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Digest of Education Statistics
2018 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest


Table 207.20. Percentage of kindergartners through fifth-graders whose parents reported doing education-related activities with their children in the past month, by selected child, parent, and school characteristics: 2003, 2012, and 2016
[Standard errors appear in parentheses]
Selected child, parent, or school characteristic Visited a library Went to a play, concert, or other live show Visited an art gallery, museum, or historical site Visited a zoo or aquarium Attended an event sponsored by a community, religious, or ethnic group1
2003 2012 2016 2003 2012 2016 2003 2012 2016 2003 2012 2016 2003 2012 2016
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Total 50.2 (0.80) 46.5 (0.88) 41.6 (1.05) 35.5 (0.87) 32.0 (0.88) 33.7   (0.94) 22.2 (0.83) 25.9   (0.77) 29.5   (0.92) 16.5   (0.69) 24.6   (0.86) 32.5   (1.09) 62.0 (0.80) 57.3 (0.79) 55.8 (1.01)
Sex of child                                                                        
Male 47.3 (1.08) 44.8 (1.40) 39.8 (1.62) 33.6 (1.09) 30.0 (1.25) 29.9   (1.40) 23.1 (1.12) 25.6   (1.11) 28.7   (1.38) 16.3   (0.88) 24.1   (1.07) 32.6   (1.48) 61.0 (1.08) 57.2 (1.24) 55.0 (1.50)
Female 53.1 (1.11) 48.3 (1.37) 43.6 (1.44) 37.5 (1.09) 34.1 (1.16) 37.8   (1.41) 21.2 (1.07) 26.2   (1.09) 30.4   (1.47) 16.7   (0.87) 25.2   (1.18) 32.4   (1.71) 63.0 (1.09) 57.5 (1.15) 56.6 (1.34)
                                                                         
Race/ethnicity of child                                                                        
White 49.1 (1.03) 45.3 (1.14) 40.3 (1.39) 37.2 (1.26) 33.6 (1.10) 34.7   (1.19) 21.2 (1.09) 27.4   (1.00) 29.6   (1.13) 13.6   (0.85) 20.8   (0.99) 28.0   (1.41) 64.6 (1.12) 56.8 (1.13) 56.6 (1.24)
Black 52.3 (2.50) 50.2 (2.97) 43.1 (3.21) 36.7 (2.23) 35.9 (2.65) 31.9   (3.38) 24.4 (1.97) 25.1   (2.05) 29.9   (3.43) 18.9   (1.55) 27.5   (2.69) 39.8   (3.64) 66.3 (2.35) 68.7 (2.10) 63.7 (3.06)
Hispanic 48.2 (1.77) 43.5 (2.11) 37.6 (2.06) 28.0 (1.53) 26.8 (1.80) 32.3   (2.11) 20.8 (1.38) 23.3   (1.66) 28.1   (2.08) 23.7   (1.32) 29.3   (2.04) 37.8   (2.44) 49.3 (1.75) 53.5 (2.28) 50.8 (2.39)
Asian/Pacific Islander2 70.9 (5.11) 59.8 (3.72) 56.9 (5.86) 36.0 (4.44) 33.7 (3.10) 33.5   (3.58) 34.3 (4.22) 24.8   (3.34) 29.4   (3.78) 22.3   (3.97) 33.1   (3.65) 32.9   (3.59) 65.4 (4.25) 52.2 (4.21) 52.0 (5.69)
Asian (†) 59.4 (3.79) 57.2 (6.06) (†) 34.5 (3.30) 32.9   (3.62) (†) 24.6   (3.39) 29.7   (3.92)   (†) 33.9   (3.65) 33.0   (3.72) (†) 50.6 (4.44) 51.4 (5.88)
Pacific Islander (†) (†) (†) (†) (†)   (†) (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†) (†) (†) (†)
American Indian/Alaska
   Native
50.8 (9.32) 36.6 (10.71) (†) 48.4 (11.91) (†)   (†) 25.8 (6.94)   (†)   (†) 13.5 ! (6.17) 28.8 ! (12.17)   (†) 64.6 (9.44) 62.6 (11.60) (†)
Two or more races 52.2 (4.83) 48.4 (3.83) 48.2 (5.24) 35.8 (5.53) 30.2 (3.49) 35.5   (4.42) 25.9 (4.61) 29.0   (3.35) 32.7   (4.53) 15.0   (3.78) 21.8   (3.00) 30.3   (4.21) 58.0 (6.09) 53.6 (3.85) 55.5 (4.51)
                                                                         
Grade of child                                                                        
Kindergarten and grade 1 48.7 (1.28) 46.0 (1.44) 41.2 (2.01) 34.2 (1.32) 31.9 (1.69) 32.9   (1.80) 21.1 (1.04) 28.5   (1.44) 27.7   (1.53) 18.2   (1.10) 28.7   (1.78) 38.9   (2.11) 59.3 (1.29) 55.9 (1.41) 53.2 (1.98)
Grades 2 and 3 50.5 (1.45) 48.6 (1.59) 41.2 (1.52) 33.2 (1.41) 32.8 (1.52) 33.4   (1.75) 22.2 (1.13) 27.1   (1.59) 29.7   (1.86) 17.5   (1.13) 26.1   (1.49) 31.0   (1.74) 61.5 (1.41) 59.0 (1.57) 58.7 (1.71)
Grades 4 and 5 51.2 (1.32) 45.0 (1.59) 42.6 (1.57) 38.9 (1.18) 31.3 (1.30) 34.8   (1.52) 23.1 (1.28) 21.8   (1.28) 31.4   (1.50) 14.0   (0.90) 18.5   (1.04) 26.7   (1.73) 65.0 (1.28) 57.3 (1.48) 55.9 (1.80)
                                                                         
Language spoken most
   at home by child3
                                                                       
English 50.2 (0.86) 46.6 (1.00) 42.4 (1.09) 37.0 (0.93) 32.7 (0.91) 34.3   (0.97) 22.6 (0.90) 26.8   (0.76) 30.0   (0.91) 15.5   (0.71) 23.3   (0.87) 31.2   (0.97) 63.9 (0.85) 57.8 (0.78) 56.4 (1.01)
Spanish 41.8 (3.21) 33.8 (4.10) 23.7 (3.52) 16.4 (1.95) 20.0 (3.13) 31.8   (5.19) 14.9 (2.25) 12.8   (2.11) 27.7   (5.07) 26.0   (2.87) 30.4   (3.61) 48.1   (6.15) 34.7 (2.76) 54.9 (3.69) 53.9 (5.81)
English and Spanish                                                                        
equally 51.1 (4.40) 48.7 (4.14) 45.0 (4.73) 24.2 (3.77) 24.2 (3.38) 31.4   (4.65) 19.6 (3.35) 23.3   (4.60) 28.1   (4.93) 28.3   (4.06) 34.5   (4.78) 38.2   (4.58) 53.5 (4.92) 53.0 (5.31) 53.9 (4.64)
English and other                                                                        
language equally (†) 61.5 (5.01) 47.9 (10.18) (†) 42.8 (4.44) 29.7   (6.76) (†) 31.2   (5.01) 22.5   (5.70)   (†) 38.7   (4.85) 27.0   (7.21) (†) 64.2 (3.82) 53.0 (10.71)
Other language 69.8 (6.74) 47.0 (10.39) 41.1 (7.07) 30.5 (7.05) 32.0 (9.29) 27.7 ! (9.41) 26.3 (5.28) 17.6 ! (7.68) 31.9 ! (10.74) 27.8   (6.45) 21.9 ! (9.08) 32.7 ! (10.23) 55.8 (8.96) 42.5 (11.31) 43.9 (6.89)
                                                                         
Highest education level                                                                        
of parents/guardians                                                                        
in the household4                                                                        
Less than a high school
   diploma
36.1 (3.39) 37.4 (3.31) 28.8 (4.16) 20.0 (3.10) 18.5 (2.69) 23.3   (4.07) 9.3 (1.75) 18.1   (3.19) 17.0   (2.75) 15.3   (2.05) 27.7   (3.58) 36.3   (5.24) 34.3 (3.06) 48.0 (2.88) 38.8 (4.70)
High school diploma/
   equivalent (e.g., GED)
44.5 (1.64) 45.0 (2.43) 36.8 (3.24) 28.6 (1.83) 26.3 (2.17) 26.5   (2.94) 17.8 (1.73) 21.2   (2.12) 24.3   (2.74) 16.5   (1.18) 23.3   (1.90) 35.1   (3.29) 50.5 (1.81) 53.8 (2.41) 50.3 (2.91)
Vocational/technical                                                                        
or some college 44.3 (2.04) 41.0 (1.74) 37.0 (2.39) 32.8 (1.89) 30.7 (1.76) 28.2   (2.16) 19.1 (1.32) 23.7   (1.55) 21.6   (1.77) 15.2   (1.29) 23.8   (1.70) 30.5   (2.50) 62.1 (1.64) 54.0 (1.64) 54.7 (2.53)
Associate's degree 47.4 (3.04) 43.7 (3.08) 37.8 (3.19) 41.1 (3.24) 28.0 (2.74) 29.8   (2.77) 22.0 (2.40) 24.9   (2.39) 30.4   (2.96) 15.4   (2.09) 25.8   (2.72) 30.8   (3.18) 67.0 (2.85) 58.2 (2.38) 55.7 (2.87)
Bachelor's degree/some                                                                        
graduate school 57.7 (1.74) 51.2 (1.53) 45.3 (1.68) 40.1 (1.61) 38.3 (1.45) 39.1   (1.97) 27.6 (1.70) 30.2   (1.47) 36.6   (1.89) 16.0   (1.32) 24.3   (1.50) 32.8   (1.79) 71.3 (1.63) 61.5 (1.37) 60.7 (1.60)
Graduate/professional                                                                        
degree 65.2 (2.04) 57.8 (1.56) 55.6 (1.91) 47.2 (2.53) 45.0 (1.68) 46.8   (1.79) 31.7 (2.02) 35.6   (1.72) 38.9   (1.57) 20.7   (1.82) 24.7   (1.23) 29.8   (1.80) 75.6 (1.55) 67.0 (1.56) 65.6 (1.48)
                                                                         
Family income                                                                        
(in current dollars)                                                                        
$20,000 or less 44.2 (2.14) 43.6 (2.48) 37.8 (3.32) 29.0 (2.07) 22.1 (1.72) 22.3   (2.55) 19.4 (2.02) 19.4   (1.87) 24.2   (2.75) 20.1   (1.73) 25.7   (2.05) 35.6   (3.75) 51.3 (2.32) 51.5 (2.11) 39.6 (3.36)
$20,001 to $50,000 48.9 (1.45) 44.1 (2.11) 39.3 (2.46) 31.0 (1.51) 27.7 (1.58) 26.6   (2.15) 18.9 (1.25) 21.1   (1.47) 24.7   (1.92) 15.2   (1.01) 25.4   (1.84) 33.5   (2.52) 61.5 (1.65) 56.7 (2.01) 54.4 (2.23)
$50,001 to $75,000 50.0 (1.65) 47.1 (2.14) 39.7 (2.86) 39.0 (1.59) 33.7 (2.39) 32.9   (2.39) 23.1 (1.42) 29.7   (1.88) 27.5   (2.68) 14.9   (1.27) 27.4   (1.96) 33.8   (2.52) 64.5 (1.42) 56.3 (2.05) 58.7 (2.64)
$75,001 to $100,000 49.9 (2.36) 46.8 (2.16) 44.3 (2.42) 39.4 (2.27) 34.4 (2.01) 37.1   (2.52) 23.0 (2.22) 28.2   (2.07) 28.8   (1.78) 15.3   (1.52) 26.2   (2.03) 28.3   (2.60) 66.2 (2.25) 60.1 (2.18) 60.9 (2.54)
Over $100,000 60.9 (2.14) 50.1 (1.76) 45.2 (1.50) 45.3 (2.10) 40.0 (1.39) 43.6   (1.46) 30.9 (1.66) 31.2   (1.63) 37.2   (1.49) 18.3   (1.88) 20.5   (1.21) 31.5   (1.63) 69.4 (1.84) 60.7 (1.59) 60.2 (1.69)
                                                                         
Poverty status5                                                                        
Poor 43.3 (2.30) 45.0 (2.53) 38.0 (2.59) 26.3 (1.98) 22.5 (1.63) 23.2   (2.64) 18.9 (1.97) 18.3   (1.55) 23.7   (2.28) 19.5   (1.67) 24.3   (2.09) 36.3   (3.21) 52.0 (2.14) 54.0 (2.18) 44.4 (3.02)
Near-poor 48.9 (1.63) 41.8 (1.86) 40.0 (2.56) 31.6 (2.10) 28.5 (2.10) 25.8   (1.93) 17.7 (1.50) 21.9   (1.77) 23.6   (2.16) 16.1   (1.28) 26.2   (1.99) 33.8   (2.73) 61.6 (2.24) 57.1 (2.10) 55.0 (2.39)
Nonpoor 52.8 (1.02) 48.8 (1.14) 43.4 (1.13) 39.8 (1.17) 36.9 (1.00) 40.0   (1.18) 24.9 (1.06) 30.4   (1.04) 33.6   (1.11) 15.8   (0.87) 24.1   (0.91) 30.8   (1.13) 65.2 (0.99) 58.7 (0.96) 59.7 (1.14)
                                                                         
Control of school                                                                        
Public 49.2 (0.87) 46.2 (0.94) 41.4 (1.12) 34.9 (0.88) 30.9 (0.96) 32.7   (0.99) 21.2 (0.92) 25.0   (0.82) 28.9   (1.06) 16.3   (0.71) 24.1   (0.94) 32.9   (1.23) 60.6 (0.85) 55.9 (0.87) 54.6 (1.14)
Private 57.0 (2.31) 49.0 (2.51) 44.5 (2.65) 40.0 (2.55) 41.8 (2.56) 42.3   (2.88) 29.0 (2.04) 34.4   (2.49) 35.4   (2.41) 17.9   (1.85) 28.8   (2.43) 28.3   (2.17) 72.2 (2.15) 70.0 (2.30) 66.9 (2.90)
                                                                         
Locale of household6                                                                        
City (†) 48.0 (1.56) 43.5 (2.04) (†) 31.3 (1.43) 33.1   (1.90) (†) 28.2   (1.33) 32.9   (1.74)   (†) 28.6   (1.48) 36.7   (2.17) (†) 55.0 (1.58) 52.7 (2.21)
Suburban (†) 47.3 (1.63) 43.4 (1.38) (†) 34.7 (1.36) 35.8   (1.33) (†) 27.9   (1.31) 30.2   (1.21)   (†) 27.0   (1.38) 33.7   (1.55) (†) 55.9 (1.26) 57.2 (1.51)
Town (†) 50.1 (4.33) 35.5 (3.69) (†) 26.6 (2.89) 26.6   (2.74) (†) 21.4   (3.03) 22.3   (2.80)   (†) 21.0   (3.20) 21.1   (3.20) (†) 59.1 (3.87) 55.5 (3.50)
Rural (†) 41.7 (1.82) 35.9 (2.73) (†) 30.7 (1.58) 32.8   (2.90) (†) 21.8   (1.32) 23.9   (2.01)   (†) 17.3   (1.48) 26.3   (2.71) (†) 61.8 (1.43) 58.7 (2.84)
—Not available.
†Not applicable.
!Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent.
‡Reporting standards not met (too few cases for a reliable estimate).
1 In 2012 and 2016, a single item asked parents if they had attended an event sponsored by a community, ethnic, or religious group. In 2003, attendance at an event sponsored by a religious group was asked about separately from attendance at an event sponsored by a community or ethnic group.
2 The 2003 questionnaire included a single item for "Asian or Pacific Islander," whereas questionnaires for later years included one item for Asian and a separate item for Pacific Islander.
3 The 2012 and 2016 questionnaires included an item specifying that the child was not able to speak. Children who were not able to speak are excluded from this analysis.
4 In 2003, education level was not collected for the second parent in a same sex couple.
5 Poor children are those whose family incomes were below the Census Bureau's poverty threshold in the year prior to data collection; near-poor children are those whose family incomes ranged from the poverty threshold to 199 percent of the poverty threshold; and nonpoor children are those whose family incomes were at or above 200 percent of the poverty threshold. The poverty threshold is a dollar amount that varies depending on a family's size and composition and is updated annually to account for inflation. In 2015, for example, the poverty threshold for a family of four with two children was $24,257. Survey respondents are asked to select the range within which their income falls, rather than giving the exact amount of their income; therefore, the measure of poverty status is an approximation.
6 Based on zip code of the household.
NOTE: While National Household Education Surveys Program (NHES) administrations prior to 2012 were administered via telephone with an interviewer, NHES:2012 and NHES:2016 used self-administered paper-and-pencil questionnaires that were mailed to respondents. Measurable differences between estimates for years prior to 2012 and estimates for later years could reflect actual changes in the population, or the changes could be due to the mode change from telephone to mail. The respondent was the parent most knowledgeable about the child's education. Responding parents reported on their own activities and the activities of their spouse/other adults in the household. Unless otherwise noted, all information is based on parent reports. Excludes homeschooled children. For the total numbers of children enrolled in kindergarten through fifth grade in 2003, 2012, and 2016, see table 207.30. Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. Some data have been revised from previously published figures.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Parent and Family Involvement in Education Survey of the National Household Education Surveys Program (PFI-NHES:2003, 2012, and 2016). (This table was prepared April 2019.)

2018 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest