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Digest of Education Statistics
2018 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest


Table 207.10. Number of 3- to 5-year-olds not yet enrolled in kindergarten and percentage participating in home literacy activities with a family member, by type and frequency of activity and selected child and family characteristics: 2001, 2012, and 2016
[Standard errors appear in parentheses]
Selected child or family characteristic Number of children (in thousands) Percent of children participating in literacy activity with family member1
Read to by family member
three or more times in past week
At least once in past week Visited a library at least once in past month
Told a story by family member Taught letters, words, or numbers Did arts and crafts
2001 2012 2016 2001 2012 2016 2001 2012 2016 2001 2012 2016 2001 2012 2016 2001 2012 2016
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
Total 8,551 (11.0) 8,244 (85.1) 8,087 (91.1) 84 (0.8) 83 (0.8) 81 (1.1) 84 (0.8) 83 (0.9) 84 (1.2) 94 (0.6) 98 (0.3) 97 (0.6) 79 (0.9) 86 (0.8) 87 (1.1) 36 (1.1) 42 (1.2) 41 (1.4)
Age                                                                        
3 years old 3,795 (91.4) 3,674 (89.8) 3,404 (123.0) 84 (1.1) 82 (1.3) 82 (1.7) 83 (1.2) 82 (1.4) 84 (1.6) 93 (1.0) 97 (0.5) 96 (1.1) 77 (1.3) 85 (1.1) 85 (1.7) 35 (1.9) 38 (1.6) 39 (2.1)
4 years old 3,861 (89.0) 3,508 (90.4) 3,379 (109.8) 85 (1.2) 84 (1.3) 81 (2.1) 84 (1.1) 85 (1.3) 85 (1.9) 95 (0.7) 98 (0.3) 96 (0.8) 82 (1.2) 87 (1.2) 89 (1.3) 37 (1.4) 43 (1.8) 40 (2.1)
5 years old 896 (47.0) 1,062 (59.6) 1,303 (84.9) 81 (2.7) 80 (2.7) 80 (3.3) 82 (2.4) 81 (2.6) 82 (3.8) 93 (1.8) 98 (0.7) 97 (1.0) 80 (2.4) 88 (1.9) 85 (3.9) 37 (3.4) 49 (3.8) 46 (3.6)
                                                                         
Sex                                                                        
Male 4,292 (79.9) 4,251 (103.9) 4,184 (118.8) 82 (1.2) 82 (1.2) 80 (1.5) 82 (1.1) 82 (1.4) 82 (1.5) 94 (0.7) 97 (0.4) 96 (1.0) 76 (1.3) 84 (1.1) 85 (1.4) 35 (1.4) 41 (1.7) 40 (2.1)
Female 4,260 (79.6) 3,993 (104.2) 3,903 (117.5) 86 (1.0) 84 (1.4) 83 (1.9) 85 (1.0) 85 (1.0) 86 (1.9) 94 (0.8) 98 (0.4) 97 (0.6) 83 (1.3) 88 (1.1) 89 (1.7) 37 (1.6) 42 (1.4) 42 (2.0)
                                                                         
Race/ethnicity                                                                        
White 5,313 (68.0) 4,062 (97.4) 4,003 (96.8) 89 (0.8) 90 (1.0) 88 (1.2) 86 (1.0) 87 (1.1) 86 (1.1) 95 (0.7) 98 (0.4) 96 (0.9) 85 (1.0) 90 (0.9) 90 (1.2) 39 (1.3) 44 (1.4) 44 (1.7)
Black 1,251 (55.1) 1,154 (63.4) 1,086 (67.4) 77 (2.6) 77 (3.3) 79 (3.3) 81 (2.1) 80 (2.3) 85 (3.0) 94 (1.8) 99 (0.6) 98 (1.2) 70 (3.1) 83 (2.8) 85 (3.2) 31 (2.6) 41 (3.8) 42 (4.5)
Hispanic 1,506 (43.5) 2,100 (76.1) 2,133 (84.9) 71 (1.9) 71 (2.0) 71 (3.4) 75 (2.0) 78 (2.2) 78 (3.6) 92 (1.1) 97 (0.7) 97 (1.0) 67 (2.2) 80 (1.9) 82 (2.7) 30 (2.0) 34 (2.2) 33 (3.0)
Asian/Pacific Islander2 202 (29.0) 420 (32.7) 400 (44.7) 87 (4.1) 77 (3.3) 74 (6.5) 81 (5.8) 85 (2.7) 88 (3.2) 96 (2.2) 98 (1.1) 98 (0.9) 74 (6.9) 86 (2.6) 79 (6.6) 47 (7.5) 55 (4.4) 49 (5.8)
Asian (†) 374 (30.3) 386 (43.4) (†) 75 (3.5) 74 (6.7) (†) 83 (3.0) 88 (3.2) (†) 98 (1.2) 98 (0.9) (†) 84 (2.9) 78 (6.7) (†) 55 (4.4) 49 (5.9)
Pacific Islander (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†)
American Indian/Alaska
       Native
(†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†)
Two or more races 240 (26.9) 463 (41.1) 418 (47.8) 84 (3.9) 87 (3.2) 81 (4.0) 92 (2.7) 83 (3.8) 83 (5.0) 93 (3.1) 99 (0.8) 97 (1.3) 86 (3.7) 88 (3.8) 90 (2.6) 31 (5.8) 44 (4.2) 38 (5.0)
                                                                         
Mother's highest level                                                                        
of education3                                                                        
Less than high school 996 (54.5) 1,291 (71.9) 1,093 (90.7) 69 (2.8) 73 (3.1) 61 (5.9) 72 (2.7) 75 (3.5) 77 (6.1) 91 (2.0) 98 (0.8) 94 (2.9) 62 (3.0) 82 (2.6) 77 (5.4) 21 (2.4) 26 (3.1) 27 (4.1)
High school/GED 2,712 (89.0) 1,614 (64.0) 1,482 (87.1) 81 (1.6) 75 (2.5) 79 (2.7) 83 (1.3) 83 (1.8) 78 (2.9) 95 (0.9) 97 (0.9) 96 (1.4) 77 (1.8) 84 (1.8) 86 (2.3) 30 (1.9) 38 (2.8) 35 (4.4)
Vocational/technical                                                                        
or some college 1,833 (73.9) 1,663 (77.3) 1,400 (64.0) 85 (1.8) 85 (1.7) 80 (2.3) 85 (1.7) 83 (1.5) 83 (2.4) 94 (1.2) 97 (0.8) 97 (1.1) 81 (1.9) 86 (1.6) 88 (2.2) 38 (2.2) 40 (2.0) 38 (2.7)
Associate's degree 573 (40.9) 678 (50.0) 700 (53.7) 89 (2.5) 85 (2.3) 85 (2.7) 84 (2.7) 84 (2.2) 87 (2.4) 92 (2.3) 98 (0.7) 97 (1.3) 82 (3.2) 86 (2.3) 89 (2.2) 42 (4.3) 43 (3.9) 42 (3.2)
Bachelor's degree/some                                                                        
graduate school 1,553 (68.4) 1,870 (65.9) 2,078 (75.4) 93 (1.2) 92 (1.2) 90 (1.4) 88 (1.5) 90 (1.2) 89 (1.6) 95 (1.1) 99 (0.3) 98 (0.5) 89 (1.4) 92 (1.0) 89 (1.4) 46 (2.4) 49 (2.2) 47 (2.2)
Graduate/professional                                                                        
degree 685 (45.7) 680 (30.8) 1,036 (45.0) 96 (1.1) 95 (1.0) 91 (1.4) 89 (2.3) 89 (1.5) 89 (1.5) 95 (1.3) 97 (0.8) 97 (0.8) 86 (2.2) 91 (1.5) 91 (1.4) 55 (3.8) 64 (2.5) 56 (2.0)
                                                                         
Mother's employment                                                                        
status3                                                                        
Employed 5,148 (84.2) 4,491 (88.6) 4,782 (116.5) 86 (1.0) 84 (1.1) 83 (1.4) 84 (1.0) 84 (1.2) 85 (1.3) 94 (0.7) 98 (0.3) 96 (0.8) 80 (1.2) 86 (0.9) 86 (1.3) 36 (1.2) 42 (1.5) 41 (1.8)
Unemployed 396 (36.9) 550 (52.0) 269 (37.7) 77 (5.0) 80 (4.4) 91 (3.9) 80 (4.7) 84 (3.5) 82 (6.5) 94 (3.3) 98 (1.1) 98 (1.8) 69 (5.5) 89 (4.0) 88 (5.4) 37 (4.8) 33 (4.2) 36 (7.6)
Not in labor force 2,809 (73.3) 2,756 (86.9) 2,737 (104.2) 83 (1.4) 84 (1.7) 79 (2.7) 82 (1.5) 84 (1.6) 82 (2.6) 94 (0.9) 97 (0.7) 97 (0.8) 80 (1.3) 87 (1.4) 87 (2.0) 38 (1.9) 43 (1.9) 41 (2.6)
                                                                         
Family income                                                                        
(in current dollars)                                                                        
$20,000 or less 2,106 (58.4) 1,480 (60.3) 1,162 (63.5) 74 (2.1) 76 (2.3) 70 (3.1) 81 (1.6) 83 (1.9) 82 (2.9) 92 (1.5) 97 (0.9) 95 (2.1) 72 (2.2) 84 (1.6) 85 (2.5) 27 (2.0) 39 (2.5) 40 (3.9)
$20,001 to $50,000 2,934 (86.6) 2,372 (77.4) 2,211 (93.6) 83 (1.4) 78 (2.1) 76 (2.7) 83 (1.4) 82 (1.6) 83 (1.9) 95 (0.7) 98 (0.5) 96 (1.3) 79 (1.4) 83 (1.8) 85 (2.2) 35 (1.8) 40 (2.2) 35 (2.9)
$50,001 to $75,000 1,724 (74.4) 1,510 (67.2) 1,342 (84.5) 88 (1.4) 82 (2.3) 79 (4.0) 87 (1.6) 82 (2.4) 82 (4.4) 95 (1.1) 98 (0.6) 96 (0.9) 82 (1.7) 85 (2.3) 87 (2.4) 38 (2.3) 38 (2.5) 37 (3.4)
$75,001 to $100,000 879 (49.4) 1,082 (46.5) 1,047 (58.6) 91 (1.6) 86 (2.5) 88 (2.3) 85 (2.2) 89 (2.1) 83 (3.5) 93 (1.7) 98 (0.6) 98 (0.6) 87 (2.1) 91 (2.2) 87 (3.6) 47 (3.1) 44 (2.9) 41 (3.5)
Over $100,000 909 (43.2) 1,800 (66.3) 2,325 (70.0) 96 (1.2) 93 (1.0) 90 (1.5) 84 (2.3) 83 (2.0) 87 (1.7) 96 (1.2) 98 (0.7) 98 (0.6) 87 (2.1) 89 (1.4) 89 (1.4) 45 (2.7) 48 (2.4) 48 (2.2)
                                                                         
Number of parents in the                                                                        
household                                                                        
Two parents 6,429 (75.0) 5,958 (95.6) 5,969 (117.0) 87 (0.8) 85 (0.9) 84 (1.3) 84 (0.9) 85 (1.0) 84 (1.3) 94 (0.6) 98 (0.3) 97 (0.7) 81 (0.9) 87 (0.9) 88 (1.2) 38 (1.2) 42 (1.4) 43 (1.6)
None or one parent 2,123 (75.0) 2,286 (81.1) 2,117 (91.9) 76 (2.0) 77 (1.8) 74 (2.6) 82 (1.6) 79 (1.5) 83 (2.0) 93 (1.3) 97 (0.7) 97 (1.0) 74 (2.3) 84 (1.6) 84 (2.3) 30 (2.1) 40 (2.3) 33 (2.6)
                                                                         
Poverty status4                                                                        
Poor 2,008 (60.4) 1,958 (77.8) 1,536 (67.1) 74 (2.1) 74 (2.2) 71 (3.0) 81 (1.7) 82 (1.7) 83 (2.8) 92 (1.6) 96 (0.8) 94 (1.7) 73 (2.3) 83 (1.7) 85 (2.6) 27 (2.1) 39 (2.2) 38 (3.3)
Near-poor 1,782 (70.5) 1,960 (86.5) 1,984 (112.9) 81 (1.8) 81 (2.1) 75 (3.4) 82 (2.0) 81 (2.0) 82 (3.0) 95 (1.0) 98 (0.5) 97 (1.0) 76 (1.9) 82 (2.1) 86 (2.3) 33 (2.8) 38 (2.6) 36 (3.1)
Nonpoor 4,762 (71.9) 4,327 (87.6) 4,567 (108.9) 90 (0.9) 88 (1.0) 87 (1.0) 85 (1.0) 85 (1.2) 85 (1.4) 95 (0.6) 98 (0.4) 97 (0.4) 84 (1.0) 89 (1.0) 88 (1.3) 41 (1.4) 44 (1.5) 44 (1.7)
—Not available.
†Not applicable.
‡Reporting standards not met. Either there are too few cases for a reliable estimate or the coefficient of variation (CV) is 50 percent or greater.
1 The respondent was the parent most knowledgeable about the child's care and education. Responding parents reported on their own activities and the activities of their spouse/other adults in the household.
2 The 2001 questionnaire included a single item for "Asian or Pacific Islander," whereas questionnaires for later years included one item for Asian and a separate item for Pacific Islander.
3 Excludes children living in households with no mother or female guardian present.
4 Poor children are those whose family incomes were below the Census Bureau's poverty threshold in the year prior to data collection; near-poor children are those whose family incomes ranged from the poverty threshold to 199 percent of the poverty threshold; and nonpoor children are those whose family incomes were at or above 200 percent of the poverty threshold. The poverty threshold is a dollar amount that varies depending on a family's size and composition and is updated annually to account for inflation. In 2015, for example, the poverty threshold for a family of four with two children was $24,257. Survey respondents are asked to select the range within which their income falls, rather than giving the exact amount of their income; therefore, the measure of poverty status is an approximation.
NOTE: Prior to 2012, National Household Education Surveys Program (NHES) surveys were administered via telephone with an interviewer. NHES:2012 used self-administered paper-and-pencil questionnaires that were mailed to respondents. For NHES:2016, initial contact with all respondents was by mail, and the majority of respondents received paper-and-pencil questionnaires. However, as an experiment with web use, a small sample of NHES:2016 respondents received mailed invitations to complete the survey online. Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding and suppression of estimates that did not meet reporting standards. Some data have been revised from previously published figures.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Early Childhood Program Participation Survey of the National Household Education Surveys Program (ECPP-NHES:2001, 2012, and 2016). (This table was prepared October 2017.)

2018 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest