and ungraded students. Excludes homeschooled students. Data based on responses of the parent most knowledgeable about the student's education. Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Parent and Family Involvement in Education Survey of the National Household Education Surveys Program (PFI-NHES:2007, 2012, and 2016). (This table was prepared May 2018.)

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