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Digest of Education Statistics
2018 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest


Table 209.22. Number and percentage distribution of teachers in public elementary and secondary schools, by instructional level and selected teacher and school characteristics: 1999-2000 and 2015-16
[Standard errors appear in parentheses]
Selected teacher or school characteristic Number of teachers (in thousands) Percentage distribution of teachers
Total Elementary Secondary Total Elementary Secondary
1999-2000 2015-16 1999-2000 2015-16 1999-2000 2015-16 1999-2000 2015-16 1999-2000 2015-16 1999-2000 2015-16
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
Total 3,002   (19.4) 3,827   (49.5) 1,602   (13.5) 1,908   (41.2) 1,401   (17.7) 1,920   (47.2) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†)
Sex                                                                        
Male 754   (10.7) 897   (18.1) 185   (5.4) 204   (6.2) 569   (9.3) 693   (18.3) 25.1   (0.30) 23.4   (0.34) 11.5   (0.32) 10.7   (0.25) 40.6   (0.44) 36.1   (0.43)
Female 2,248   (16.0) 2,930   (39.1) 1,417   (12.7) 1,703   (37.7) 832   (12.5) 1,226   (31.9) 74.9   (0.30) 76.6   (0.34) 88.5   (0.32) 89.3   (0.25) 59.4   (0.44) 63.9   (0.43)
                                                                         
Race/ethnicity                                                                        
White1  2,532   (17.2) 3,067   (41.9) 1,342   (13.8) 1,529   (35.9) 1,190   (15.8) 1,537   (39.0) 84.3   (0.30) 80.1   (0.34) 83.8   (0.50) 80.2   (0.56) 85.0   (0.34) 80.1   (0.46)
Black1  228   (6.0) 256   (8.8) 122   (5.2) 123   (6.8) 106   (3.5) 133   (6.2) 7.6   (0.19) 6.7   (0.21) 7.6   (0.32) 6.4   (0.34) 7.5   (0.24) 6.9   (0.29)
Hispanic1 169   (6.4) 338   (9.2) 95   (5.2) 178   (7.8) 74   (4.1) 160   (6.9) 5.6   (0.20) 8.8   (0.22) 5.9   (0.32) 9.3   (0.38) 5.3   (0.27) 8.3   (0.29)
Asian1,2 48   (2.7) 86   (3.9) 30   (2.3) 45   (2.8) 18   (1.2) 42   (2.9) 1.6   (0.09) 2.3   (0.09) 1.9   (0.15) 2.3   (0.14) 1.3   (0.08) 2.2   (0.14)
Pacific Islander   (†) 9   (1.1)   (†) 3   (0.7)   (†) 5   (0.8)   (†) 0.2   (0.03)   (†) 0.2   (0.04)   (†) 0.3   (0.04)
American Indian/
      Alaska Native1
26   (1.9) 17   (1.5) 13   (1.5) 7   (0.9) 13   (0.8) 9   (1.3) 0.9   (0.06) 0.4   (0.04) 0.8   (0.09) 0.4   (0.04) 0.9   (0.06) 0.5   (0.07)
Two or more races   (†) 54   (2.8)   (†) 22   (1.9)   (†) 33   (2.1)   (†) 1.4   (0.07)   (†) 1.1   (0.10)   (†) 1.7   (0.10)
                                                                         
Age                                                                        
Under 30 509   (9.2) 574   (11.4) 270   (7.7) 308   (9.7) 239   (5.4) 265   (8.2) 17.0   (0.28) 15.0   (0.23) 16.9   (0.46) 16.2   (0.37) 17.1   (0.30) 13.8   (0.28)
30 to 39 661   (9.8) 1,090   (17.0) 362   (7.1) 541   (13.7) 298   (5.9) 550   (15.3) 22.0   (0.29) 28.5   (0.28) 22.6   (0.42) 28.3   (0.39) 21.3   (0.33) 28.6   (0.42)
40 to 49 953   (10.3) 1,050   (17.7) 521   (8.8) 524   (13.9) 432   (7.3) 526   (14.3) 31.8   (0.32) 27.4   (0.29) 32.5   (0.52) 27.5   (0.42) 30.9   (0.35) 27.4   (0.35)
50 to 59 786   (12.6) 823   (14.4) 396   (9.5) 406   (11.2) 390   (8.1) 418   (12.4) 26.2   (0.35) 21.5   (0.23) 24.7   (0.52) 21.3   (0.37) 27.8   (0.47) 21.7   (0.31)
60 and over 93   (4.0) 290   (7.5) 52   (3.6) 128   (5.3) 41   (1.7) 161   (6.2) 3.1   (0.13) 7.6   (0.17) 3.2   (0.21) 6.7   (0.23) 2.9   (0.12) 8.4   (0.23)
                                                                         
Highest degree earned                                                                        
Less than bachelor's 20   (1.3) 93   (3.7) 4   (0.8) 32   (2.3) 16   (0.9) 61   (3.1) 0.7   (0.04) 2.4   (0.10) 0.2   (0.05) 1.7   (0.12) 1.2   (0.07) 3.2   (0.15)
Bachelor's 1,560   (15.8) 1,550   (23.4) 872   (13.3) 826   (20.6) 688   (10.1) 724   (20.1) 52.0   (0.40) 40.5   (0.34) 54.4   (0.65) 43.3   (0.54) 49.2   (0.47) 37.7   (0.46)
Postbaccalaureate 1,422   (15.2) 2,184   (32.0) 726   (11.6) 1,050   (25.0) 696   (12.0) 1,134   (29.5) 47.4   (0.41) 57.1   (0.34) 45.3   (0.65) 55.0   (0.56) 49.7   (0.48) 59.1   (0.46)
Master's 1,257   (13.9) 1,812   (26.3) 645   (10.9) 872   (21.0) 613   (10.7) 939   (24.5) 41.9   (0.38) 47.3   (0.34) 40.3   (0.61) 45.7   (0.53) 43.7   (0.44) 48.9   (0.48)
Education
      specialist3 
143   (5.2) 323   (8.8) 74   (4.2) 163   (6.5) 68   (2.9) 160   (6.4) 4.7   (0.17) 8.4   (0.18) 4.6   (0.26) 8.5   (0.27) 4.9   (0.19) 8.3   (0.24)
Doctor's 22   (1.8) 49   (3.1) 7   (1.3) 14   (1.7) 15   (1.1) 35   (2.4) 0.7   (0.06) 1.3   (0.08) 0.4   (0.08) 0.8   (0.09) 1.1   (0.08) 1.8   (0.12)
                                                                         
Years of teaching
      experience
                                                                       
Less than 3 325   (7.7) 380   (8.8) 171   (6.3) 193   (6.7) 154   (4.5) 186   (6.4) 10.8   (0.24) 9.9   (0.19) 10.7   (0.38) 10.1   (0.29) 11.0   (0.27) 9.7   (0.26)
3 to 9 854   (12.3) 1,083   (17.1) 458   (9.2) 540   (13.5) 396   (8.0) 543   (14.1) 28.5   (0.37) 28.3   (0.30) 28.6   (0.51) 28.3   (0.43) 28.3   (0.50) 28.3   (0.41)
10 to 20 865   (10.1) 1,504   (23.0) 484   (8.5) 749   (19.4) 381   (7.1) 755   (20.7) 28.8   (0.33) 39.3   (0.31) 30.2   (0.51) 39.3   (0.44) 27.2   (0.39) 39.3   (0.41)
Over 20 958   (13.5) 860   (15.8) 489   (9.6) 425   (11.6) 469   (9.0) 435   (13.9) 31.9   (0.36) 22.5   (0.27) 30.5   (0.52) 22.3   (0.37) 33.5   (0.43) 22.7   (0.37)
                                                                         
Certification type4                                                                        
Regular 2,599   (18.6) 3,457   (45.2) 1,407   (13.3) 1,738   (38.5) 1,192   (16.1) 1,719   (42.7) 86.6   (0.22) 90.3   (0.17) 87.8   (0.38) 91.1   (0.26) 85.1   (0.33) 89.5   (0.24)
Probationary 83   (3.0) 120   (3.7) 41   (2.8) 57   (2.8) 42   (2.0) 63   (2.8) 2.8   (0.10) 3.1   (0.09) 2.6   (0.17) 3.0   (0.15) 3.0   (0.14) 3.3   (0.13)
Provisional or
      temporary
97   (4.2) 163   (5.1) 54   (3.7) 73   (3.6) 43   (2.1) 89   (4.2) 3.2   (0.14) 4.3   (0.12) 3.3   (0.23) 3.8   (0.17) 3.1   (0.14) 4.7   (0.18)
Waiver or emergency 51   (2.7) 35   (2.3) 27   (2.2) 14   (1.6) 25   (1.5) 21   (1.7) 1.7   (0.09) 0.9   (0.06) 1.7   (0.14) 0.7   (0.08) 1.8   (0.10) 1.1   (0.08)
No certification 173   (5.4) 52   (2.7) 74   (3.7) 25   (1.9) 99   (4.1) 27   (1.9) 5.8   (0.18) 1.4   (0.07) 4.6   (0.22) 1.3   (0.10) 7.1   (0.28) 1.4   (0.10)
                                                                         
School classification                                                                        
Traditional public 2,985   (19.5) 3,609   (46.9) 1,591   (13.5) 1,798   (40.3) 1,393   (17.7) 1,811   (45.7) 99.4   (0.01) 94.3   (0.24) 99.4   (0.01) 94.2   (0.30) 99.5   (0.02) 94.3   (0.35)
Charter school 17   (0.3) 218   (9.9) 10   (0.2) 110   (5.7) 7   (0.2) 108   (6.9) 0.6   (0.01) 5.7   (0.24) 0.6   (0.01) 5.8   (0.30) 0.5   (0.02) 5.7   (0.35)
                                                                         
School locale5                                                                        
City   (†) 1,180   (37.0)   (†) 595   (24.4)   (†) 584   (30.2)   (†) 30.8   (0.84)   (†) 31.2   (1.13)   (†) 30.4   (1.23)
Suburban   (†) 1,513   (41.6)   (†) 763   (31.2)   (†) 750   (30.2)   (†) 39.5   (0.90)   (†) 40.0   (1.24)   (†) 39.1   (1.23)
Town   (†) 416   (13.6)   (†) 196   (11.3)   (†) 220   (11.8)   (†) 10.9   (0.37)   (†) 10.3   (0.56)   (†) 11.5   (0.59)
Rural   (†) 718   (21.4)   (†) 353   (15.9)   (†) 365   (15.2)   (†) 18.8   (0.55)   (†) 18.5   (0.80)   (†) 19.0   (0.77)
                                                                         
Percent of students
      eligible for free or
      reduced-price lunch
                                                                       
0 to 25 1,117   (20.4) 881   (29.0) 463   (13.0) 409   (20.7) 653   (14.9) 472   (22.6) 37.2   (0.59) 23.0   (0.68) 28.9   (0.81) 21.4   (0.92) 46.6   (0.83) 24.6   (0.96)
26 to 50 719   (18.4) 934   (32.0) 399   (13.2) 398   (17.7) 320   (10.4) 536   (24.6) 24.0   (0.60) 24.4   (0.74) 24.9   (0.79) 20.9   (0.80) 22.9   (0.73) 27.9   (1.09)
51 to 75 463   (15.8) 836   (26.2) 294   (12.7) 422   (18.4) 169   (8.8) 415   (21.4) 15.4   (0.52) 21.8   (0.62) 18.4   (0.76) 22.1   (0.80) 12.1   (0.59) 21.6   (0.96)
76 to 100 390   (13.2) 1,051   (29.4) 275   (12.0) 635   (22.4) 114   (6.7) 416   (20.5) 13.0   (0.42) 27.5   (0.72) 17.2   (0.72) 33.3   (1.07) 8.2   (0.47) 21.7   (0.94)
School does not
      participate
314   (11.4) 125   (8.7) 170   (10.8) 44   (4.5) 144   (5.7) 81   (7.5) 10.5   (0.39) 3.3   (0.23) 10.6   (0.69) 2.3   (0.24) 10.3   (0.38) 4.2   (0.40)
—Not available.
†Not applicable.
1 Data for 1999-2000 are only roughly comparable to data for 2015-16, because the new category of Two or more races was introduced in 2003-04.
2 Includes Pacific Islander for 1999-2000.
3 Education specialist degrees or certificates are generally awarded for 1 year's work beyond the master's level. Includes certificate of advanced graduate studies.
4 Refers to certification of teachers to teach in the state where they are currently teaching. A teaching certificate is probationary if all requirements have been satisfied except completion of a probationary period. It is provisional or temporary if additional coursework, student teaching, or passage of a test is required to obtain regular certification. It is a waiver or emergency certificate if a certification program must be completed to continue teaching.
5 Interpret 2015-16 data on city teachers with caution. After nonresponse adjustments, the nonresponse bias for this category is greater than for other characteristics.
NOTE: Data are based on a head count of full-time and part-time teachers rather than on the number of full-time-equivalent teachers reported in other tables. Teachers were classified as elementary or secondary on the basis of the grades they taught, rather than on the level of the school in which they taught. In general, elementary teachers include those teaching prekindergarten through grade 6 and those teaching multiple grades, with a preponderance of grades taught being kindergarten through grade 6. In general, secondary teachers include those teaching any of grades 7 through 12 and those teaching multiple grades, with a preponderance of grades taught being grades 7 through 12 and usually with no grade taught being lower than grade 5. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), "Public School Teacher Data File," "Charter School Teacher Data File," "Public School Data File," and "Charter School Data File," 1999-2000; and National Teacher and Principal Survey (NTPS), "Public School Teacher Data File," 2015-16. (This table was prepared October 2017.)

2018 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest