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Digest of Education Statistics
2018 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest


Table 202.10. Enrollment of 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children in preprimary programs, by age of child, level of program, control of program, and attendance status: Selected years, 1970 through 2017
[Standard errors appear in parentheses]
Age of child, level and control of program, and attendance status 1970 1980 1990 19951 20001 20031 20051 20101 20151 20161 20171
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
3 to 5 years old2                                                                  
Total population (in thousands) 10,949   (131.4) 9,284   (121.0) 11,207   (145.5) 12,518   (153.7) 11,858   (155.3) 12,204   (149.6) 12,134   (149.1) 12,949   (80.4) 11,958   (79.8) 12,032   (113.7) 12,001   (133.4)
                                                                   
Enrollment of 3- to 5-year-olds
    (in thousands)
                                                                 
Total 4,104   (78.9) 4,878   (75.0) 6,659   (88.8) 7,739   (86.4) 7,592   (86.2) 7,921   (82.6) 7,801   (82.7) 8,246   (107.3) 7,681   (107.3) 7,776   (103.5) 7,716   (117.0)
Level and attendance status                                                                  
Preschool 1,094   (48.9) 1,981   (61.5) 3,379   (83.0) 4,331   (84.6) 4,326   (86.5) 4,859   (84.7) 4,529   (83.4) 4,797   (94.5) 4,475   (96.9) 4,701   (116.0) 4,620   (141.8)
Full-day 291   (26.2) 681   (39.1) 1,150   (54.9) 1,951   (64.5) 2,049   (67.9) 2,479   (69.6) 2,275   (67.3) 2,297   (81.4) 2,264   (73.0) 2,544   (91.0) 2,584   (108.0)
Part-day 803   (42.5) 1,301   (52.1) 2,229   (72.2) 2,381   (69.8) 2,277   (70.8) 2,380   (68.5) 2,255   (67.1) 2,500   (75.4) 2,211   (81.3) 2,157   (86.7) 2,036   (90.2)
Kindergarten 3,010   (72.8) 2,897   (69.6) 3,280   (82.3) 3,408   (79.2) 3,266   (80.3) 3,062   (75.0) 3,272   (76.6) 3,449   (75.9) 3,207   (84.3) 3,075   (92.9) 3,097   (90.2)
Full-day 407   (30.9) 870   (43.8) 1,428   (60.3) 1,738   (61.5) 1,959   (66.7) 1,950   (63.4) 2,274   (67.3) 2,516   (69.7) 2,613   (77.3) 2,494   (86.7) 2,438   (83.4)
Part-day 2,603   (69.4) 2,026   (62.0) 1,853   (67.2) 1,670   (60.5) 1,307   (56.3) 1,112   (49.8) 998   (47.4) 932   (53.4) 594   (42.3) 581   (44.8) 659   (48.6)
Control                                                                  
Public 2,830   (71.4) 3,066   (70.6) 3,971   (86.5) 4,750   (86.3) 4,847   (88.3) 5,051   (85.2) 5,213   (85.4) 5,829   (105.5) 5,426   (95.6) 5,586   (98.7) 5,501   (105.4)
Private 1,274   (52.3) 1,812   (59.5) 2,688   (77.2) 2,989   (75.8) 2,745   (75.8) 2,870   (73.4) 2,588   (70.7) 2,417   (77.1) 2,255   (70.5) 2,190   (83.4) 2,216   (100.2)
Attendance status                                                                  
Full-day 698   (39.8) 1,551   (56.0) 2,577   (76.1) 3,689   (81.1) 4,008   (85.0) 4,429   (83.2) 4,548   (83.5) 4,813   (98.5) 4,877   (101.5) 5,038   (105.0) 5,022   (109.8)
Part-day 3,406   (75.5) 3,327   (72.0) 4,082   (87.0) 4,051   (83.2) 3,584   (82.5) 3,492   (78.2) 3,253   (76.4) 3,432   (88.5) 2,804   (91.6) 2,738   (87.7) 2,694   (93.9)
                                                                   
Percent of 3- to 5-year-olds enrolled                                                                  
Total 37.5   (0.72) 52.5   (0.81) 59.4   (0.79) 61.8   (0.69) 64.0   (0.73) 64.9   (0.68) 64.3   (0.68) 63.7   (0.66) 64.2   (0.79) 64.6   (0.81) 64.3   (0.77)
Full-day as a percent
    of total enrollment
17.0   (0.91) 31.8   (1.04) 38.7   (1.02) 47.7   (0.90) 52.8   (0.95) 55.9   (0.87) 58.3   (0.87) 58.4   (0.92) 63.5   (1.04) 64.8   (1.03) 65.1   (1.08)
Full-day preschool as a percent
    of total preschool enrollment
26.6   (2.08) 34.3   (1.66) 34.0   (1.39) 45.0   (1.20) 47.4   (1.25) 51.0   (1.12) 50.2   (1.16) 47.9   (1.31) 50.6   (1.34) 54.1   (1.45) 55.9   (1.51)
Full-day kindergarten as a percent
    of total kindergarten enrollment
13.5   (0.97) 30.0   (1.33) 43.5   (1.48) 51.0   (1.36) 60.0   (1.41) 63.7   (1.36) 69.5   (1.26) 73.0   (1.38) 81.5   (1.21) 81.1   (1.34) 78.7   (1.42)
                                                                   
3 and 4 years old                                                                  
Total population (in thousands) 7,135   (106.1) 6,215   (99.0) 7,415   (118.3) 8,294   (125.1) 7,869   (126.5) 8,336   (123.6) 8,179   (122.4) 8,850   (63.8) 7,971   (80.7) 7,971   (156.9) 8,030   (186.2)
Age                                                                  
3 years old 3,516   (74.4) 3,143   (70.4) 3,692   (83.5) 4,148   (88.5) 3,929   (89.4) 4,260   (88.4) 4,151   (87.2) 4,492   (59.4) 3,937   (92.3) 3,978   (71.2) 4,086   (81.1)
4 years old 3,620   (75.5) 3,072   (69.6) 3,723   (83.8) 4,145   (88.5) 3,940   (89.5) 4,076   (86.4) 4,028   (85.9) 4,358   (57.7) 4,034   (76.3) 3,993   (137.5) 3,943   (158.3)
                                                                   
Enrollment of 3- and 4-year-olds
    (in thousands)
                                                                 
Total 1,461   (53.1) 2,280   (59.2) 3,292   (73.1) 4,043   (72.4) 4,097   (73.1) 4,590   (71.1) 4,383   (70.6) 4,706   (84.1) 4,203   (91.5) 4,289   (121.2) 4,319   (148.1)
Age                                                                  
3 years old 454   (31.0) 857   (38.9) 1,205   (48.7) 1,489   (49.1) 1,541   (50.5) 1,806   (50.5) 1,715   (49.7) 1,718   (59.5) 1,512   (70.2) 1,656   (63.8) 1,641   (76.5)
4 years old 1,007   (42.0) 1,423   (43.1) 2,087   (51.7) 2,553   (49.8) 2,556   (49.4) 2,785   (46.5) 2,668   (47.0) 2,988   (67.2) 2,691   (72.1) 2,633   (87.9) 2,678   (121.9)
Level and attendance status                                                                  
Preschool 1,003   (45.8) 1,889   (56.5) 3,026   (72.3) 3,720   (72.0) 3,762   (73.1) 4,198   (71.5) 4,024   (70.8) 4,245   (85.3) 3,855   (88.9) 4,034   (110.7) 3,966   (145.2)
Full-day 263   (24.8) 649   (37.6) 1,028   (50.8) 1,715   (58.6) 1,763   (61.0) 2,135   (62.4) 1,986   (60.7) 2,018   (70.6) 1,914   (70.3) 2,178   (81.4) 2,223   (106.3)
Part-day 741   (40.1) 1,240   (49.1) 1,998   (65.3) 2,006   (62.0) 1,999   (63.7) 2,063   (61.7) 2,038   (61.3) 2,226   (73.0) 1,941   (75.5) 1,856   (80.9) 1,742   (87.8)
Kindergarten 458   (32.3) 391   (29.8) 266   (27.3) 322   (28.0) 335   (29.6) 392   (30.3) 359   (29.0) 462   (44.6) 348   (36.5) 254   (32.0) 353   (34.3)
Full-day 110   (16.2) 139   (18.2) 135   (19.7) 144   (18.9) 181   (21.9) 245   (24.1) 247   (24.2) 247   (31.4) 253   (32.2) 202   (26.7) 216   (29.5)
Part-day 348   (28.3) 252   (24.2) 131   (19.4) 178   (21.0) 154   (20.3) 147   (18.8) 112   (16.5) 214   (28.5) 95   (17.4)   (†) 137   (23.4)
Control                                                                  
Public 617   (37.0) 838   (42.0) 1,211   (54.4) 1,787   (59.5) 2,042   (64.2) 2,374   (64.5) 2,341   (64.0) 2,795   (82.2) 2,477   (80.6) 2,532   (86.5) 2,630   (111.8)
Private 844   (42.5) 1,441   (51.9) 2,081   (66.1) 2,256   (64.4) 2,055   (64.3) 2,216   (63.2) 2,042   (61.3) 1,911   (64.0) 1,726   (68.7) 1,757   (80.9) 1,689   (86.4)
Attendance status                                                                  
Full-day 373   (29.3) 788   (40.9) 1,163   (53.5) 1,858   (60.4) 1,944   (63.1) 2,380   (64.6) 2,233   (63.1) 2,265   (69.0) 2,167   (75.0) 2,381   (87.8) 2,439   (108.0)
Part-day 1,088   (47.3) 1,492   (52.5) 2,129   (66.6) 2,184   (63.8) 2,153   (65.3) 2,211   (63.1) 2,150   (62.4) 2,441   (76.5) 2,036   (75.3) 1,908   (83.3) 1,879   (91.8)
                                                                   
Percent of 3- and 4-year-olds enrolled                                                                  
Total 20.5   (1.65) 36.7   (1.57) 44.4   (1.48) 48.7   (1.25) 52.1   (1.29) 55.1   (1.15) 53.6   (1.18) 53.2   (0.89) 52.7   (1.02) 53.8   (1.04) 53.8   (1.08)
Age                                                                  
3 years old 12.9   (2.45) 27.3   (2.37) 32.6   (2.31) 35.9   (1.98) 39.2   (2.05) 42.4   (1.82) 41.3   (1.86) 38.2   (1.25) 38.4   (1.45) 41.6   (1.49) 40.2   (1.67)
4 years old 27.8   (2.20) 46.3   (2.06) 56.1   (1.86) 61.6   (1.53) 64.9   (1.56) 68.3   (1.38) 66.2   (1.43) 68.6   (1.25) 66.7   (1.32) 65.9   (1.50) 67.9   (1.35)
Full-day as a percent
    of total enrollment
25.5   (1.78) 34.5   (1.55) 35.3   (1.42) 46.0   (1.25) 47.4   (1.29) 51.8   (1.16) 50.9   (1.18) 48.1   (1.26) 51.6   (1.42) 55.5   (1.42) 56.5   (1.57)
Full-day preschool as a percent
    of total preschool enrollment
26.2   (2.16) 34.3   (1.70) 34.0   (1.47) 46.1   (1.30) 46.9   (1.34) 50.9   (1.21) 49.3   (1.23) 47.5   (1.36) 49.6   (1.49) 54.0   (1.49) 56.1   (1.64)
Full-day kindergarten as a percent
    of total kindergarten enrollment
24.0   (3.11) 35.6   (3.77) 50.8   (5.24) 44.6   (4.40) 54.0   (4.49) 62.4   (3.83) 68.8   (3.83) 53.6   (4.30) 72.8   (4.53) 79.6   (5.44) 61.2   (5.69)
                                                                   
5 years old2                                                                  
Total population (in thousands) 3,814   (77.5) 3,069   (69.6) 3,792   (84.6) 4,224   (89.3) 3,989   (90.1) 3,867   (84.2) 3,955   (85.1) 4,099   (57.9) 3,987   (73.9) 4,061   (90.5) 3,972   (100.6)
                                                                   
Enrollment of 5-year-olds (in
    thousands)
                                                                 
Total 2,643   (44.4) 2,598   (31.1) 3,367   (33.2) 3,697   (34.1) 3,495   (34.3) 3,331   (33.7) 3,418   (33.7) 3,540   (56.2) 3,478   (74.8) 3,488   (96.5) 3,398   (90.4)
Level and attendance status                                                                  
Preschool 91   (14.7) 93   (14.8) 352   (30.5) 611   (36.3) 565   (36.3) 661   (36.7) 505   (32.9) 552   (35.8) 620   (46.1) 667   (45.3) 654   (48.1)
Full-day 28   (8.3) 32   (8.8) 122   (18.5) 236   (23.7) 286   (26.9) 344   (27.7) 289   (25.6) 279   (29.2) 350   (31.8) 366   (36.8) 361   (32.0)
Part-day 62   (12.2) 61   (12.0) 231   (25.2) 375   (29.4) 278   (26.6) 316   (26.7) 216   (22.4) 274   (26.9) 270   (32.1) 301   (31.2) 293   (36.5)
Kindergarten 2,552   (45.3) 2,505   (33.4) 3,015   (42.5) 3,086   (45.8) 2,931   (46.0) 2,670   (45.0) 2,913   (43.4) 2,987   (59.8) 2,859   (75.1) 2,821   (93.5) 2,744   (88.2)
Full-day 297   (25.8) 731   (36.8) 1,293   (49.9) 1,594   (50.1) 1,778   (51.8) 1,705   (48.4) 2,027   (49.2) 2,269   (60.2) 2,360   (70.9) 2,292   (85.3) 2,222   (77.4)
Part-day 2,255   (47.3) 1,774   (42.6) 1,722   (52.4) 1,492   (49.4) 1,152   (47.2) 965   (42.1) 886   (41.1) 718   (43.0) 499   (39.8) 529   (46.5) 522   (42.7)
Control                                                                  
Public 2,214   (47.5) 2,228   (38.5) 2,760   (46.8) 2,963   (47.3) 2,806   (47.6) 2,677   (45.0) 2,872   (43.9) 3,034   (57.8) 2,950   (70.7) 3,055   (89.2) 2,871   (90.7)
Private 429   (30.4) 370   (28.1) 607   (38.6) 733   (39.1) 690   (39.4) 654   (36.5) 546   (34.0) 506   (35.0) 529   (37.6) 433   (37.3) 527   (39.7)
Attendance status                                                                  
Full-day 326   (26.9) 763   (37.3) 1,414   (50.9) 1,830   (51.2) 2,065   (52.1) 2,050   (48.6) 2,316   (48.5) 2,548   (60.1) 2,710   (72.4) 2,657   (87.4) 2,583   (78.4)
Part-day 2,317   (47.0) 1,835   (42.3) 1,953   (52.6) 1,867   (51.3) 1,431   (50.0) 1,281   (45.8) 1,102   (44.2) 992   (44.6) 768   (51.7) 830   (52.5) 815   (56.2)
                                                                   
Percent of 5-year-olds enrolled                                                                  
Total 69.3   (1.16) 84.7   (1.01) 88.8   (0.88) 87.5   (0.81) 87.6   (0.86) 86.1   (0.87) 86.4   (0.85) 86.3   (0.92) 87.2   (0.95) 85.9   (1.05) 85.5   (1.08)
Full-day as a percent
    of total enrollment
12.3   (1.00) 29.4   (1.39) 42.0   (1.45) 49.5   (1.31) 59.1   (1.37) 61.5   (1.32) 67.7   (1.25) 72.0   (1.20) 77.9   (1.38) 76.2   (1.34) 76.0   (1.42)
Full-day preschool as a percent
    of total preschool enrollment
31.3   (7.58) 34.6   (7.70) 34.5   (4.33) 38.7   (3.13) 50.7   (3.47) 52.1   (3.04) 57.2   (3.45) 50.5   (3.90) 56.5   (3.60) 54.9   (3.82) 55.2   (3.76)
Full-day kindergarten as a percent
    of total kindergarten enrollment
11.6   (0.99) 29.2   (1.42) 42.9   (1.54) 51.7   (1.43) 60.7   (1.49) 63.9   (1.46) 69.6   (1.34) 76.0   (1.35) 82.6   (1.30) 81.2   (1.48) 81.0   (1.36)
†Not applicable.
‡Reporting standards not met. Either there are too few cases for a reliable estimate or the coefficient of variation (CV) is 50 percent or greater.
1 Beginning in 1994, preprimary enrollment data were collected using new procedures. Data may not be comparable to figures for earlier years.
2 Enrollment data for 5-year-olds include only those students in preprimary programs and do not include those enrolled in primary programs.
NOTE: Preprimary programs include kindergarten and preschool (or nursery school) programs. “Preschool,” which was referred to as “nursery school” in previous versions of this table, is defined as a group or class that is organized to provide educational experiences for children during the year or years preceding kindergarten. Data are based on sample surveys of the civilian noninstitutionalized population, which excludes persons in the military and persons living in institutions (e.g., prisons or nursing facilities). Prior to 2010, standard errors were computed using generalized variance function methodology rather than the more precise replicate weight methodology used in later years. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Census Bureau, Current Population Survey (CPS), October, 1970 through 2017. (This table was prepared July 2018.)

2018 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest