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Digest of Education Statistics
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Table 221.35. Average National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) reading scale score and percentage distribution of 4th- and 8th-graders, by whether student has access to a computer or tablet and the Internet at home and other selected characteristics: 2017
[Standard errors appear in parentheses]
Selected characteristic Percent of all students Average reading scale score1 Percentage distribution of students
All students Has access to a computer or tablet at home Has access to the Internet at home Has access to a computer or tablet at home Has access to the Internet at home
Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Grade 4                                        
All 4th-graders 100 (†) 222 (0.3) 225 (0.3) 208 (0.7) 227 (0.3) 196 (0.6) 91 (0.2) 9 (0.2) 89 (0.1) 11 (0.1)
                                         
Sex                                        
Male 51 (0.1) 219 (0.3) 222 (0.3) 206 (0.9) 224 (0.3) 194 (0.6) 91 (0.2) 9 (0.2) 89 (0.2) 11 (0.2)
Female 49 (0.1) 225 (0.3) 228 (0.3) 211 (1.0) 230 (0.3) 198 (1.0) 92 (0.2) 8 (0.2) 88 (0.2) 12 (0.2)
                                         
Race/ethnicity                                        
White 49 (0.3) 232 (0.3) 234 (0.3) 219 (1.1) 235 (0.3) 208 (0.9) 93 (0.2) 7 (0.2) 91 (0.2) 9 (0.2)
Black 15 (0.2) 206 (0.5) 209 (0.5) 199 (1.3) 211 (0.6) 187 (1.1) 91 (0.4) 9 (0.4) 87 (0.4) 13 (0.4)
Hispanic 26 (0.3) 209 (0.5) 212 (0.5) 199 (1.1) 214 (0.5) 188 (1.1) 88 (0.4) 12 (0.4) 84 (0.4) 16 (0.4)
Asian 5 (0.2) 241 (1.0) 243 (1.0) 220 (4.6) 244 (0.9) 197 (4.3) 95 (0.4) 5 (0.4) 94 (0.5) 6 (0.5)
Pacific Islander # (†) 212 (2.7) 216 (3.1) 196 (5.3) 218 (2.8) 180 (8.1) 89 (1.8) 11 (1.8) 88 (2.1) 12 (2.1)
American Indian/Alaska Native 1 (0.1) 202 (1.8) 209 (2.2) 192 (4.3) 211 (2.2) 188 (3.5) 84 (1.4) 16 (1.4) 79 (1.7) 21 (1.7)
Two or more races 4 (0.1) 227 (0.9) 229 (1.0) 216 (2.7) 231 (0.9) 199 (3.0) 92 (0.6) 8 (0.6) 91 (0.6) 9 (0.6)
                                         
English language learner (ELL) status                                        
ELL 11 (0.2) 189 (0.8) 192 (1.0) 183 (1.7) 195 (1.0) 174 (1.3) 85 (0.6) 15 (0.6) 77 (0.8) 23 (0.8)
Non-ELL 89 (0.2) 226 (0.3) 228 (0.2) 213 (0.7) 230 (0.3) 202 (0.6) 92 (0.2) 8 (0.2) 90 (0.1) 10 (0.1)
                                         
Disability status2                                        
Identified as student with disability (SD) 13 (0.1) 187 (0.5) 192 (0.6) 177 (2.0) 195 (0.6) 167 (1.4) 89 (0.4) 11 (0.4) 80 (0.5) 20 (0.5)
Not identified as SD 87 (0.1) 227 (0.3) 229 (0.2) 214 (0.6) 231 (0.3) 204 (0.7) 92 (0.2) 8 (0.2) 90 (0.2) 10 (0.2)
                                         
Percent of students in school eligible for
   free or reduced-price lunch3
                                       
0 to 25 percent eligible 20 (0.7) 240 (0.6) 242 (0.6) 227 (2.4) 243 (0.5) 207 (2.7) 95 (0.3) 5 (0.3) 95 (0.3) 5 (0.3)
26 to 50 percent eligible 24 (0.9) 228 (0.6) 229 (0.6) 216 (2.0) 231 (0.6) 204 (1.4) 93 (0.2) 7 (0.2) 91 (0.3) 9 (0.3)
51 to 75 percent eligible 23 (0.8) 218 (0.6) 221 (0.6) 207 (1.4) 222 (0.6) 199 (1.1) 90 (0.3) 10 (0.3) 86 (0.4) 14 (0.4)
76 to 100 percent eligible 33 (0.8) 205 (0.5) 208 (0.5) 199 (0.9) 210 (0.5) 187 (1.1) 87 (0.4) 13 (0.4) 83 (0.4) 17 (0.4)
                                         
School control4                                        
Public 92 (0.2) 221 (0.2) 224 (0.2) 207 (0.7) 226 (0.3) 195 (0.6) 91 (0.2) 9 (0.2) 88 (0.2) 12 (0.2)
Private (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†)
                                         
School locale                                        
City 31 (0.4) 217 (0.5) 220 (0.6) 202 (1.0) 222 (0.5) 190 (1.1) 90 (0.3) 10 (0.3) 88 (0.3) 12 (0.3)
Large 16 (0.4) 215 (0.7) 218 (0.8) 200 (1.4) 220 (0.7) 189 (1.2) 90 (0.3) 10 (0.3) 88 (0.4) 12 (0.4)
Midsize 7 (0.5) 217 (1.5) 220 (1.6) 206 (1.8) 223 (1.5) 187 (2.3) 90 (0.7) 10 (0.7) 86 (0.9) 14 (0.9)
Small 8 (0.4) 222 (1.4) 225 (1.5) 204 (3.0) 226 (1.5) 195 (2.5) 91 (0.5) 9 (0.5) 90 (0.7) 10 (0.7)
                                         
Suburb 40 (0.4) 227 (0.4) 230 (0.4) 212 (1.2) 231 (0.4) 196 (1.4) 93 (0.3) 7 (0.3) 91 (0.2) 9 (0.2)
Large 34 (0.5) 228 (0.4) 230 (0.4) 212 (1.4) 232 (0.4) 196 (1.5) 93 (0.3) 7 (0.3) 92 (0.3) 8 (0.3)
Midsize 4 (0.3) 224 (1.7) 227 (1.4) 211 (3.6) 229 (1.3) 198 (3.5) 92 (0.5) 8 (0.5) 90 (0.7) 10 (0.7)
Small 2 (0.3) 222 (4.3) 224 (5.0) 210 (6.0) 227 (4.8) 192 (5.2) 90 (1.3) 10 (1.3) 87 (1.7) 13 (1.7)
                                         
Town 11 (0.3) 217 (0.8) 219 (0.8) 206 (1.5) 221 (0.8) 199 (1.5) 90 (0.4) 10 (0.4) 85 (0.5) 15 (0.5)
Fringe 3 (0.2) 222 (1.5) 225 (1.3) 210 (4.3) 226 (1.5) 202 (3.2) 92 (0.8) 8 (0.8) 90 (0.8) 10 (0.8)
Distant 5 (0.3) 216 (1.5) 219 (1.6) 208 (2.0) 221 (1.4) 200 (2.7) 89 (0.5) 11 (0.5) 84 (0.9) 16 (0.9)
Remote 3 (0.3) 213 (1.3) 215 (1.6) 203 (2.4) 216 (1.6) 196 (1.9) 88 (1.2) 12 (1.2) 83 (1.1) 17 (1.1)
                                         
Rural 18 (0.3) 222 (0.7) 224 (0.6) 212 (1.7) 226 (0.7) 204 (1.2) 90 (0.4) 10 (0.4) 86 (0.5) 14 (0.5)
Fringe 10 (0.3) 225 (1.2) 227 (1.0) 214 (2.7) 228 (1.0) 202 (2.3) 91 (0.6) 9 (0.6) 89 (0.7) 11 (0.7)
Distant 6 (0.3) 220 (0.8) 222 (0.8) 212 (2.0) 224 (0.9) 206 (1.3) 90 (0.4) 10 (0.4) 83 (0.8) 17 (0.8)
Remote 2 (0.1) 212 (1.5) 217 (1.2) 206 (3.3) 219 (1.1) 203 (2.6) 88 (0.9) 12 (0.9) 79 (1.4) 21 (1.4)
                                         
Grade 8                                        
All 8th-graders 100 (†) 267 (0.3) 268 (0.3) 247 (0.7) 268 (0.3) 242 (1.0) 93 (0.2) 7 (0.2) 96 (0.1) 4 (0.1)
                                         
Sex                                        
Male 51 (0.1) 262 (0.3) 264 (0.3) 243 (0.9) 263 (0.3) 237 (1.4) 92 (0.2) 8 (0.2) 96 (0.1) 4 (0.1)
Female 49 (0.1) 272 (0.4) 273 (0.4) 252 (1.0) 273 (0.4) 248 (1.2) 94 (0.2) 6 (0.2) 96 (0.1) 4 (0.1)
                                         
Race/ethnicity                                        
White 51 (0.4) 275 (0.3) 276 (0.3) 254 (1.0) 276 (0.3) 251 (1.1) 95 (0.1) 5 (0.1) 97 (0.1) 3 (0.1)
Black 14 (0.3) 249 (0.5) 251 (0.5) 237 (1.2) 251 (0.5) 234 (1.9) 91 (0.4) 9 (0.4) 96 (0.2) 4 (0.2)
Hispanic 24 (0.3) 255 (0.5) 257 (0.5) 243 (1.3) 257 (0.5) 235 (2.0) 89 (0.5) 11 (0.5) 94 (0.3) 6 (0.3)
Asian 6 (0.2) 284 (1.0) 284 (1.0) 265 (5.8) 284 (1.0) 245 (5.7) 98 (0.3) 2 (0.3) 99 (0.2) 1 (0.2)
Pacific Islander # (†) 255 (2.5) 256 (2.9) 244 (4.3) 256 (2.8) 231 (5.3) 91 (1.6) 9 (1.6) 96 (0.6) 4 (0.6)
American Indian/Alaska Native 1 (0.1) 253 (1.3) 256 (1.8) 242 (2.8) 256 (1.7) 241 (3.5) 84 (1.4) 16 (1.4) 86 (1.2) 14 (1.2)
Two or more races 3 (0.1) 272 (1.1) 274 (1.1) 252 (4.0) 274 (1.1) 251 (6.2) 94 (0.6) 6 (0.6) 96 (0.5) 4 (0.5)
                                         
English language learner (ELL) status                                        
ELL 6 (0.1) 226 (0.8) 229 (0.9) 216 (1.9) 228 (0.8) 214 (2.6) 86 (0.9) 14 (0.9) 89 (0.7) 11 (0.7)
Non-ELL 94 (0.1) 269 (0.3) 271 (0.3) 251 (0.6) 270 (0.3) 248 (0.8) 93 (0.1) 7 (0.1) 96 (0.1) 4 (0.1)
                                         
Disability status2                                        
Identified as student with disability (SD) 12 (0.1) 232 (0.6) 235 (0.7) 218 (1.7) 235 (0.7) 213 (1.9) 89 (0.4) 11 (0.4) 93 (0.3) 7 (0.3)
Not identified as SD 88 (0.1) 271 (0.3) 273 (0.3) 253 (0.7) 272 (0.3) 251 (1.0) 93 (0.2) 7 (0.2) 96 (0.1) 4 (0.1)
                                         
Percent of students in school eligible for
   free or reduced-price lunch3
                                       
0 to 25 percent eligible 23 (0.8) 281 (0.5) 282 (0.6) 258 (2.4) 282 (0.5) 246 (3.6) 97 (0.2) 3 (0.2) 99 (0.1) 1 (0.1)
26 to 50 percent eligible 29 (0.8) 270 (0.4) 271 (0.4) 255 (1.8) 271 (0.5) 251 (1.8) 94 (0.2) 6 (0.2) 96 (0.2) 4 (0.2)
51 to 75 percent eligible 23 (0.8) 261 (0.5) 262 (0.5) 248 (1.3) 262 (0.5) 247 (1.6) 91 (0.4) 9 (0.4) 94 (0.3) 6 (0.3)
76 to 100 percent eligible 25 (0.7) 250 (0.5) 252 (0.6) 240 (1.1) 251 (0.5) 234 (1.7) 87 (0.5) 13 (0.5) 93 (0.3) 7 (0.3)
                                         
School control4                                        
Public 92 (0.2) 265 (0.3) 267 (0.3) 246 (0.7) 267 (0.3) 242 (1.0) 92 (0.2) 8 (0.2) 96 (0.1) 4 (0.1)
Private (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†)
                                         
School locale                                        
City 30 (0.3) 262 (0.5) 264 (0.6) 244 (1.0) 264 (0.5) 237 (1.8) 92 (0.3) 8 (0.3) 96 (0.2) 4 (0.2)
Large 16 (0.3) 261 (0.8) 263 (0.8) 244 (1.3) 262 (0.8) 236 (2.6) 91 (0.3) 9 (0.3) 96 (0.2) 4 (0.2)
Midsize 6 (0.4) 263 (1.2) 265 (1.3) 244 (2.8) 265 (1.3) 235 (4.2) 92 (0.9) 8 (0.9) 96 (0.5) 4 (0.5)
Small 8 (0.3) 265 (1.0) 267 (1.1) 246 (2.2) 266 (1.1) 241 (2.8) 92 (0.7) 8 (0.7) 96 (0.3) 4 (0.3)
                                         
Suburb 41 (0.4) 271 (0.4) 273 (0.4) 248 (1.4) 273 (0.4) 241 (2.2) 95 (0.2) 5 (0.2) 98 (0.2) 2 (0.2)
Large 35 (0.5) 272 (0.4) 274 (0.4) 248 (1.6) 273 (0.4) 240 (2.6) 95 (0.3) 5 (0.3) 98 (0.2) 2 (0.2)
Midsize 4 (0.4) 267 (1.7) 270 (1.6) 247 (3.0) 269 (1.6) 239 (4.3) 93 (0.9) 7 (0.9) 97 (0.5) 3 (0.5)
Small 2 (0.2) 269 (1.6) 269 (1.6) 258 (4.4) 269 (1.5) 254 (4.5) 93 (0.9) 7 (0.9) 96 (0.9) 4 (0.9)
                                         
Town 11 (0.4) 262 (0.6) 264 (0.6) 245 (2.3) 263 (0.7) 245 (2.0) 91 (0.4) 9 (0.4) 93 (0.3) 7 (0.3)
Fringe 2 (0.2) 267 (1.0) 269 (1.0) 253 (5.2) 269 (1.2) 246 (4.1) 93 (0.7) 7 (0.7) 95 (0.4) 5 (0.4)
Distant 5 (0.3) 260 (0.7) 262 (0.8) 242 (2.7) 261 (0.8) 247 (2.6) 90 (0.7) 10 (0.7) 93 (0.4) 7 (0.4)
Remote 3 (0.2) 262 (1.4) 263 (1.6) 244 (3.0) 263 (1.5) 238 (3.5) 92 (0.8) 8 (0.8) 94 (0.7) 6 (0.7)
                                         
Rural 19 (0.3) 265 (0.5) 267 (0.6) 250 (1.3) 267 (0.6) 247 (1.4) 92 (0.3) 8 (0.3) 93 (0.3) 7 (0.3)
Fringe 11 (0.3) 268 (0.8) 269 (0.8) 249 (2.0) 269 (0.8) 246 (2.2) 94 (0.4) 6 (0.4) 95 (0.3) 5 (0.3)
Distant 6 (0.3) 263 (0.8) 264 (0.9) 251 (1.9) 264 (0.8) 250 (2.0) 90 (0.6) 10 (0.6) 91 (0.8) 9 (0.8)
Remote 2 (0.2) 262 (1.2) 264 (1.3) 248 (3.3) 265 (1.3) 240 (3.4) 89 (1.0) 11 (1.0) 89 (1.0) 11 (1.0)
†Not applicable.
#Rounds to zero.
‡Reporting standards not met (too few cases for a reliable estimate).
1 Scale ranges from 0 to 500.
2 In addition to students with an Individualized Education Program (IEP), also includes students with a 504 plan.
3 Nonresponse rate for free or reduced-price lunch was greater than 15 percent but not greater than 50 percent.
4 Bureau of Indian Education and Department of Defense schools are excluded from the Public category but included elsewhere in this table. The Private category was created by combining two school types: Catholic and Other private.
NOTE: Includes students tested with accommodations (12 percent of all 4th-graders and 11 percent of all 8th-graders); excludes only those students with disabilities and English language learners who were unable to be tested even with accommodations (2 percent of all students at both grades). Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 2017 Reading Assessment, retrieved September 10, 2018, from the Main NAEP Data Explorer (http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/naepdata/). (This table was prepared September 2018.)

2018 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest