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Digest of Education Statistics
2018 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest


Table 202.30c. Number of children under 6 years old and not yet in kindergarten whose families paid for child care, and families' average out-of-pocket expense, by type of child care arrangement and selected child and family characteristics: 2001 and 2016
[Standard errors appear in parentheses]
Selected child or family characteristic 2001 2016
Number of children whose families paid for child care1 (in thousands) Hourly out-of-pocket expense, by type of primary nonparental care2 (in constant 2016-17 dollars) Number of children whose families paid for child care1 (in thousands) Hourly out-of-pocket expense, by type of primary nonparental care2 (in constant 2016-17 dollars)
Relative care Nonrelative care Center-based care3 Relative care Nonrelative care Center-based care3
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Total children under 6 years old 8,587   (133.9) $2.78   (0.167) $4.42   (0.286) $4.42   (0.136) 8,311   (164.5) $4.99   (0.409) $6.54   (0.503) $7.60   (0.297)
Age                                                
Under 1 year old 1,016   (55.4) 2.97   (0.421) 4.51   (0.359) 4.61   (0.527) 1,280   (80.8) 4.55   (0.667) 6.57   (0.505) 7.89   (1.016)
1 to 2 years old 3,128   (85.7) 2.63   (0.230) 4.44   (0.455) 4.82   (0.375) 3,051   (129.2) 5.54   (0.837) 7.16   (1.000) 7.67   (0.712)
3 to 5 years old 4,443   (70.9) 2.82   (0.254) 4.36   (0.414) 4.24   (0.143) 3,979   (113.1) 4.78   (0.648) 5.68   (0.698) 7.52   (0.310)
                                                 
Race/ethnicity of child and poverty
      status of household4
                                               
White 5,745   (107.6) 2.25   (0.137) 4.31   (0.234) 4.69   (0.167) 4,758   (105.5) 3.95   (0.590) 6.08   (0.315) 7.36   (0.291)
Poor 417   (46.0)   (†)   (†) 4.47 ! (1.456) 166   (29.5)   (†)   (†) 4.10   (0.888)
Near-poor 757   (58.2) 2.16   (0.286) 3.12   (0.279) 3.94   (0.611) 535   (55.0)   (†) 3.46   (0.463) 5.54   (0.623)
Nonpoor 4,571   (99.5) 2.34   (0.162) 4.50   (0.268) 4.82   (0.168) 4,058   (102.3) 4.68   (0.810) 6.37   (0.260) 7.67   (0.320)
Black 1,324   (64.6) 2.89   (0.409) 4.23   (1.004) 3.11   (0.215) 1,072   (85.7) 4.82   (1.155) 10.19 ! (4.026) 5.92   (1.023)
Poor 437   (47.0)   (†)   (†) 1.91   (0.313) 265   (54.3)   (†)   (†)   (†)
Near-poor 313   (32.9)   (†)   (†) 3.14   (0.580) 289   (61.6)   (†)   (†)   (†)
Nonpoor 574   (33.6) 4.50   (1.014) 4.04   (0.442) 3.71   (0.275) 518   (52.4)   (†)   (†) 6.11   (0.760)
Hispanic 1,042   (51.7) 3.10   (0.251) 3.75   (0.404) 3.89   (0.290) 1,614   (97.5) 5.61   (0.662) 5.74   (0.815) 8.66   (1.146)
Poor 289   (32.8) 3.37   (0.546) 3.86   (0.959) 2.37   (0.573) 252   (41.8) 3.18   (0.675)   (†)   (†)
Near-poor 231   (27.8) 3.14   (0.568) 3.41 ! (0.518)   (†) 373   (42.6) 8.59   (1.698)   (†) 5.27   (1.230)
Nonpoor 521   (30.2) 2.86   (0.291) 3.88   (0.322) 4.26   (0.221) 990   (79.6) 4.92   (0.814) 7.72   (1.358) 9.75   (1.411)
Asian/Pacific Islander5 160   (23.8)   (†)   (†) 5.85   (0.652) 368   (27.1)   (†)   (†) 11.59   (1.247)
Asian   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†) 368   (27.1)   (†)   (†) 11.59   (1.247)
Pacific Islander   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)
American Indian/Alaska Native   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)
Two or more races 267   (34.5)   (†) 3.39   (0.645) 4.67   (0.487) 478   (53.1)   (†) 5.60   (0.851) 7.57   (1.419)
                                                 
Number of parents in the household6                                                
Two parents 6,645   (117.0) 2.86   (0.210) 4.64   (0.326) 4.70   (0.155) 6,670   (144.5) 5.14   (0.486) 6.28   (0.282) 8.17   (0.343)
One parent 1,839   (87.4) 2.64   (0.262) 3.11   (0.264) 3.21   (0.283) 1,521   (116.5) 4.37   (0.831) 7.54   (2.177) 4.84   (0.475)
                                                 
Mother in household                                                
Yes 8,357   (133.3) 2.74   (0.170) 4.32   (0.266) 4.44   (0.140) 7,948   (163.7) 4.99   (0.437) 6.54   (0.511) 7.46   (0.275)
No 230   (29.6)   (†)   (†) 3.58   (0.694) 363   (48.7)   (†)   (†) 11.45 ! (4.337)
                                                 
Mother's employment status7                                                
Currently employed 6,826   (123.8) 2.55   (0.148) 4.25   (0.311) 4.03   (0.108) 6,699   (136.9) 4.93   (0.421) 5.95   (0.245) 7.46   (0.326)
35 or more hours per week 4,930   (111.0) 2.54   (0.174) 3.68   (0.335) 3.77   (0.103) 5,446   (127.6) 4.65   (0.451) 5.84   (0.246) 7.39   (0.350)
Less than 35 hours per week 1,897   (81.7) 2.58   (0.236) 5.72   (0.701) 4.61   (0.244) 1,253   (62.1) 6.04   (1.016) 6.40   (0.780) 7.79   (0.505)
Looking for work 191   (27.2)   (†)   (†) 4.26   (0.572) 135   (29.2)   (†)   (†)   (†)
Not in labor force 1,432   (74.5)   (†) 6.52   (0.684) 5.63   (0.497) 1,241   (77.3)   (†) 13.50 ! (5.592) 6.81   (0.414)
                                                 
Mother's highest education7                                                
Less than high school 498   (52.9) 3.16   (0.433) 3.29   (0.766) 3.19   (0.776) 475   (91.7)   (†)   (†)   (†)
High school/GED 2,116   (102.1) 2.43   (0.234) 3.67   (0.500) 3.58   (0.233) 882   (78.4) 5.48   (1.188) 4.58   (1.120) 6.66   (1.307)
Vocational/technical or some
     college
1,846   (84.8) 2.37   (0.231) 3.60   (0.239) 3.80   (0.335) 1,307   (66.5) 4.07   (0.742) 4.77   (0.480) 6.15   (0.363)
Associate's degree 784   (61.9) 2.73   (0.686) 5.22 ! (2.100) 4.48   (0.566) 692   (55.7) 3.67   (0.644) 4.53   (1.071) 5.94   (0.672)
Bachelor's degree 2,108   (76.6) 2.52   (0.253) 4.40   (0.247) 5.04   (0.230) 2,862   (97.8) 5.41   (0.872) 7.94   (1.462) 7.95   (0.427)
Graduate/professional degree 1,096   (63.2)   (†) 6.44   (0.812) 5.65   (0.356) 1,857   (56.8) 7.40   (1.495) 7.69   (0.352) 8.97   (0.557)
                                                 
Language spoken most at home
      by mother5
                                               
English 7,810   (128.7) 2.56   (0.180) 4.26   (0.222) 4.36   (0.140) 7,061   (148.9) 4.31   (0.438) 6.23   (0.524) 7.07   (0.277)
English and another language
     equally
194   (21.5)   (†)   (†) 4.13   (0.502) 324   (31.8)   (†)   (†) 11.20   (1.356)
Non-English 445   (43.5) 3.97   (0.617) 3.69   (0.706) 6.60   (1.741) 690   (61.6) 6.50   (1.381) 9.37   (2.090) 10.28   (1.881)
                                                 
Mother's age when first became
      parent7
                                               
Less than 18 568   (45.8) 2.79   (0.381) 5.99 ! (2.316) 2.43   (0.258) 301   (48.7)   (†)   (†) 5.43   (1.177)
18 or 19 915   (70.1) 2.37   (0.324) 2.71   (0.240) 2.63   (0.286) 602   (79.9) 3.92   (1.037) 3.48   (0.508) 4.00   (1.128)
20 or older 6,966   (130.8) 2.85   (0.218) 4.49   (0.300) 4.74   (0.154) 7,137   (150.1) 5.11   (0.502) 6.99   (0.576) 7.70   (0.268)
                                                 
Household income                                                
$20,000 or less 1,379   (76.8) 2.52   (0.257) 3.75   (0.764) 3.08   (0.546) 608   (61.6) 3.80   (0.775)   (†) 4.29   (0.721)
$20,001 to $50,000 2,541   (102.0) 2.46   (0.222) 4.03   (0.608) 3.74   (0.249) 1,537   (108.0) 5.22   (0.906) 5.43   (1.121) 5.33   (0.801)
$50,001 to $75,000 2,114   (95.2) 3.14   (0.340) 3.58   (0.173) 4.21   (0.218) 1,313   (75.8) 5.50   (1.152) 4.20   (0.482) 6.04   (0.502)
$75,001 to $100,000 1,207   (70.0) 3.42   (0.716) 4.48   (0.388) 4.65   (0.157) 1,283   (66.8) 4.02   (1.103) 5.54   (0.496) 7.13   (0.419)
Over $100,000 1,347   (70.1)   (†) 7.03   (0.832) 6.19   (0.398) 3,569   (88.9) 6.06   (0.806) 7.83   (0.370) 9.27   (0.467)
                                                 
Poverty status of household7                                                
Poor 1,202   (80.2) 2.60   (0.283) 4.04   (0.969) 3.17   (0.641) 776   (74.7) 3.47   (0.668)   (†) 4.01   (0.500)
Near-poor 1,349   (72.8) 2.46   (0.305) 4.42   (1.190) 3.68   (0.419) 1,317   (87.7) 6.12   (0.995) 4.06   (0.409) 5.92   (1.030)
Nonpoor 6,037   (119.1) 3.04   (0.256) 4.49   (0.219) 4.72   (0.141) 6,217   (114.6) 5.03   (0.539) 6.77   (0.341) 8.18   (0.322)
                                                 
Household size                                                
2 or 3 persons 2,536   (100.4) 2.76   (0.269) 4.66   (0.454) 4.07   (0.150) 2,402   (79.3) 5.51   (0.701) 7.35   (0.673) 7.19   (0.350)
4 persons 3,681   (109.9) 2.93   (0.320) 4.09   (0.185) 4.82   (0.254) 3,428   (113.7) 4.80   (0.652) 6.17   (0.437) 8.19   (0.552)
5 persons 1,619   (70.1) 2.16   (0.231) 5.15   (1.144) 4.33   (0.210) 1,492   (80.6) 5.54   (1.189) 5.75   (0.629) 6.68   (0.431)
6 or more persons 752   (59.2) 3.35   (0.601) 3.39   (0.603) 3.63   (0.609) 988   (97.0) 4.12   (0.941) 6.83 ! (2.998) 7.92   (1.448)
                                                 
Locale                                                
City   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†) 2,816   (119.9) 5.31   (0.727) 7.07   (0.656) 8.65   (0.754)
Suburban   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†) 3,556   (111.3) 5.52   (0.720) 7.69   (1.112) 7.89   (0.293)
Town   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†) 678   (65.0)   (†) 4.32   (1.215) 4.50   (0.552)
Rural   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†) 1,261   (68.7) 2.89   (0.422) 4.55   (0.409) 5.58   (0.395)
—Not available.
†Not applicable.
!Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent.
‡Reporting standards not met. Either there are too few cases for a reliable estimate or the coefficient of variation (CV) is 50 percent or greater.
1 Estimates include only those children whose families paid at least part of the cost out of pocket for their child to receive nonparental care at least weekly. Children for whom no fee was charged, or for whom another source paid the entire fee, are excluded from the estimates.
2 A child's primary arrangement is the regular nonparental care arrangement or early childhood education program in which the child spent the most time per week.
3 Center-based arrangements include day care centers, Head Start programs, preschools, prekindergartens, and childhood programs.
4 Poor children are those whose family incomes were below the Census Bureau's poverty threshold in the year prior to data collection; near-poor children are those whose family incomes ranged from the poverty threshold to 199 percent of the poverty threshold; and nonpoor children are those whose family incomes were at or above 200 percent of the poverty threshold. The poverty threshold is a dollar amount that varies depending on a family's size and composition and is updated annually to account for inflation. In 2015, for example, the poverty threshold for a family of four with two children was $24,257. Survey respondents are asked to select the range within which their income falls, rather than giving the exact amount of their income; therefore, the measure of poverty status is an approximation.
5 The 2001 questionnaire included a single item for "Asian or Pacific Islander," whereas questionnaires for later years included one item for Asian and a separate item for Pacific Islander.
6 Excludes children living apart from their parents.
7 Excludes children living in households with no mother or female guardian present.
NOTE: In 2001, National Household Education Surveys Program (NHES) surveys were administered via telephone with an interviewer. For NHES:2016, initial contact with all respondents was by mail, and the majority of respondents received paper-and-pencil questionnaires. However, as an experiment with web use, a small sample of NHES:2016 respondents received mailed invitations to complete the survey online. Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Early Childhood Program Participation Survey of the National Household Education Surveys Program (ECPP-NHES:2001 and 2016). (This table was prepared January 2018.)

2018 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest