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Digest of Education Statistics
2018 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest


Table 212.10. Highest degree, average years of experience, and salaries of principals in public and private elementary and secondary schools, by selected characteristics: Selected years, 1993-94 through 2015-16
[Standard errors appear in parentheses]
Selected
characteristic
Percentage distribution by highest degree earned Average years of experience Average annual salary in constant 2017-18 dollars1 
Bachelor's
or less
Master's Education
specialist2
Doctor's and
first-
professional
As a principal Prior
teaching
experience,
2015-16
1993-94 2003-04 2007-08 2011-12 2015-16
1993-94 2003-04 2007-08 2011-12 2015-16
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
                                                                                           
Public schools 2015-16                                                                  
Total 2.2   (0.23) 61.3   (0.73) 26.6   (0.62) 9.9   (0.46) 8.7   (0.10) 7.8   (0.10) 7.5   (0.14) 7.2   (0.09) 6.6   (0.09) 11.5   (0.09) $93,090   (215) $100,670   (247) $100,500   (449) $98,690   (271) $99,670   (308)
Sex                                                                                          
Males 2.0   (0.33) 65.5   (0.96) 23.9   (0.88) 8.6   (0.61) 10.3   (0.16) 9.1   (0.16) 8.2   (0.20) 7.7   (0.12) 7.0   (0.13) 10.3   (0.12) 93,200   (272) 100,840   (387) 100,910   (779) 99,470   (476) 100,900   (457)
Females 2.4   (0.32) 57.7   (1.06) 28.8   (0.94) 11.0   (0.65) 5.6   (0.12) 6.3   (0.13) 6.8   (0.19) 6.6   (0.15) 6.2   (0.12) 12.6   (0.13) 92,890   (468) 100,480   (445) 100,090   (731) 97,950   (519) 98,640   (463)
                                                                                           
Race/ethnicity                                                                                          
White 2.3   (0.27) 61.6   (0.81) 27.9   (0.73) 8.2   (0.46) 9.0   (0.12) 8.0   (0.12) 7.8   (0.17) 7.3   (0.10) 6.8   (0.11) 11.7   (0.10) 92,430   (234) 100,110   (295) 99,430   (515) 98,060   (348) 98,750   (345)
Black 2.2   (0.60) 49.7   (2.13) 28.8   (2.00) 19.3   (1.89) 7.1   (0.21) 6.9   (0.33) 6.2   (0.38) 6.2   (0.30) 6.0   (0.23) 10.9   (0.27) 97,860   (771) 103,150   (887) 102,950   (1,519) 100,780   (1,245) 101,510   (1,135)
Hispanic 2.0 ! (0.66) 71.8   (2.47) 15.3   (1.95) 10.9   (1.60) 6.3   (0.37) 6.1   (0.43) 6.5   (0.62) 6.1   (0.42) 5.5   (0.28) 10.8   (0.32) 94,800   (1,355) 105,930   (1,825) 108,920   (3,111) 102,140   (1,540) 103,950   (1,259)
Asian   (†) 60.6   (7.27) 12.2 ! (4.05) 23.8   (6.00) 6.0 3  (0.60) 6.8   (1.17) 6.3   (0.97) 7.7   (1.13) 6.5   (0.90) 10.7   (0.77) 100,880 3  (2,419) 110,190   (2,229) 121,240   (7,816) 111,800   (4,646) 115,080   (3,110)
Pacific Islander   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)
American Indian/
Alaska Native
  (†) 72.2   (8.76) 18.4 ! (6.70)   (†) 12.6   (0.67) 6.9   (0.63) 6.4   (1.30) 9.2   (1.67) 8.2   (1.06) 11.5   (1.32) 86,740   (2,942) 82,680   (2,837) 89,810   (3,864) 87,820   (4,087) 102,190   (7,222)
Two or more races   (†) 61.9   (6.85) 27.2   (5.90) 10.8 ! (3.90)   (†) 5.6   (1.12) 5.8   (1.50) 7.8   (0.77) 5.1   (0.64) 12.8   (0.95)   (†) 101,070   (5,022) 95,730   (6,593) 99,940   (3,956) 97,480   (3,117)
                                                                                           
Age                                                                                          
Under 40 3.3   (0.59) 66.1   (1.67) 23.2   (1.53) 7.4   (0.90) 2.8   (0.13) 2.4   (0.10) 2.9   (0.14) 3.0   (0.10) 2.5   (0.07) 7.6   (0.11) 78,980   (803) 91,760   (726) 93,170   (1,061) 93,520   (762) 91,670   (765)
40 to 44 2.0   (0.47) 61.9   (1.49) 27.5   (1.28) 8.6   (0.85) 5.0   (0.12) 4.5   (0.18) 4.8   (0.22) 4.8   (0.13) 4.5   (0.11) 9.9   (0.14) 88,310   (655) 96,410   (883) 98,160   (1,309) 96,060   (708) 98,870   (644)
45 to 49 1.9   (0.51) 60.6   (1.57) 27.3   (1.37) 10.3   (0.96) 7.1   (0.13) 6.1   (0.16) 6.1   (0.26) 6.5   (0.18) 6.4   (0.15) 11.7   (0.19) 94,050   (442) 97,710   (703) 99,450   (1,126) 97,950   (934) 101,100   (770)
50 to 54 1.8   (0.54) 60.3   (1.90) 27.7   (1.74) 10.2   (1.11) 10.3   (0.18) 8.7   (0.19) 8.2   (0.28) 8.1   (0.24) 7.9   (0.23) 13.4   (0.23) 95,980   (618) 102,740   (582) 101,800   (1,081) 99,850   (972) 102,280   (938)
55 or over 2.2   (0.56) 57.9   (1.56) 27.2   (1.34) 12.8   (1.02) 15.1   (0.35) 11.9   (0.23) 11.8   (0.29) 11.8   (0.22) 11.2   (0.25) 15.0   (0.22) 98,130   (840) 106,790   (635) 105,730   (1,094) 104,150   (659) 104,070   (840)
                                                                                           
School level                                                                                          
Elementary 2.1   (0.27) 61.3   (0.89) 26.9   (0.83) 9.7   (0.58) 8.9   (0.14) 7.9   (0.13) 7.7   (0.17) 7.2   (0.13) 6.6   (0.12) 11.6   (0.11) 91,910   (286) 100,530   (299) 99,900   (573) 97,670   (330) 99,110   (400)
Secondary 2.3   (0.48) 61.6   (1.48) 24.7   (1.28) 11.4   (0.88) 8.0   (0.12) 7.5   (0.19) 7.1   (0.19) 7.1   (0.15) 6.4   (0.16) 11.0   (0.16) 96,050   (284) 105,820   (589) 105,790   (824) 105,010   (666) 105,180   (757)
Combined 3.6   (0.95) 59.9   (1.98) 28.6   (1.89) 7.9   (1.09) 7.5   (0.29) 7.4   (0.36) 7.1   (0.43) 7.1   (0.29) 7.0   (0.29) 12.1   (0.28) 89,640   (866) 86,210   (821) 88,800   (1,451) 90,430   (1,463) 90,100   (1,360)
                                                                                           
School locale                                                                                          
City 2.6   (0.39) 62.0   (1.26) 23.6   (1.10) 11.9   (0.93)   (†) 7.3   (0.17) 7.0   (0.25) 6.8   (0.21) 6.4   (0.17) 11.6   (0.17)   (†) 106,930   (502) 106,890   (871) 104,540   (617) 104,750   (620)
Suburban 1.7   (0.32) 60.1   (1.32) 26.0   (1.27) 12.2   (0.93)   (†) 7.9   (0.23) 7.7   (0.28) 7.3   (0.21) 6.6   (0.16) 11.0   (0.16)   (†) 113,840   (630) 113,600   (1,082) 110,780   (501) 110,060   (604)
Town 3.3   (0.75) 61.1   (1.71) 28.5   (1.51) 7.2   (0.98)   (†) 8.1   (0.28) 7.8   (0.34) 7.3   (0.24) 6.6   (0.22) 11.7   (0.23)   (†) 91,930   (671) 90,860   (833) 90,380   (604) 90,300   (716)
Rural 2.1   (0.59) 62.1   (1.35) 29.3   (1.18) 6.5   (0.66)   (†) 7.9   (0.22) 7.5   (0.27) 7.3   (0.15) 6.6   (0.18) 12.1   (0.17)   (†) 86,650   (469) 88,730   (770) 87,470   (391) 86,760   (644)
                                                                                           
Private schools 2011-12                                                                  
Total 31.0   (1.73) 49.7   (1.49) 10.1   (0.80) 9.1   (0.87) 8.8   (0.20) 10.0   (0.24) 10.0   (0.22) 10.8   (0.31)   (†)   (†) $54,430   (617) $66,910   (814) $67,370   (939) $71,180   (1,267)   (†)
Sex                                                                                          
Males 32.7   (2.87) 45.9   (2.41) 8.8   (1.24) 12.6   (1.62) 9.0   (0.26) 11.0   (0.35) 10.6   (0.37) 11.4   (0.43)   (†)   (†) 60,410   (958) 73,860   (1,337) 73,790   (1,582) 80,590   (2,696)   (†)
Females 29.7   (1.93) 52.9   (1.84) 11.2   (1.10) 6.2   (0.81) 8.6   (0.27) 9.2   (0.28) 9.5   (0.26) 10.4   (0.41)   (†)   (†) 49,530   (1,031) 61,690   (1,124) 62,110   (1,128) 64,430   (1,372)   (†)
                                                                                           
Race/ethnicity                                                                                          
White 31.5   (1.81) 49.2   (1.61) 10.0   (0.79) 9.2   (0.94) 8.7   (0.22) 10.3   (0.24) 10.4   (0.25) 10.9   (0.31)   (†)   (†) 54,250   (680) 67,460   (805) 68,810   (1,028) 72,300   (1,458)   (†)
Black 24.0   (5.62) 50.5   (5.71) 12.4   (3.67) 13.0 ! (4.43) 8.3   (1.04) 7.1   (1.08) 7.1   (0.90) 11.3   (1.12)   (†)   (†) 58,350   (4,202) 59,080   (4,615) 57,890   (2,518) 63,640   (5,175)   (†)
Hispanic 41.1   (7.82) 43.1   (6.95) 10.7 ! (5.11)   (†) 10.1   (1.43) 6.6   (1.29) 7.8   (0.87) 9.2   (0.93)   (†)   (†) 53,200   (3,322) 64,020   (5,253) 56,450   (3,862) 67,580   (6,542)   (†)
                                                                                           
Age                                                                                          
Under 40 53.7   (4.95) 36.4   (4.27) 4.8 ! (1.59) 5.1   (1.23) 3.5   (0.22) 2.9   (0.20) 3.0   (0.22) 3.3   (0.36)   (†)   (†) 44,640   (1,475) 54,570   (2,109) 54,700   (1,622) 53,430   (2,005)   (†)
40 to 44 35.4   (6.03) 47.0   (5.24) 10.6   (2.46)   (†) 5.3   (0.24) 5.4   (0.38) 5.3   (0.35) 5.9   (0.56)   (†)   (†) 51,730   (1,575) 58,170   (2,293) 63,300   (3,136) 73,300   (7,728)   (†)
45 to 49 35.3   (5.89) 47.3   (4.78) 9.9   (2.36) 7.5 ! (2.32) 8.3   (0.27) 7.6   (0.28) 6.2   (0.38) 6.6   (0.50)   (†)   (†) 58,790   (1,249) 68,880   (1,956) 63,590   (2,414) 72,400   (4,093)   (†)
50 to 54 27.3   (3.71) 54.2   (3.78) 7.6   (1.88) 10.9 ! (3.33) 9.6   (0.34) 10.1   (0.35) 9.0   (0.45) 9.7   (0.59)   (†)   (†) 64,020   (1,694) 69,890   (2,090) 68,820   (2,143) 74,830   (3,980)   (†)
55 or over 21.9   (1.80) 54.5   (1.71) 12.7   (1.20) 10.9   (1.22) 14.8   (0.40) 15.2   (0.40) 15.4   (0.43) 16.1   (0.44)   (†)   (†) 53,930   (1,285) 72,000   (1,478) 73,670   (1,680) 74,750   (2,067)   (†)
                                                                                           
School level                                                                                          
Elementary 34.8   (2.23) 50.3   (1.92) 9.2   (1.06) 5.7   (0.80) 9.4   (0.27) 9.9   (0.30) 9.9   (0.30) 10.6   (0.39)   (†)   (†) 48,840   (754) 63,000   (897) 64,990   (1,137) 65,910   (1,266)   (†)
Secondary 9.1   (2.19) 57.1   (4.60) 15.4   (2.71) 18.3   (4.83) 7.8   (0.36) 9.3   (0.77) 9.9   (0.58) 11.0   (0.89)   (†)   (†) 74,130   (1,331) 86,680   (3,457) 88,020   (2,780) 92,540   (7,563)   (†)
Combined 31.5   (2.43) 46.6   (2.33) 10.0   (1.65) 11.9   (1.42) 8.0   (0.34) 10.3   (0.39) 10.2   (0.44) 11.2   (0.57)   (†)   (†) 57,080   (1,884) 68,770   (2,022) 64,520   (1,732) 72,960   (2,502)   (†)
                                                                                           
School locale                                                                                          
City 20.9   (2.16) 56.7   (2.60) 10.1   (1.39) 12.3   (2.05)   (†)   (†) 10.8   (0.38) 11.0   (0.53)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†) 76,100   (1,518) 79,000   (2,281)   (†)
Suburban 26.3   (2.27) 52.4   (2.20) 11.1   (1.34) 10.2   (1.94)   (†)   (†) 10.5   (0.36) 11.8   (0.49)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†) 72,180   (1,667) 74,190   (2,669)   (†)
Town 38.2   (5.31) 47.6   (5.43) 9.5 ! (3.17) 4.8 ! (2.19)   (†)   (†) 9.4   (0.80) 10.2   (1.00)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†) 51,890   (2,520) 49,170   (2,499)   (†)
Rural 47.7   (3.97) 37.8   (3.29) 9.3   (1.77) 5.1   (1.18)   (†)   (†) 8.1   (0.53) 9.7   (0.76)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†) 50,230   (1,924) 63,220   (2,958)   (†)
—Not available.
†Not applicable.
!Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent.
‡Reporting standards not met (too few cases for a reliable estimate).
1 Constant dollars based on the Consumer Price Index, prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, adjusted to a school-year basis. Excludes principals reporting a salary of $0.
2 Education specialist degrees or certificates are generally awarded for 1 year's work beyond the master's level. Includes certificate of advanced graduate studies.
3 Data include Pacific Islanders.
NOTE: Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding and cell suppression.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), "Public School Principal Data File" and "Private School Principal Data File," 1993-94, 2003-04, 2007-08, and 2011-12; and National Teacher and Principal Survey (NTPS), "Public School Principal Data File," 2015-16. (This table was prepared September 2018.)

2018 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest