Skip Navigation
Digest of Education Statistics
2018 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest


Table 102.60. Number and percentage of related children under age 18 living in poverty, by family structure, race/ethnicity, and selected racial/ethnic subgroups: 2010 and 2016
[Standard errors appear in parentheses]
Year and race/ethnicity Number of related
children1 living
in poverty
(in thousands)
Percent of related children1 living in poverty, by family structure
Total, all families Married-couple
household2
Female householder,
no spouse present2
Male householder,
no spouse present2
1 2 3 4 5 6
2010                              
Total 15,357   (97.8) 21.1   (0.13) 10.8   (0.11) 43.9   (0.25) 28.9   (0.36)
White 4,934   (47.9) 12.7   (0.12) 6.6   (0.10) 35.0   (0.34) 21.0   (0.45)
Black 3,835   (42.0) 37.8   (0.38) 14.7   (0.42) 51.2   (0.49) 40.1   (1.01)
                               
Hispanic 5,362   (38.2) 31.9   (0.22) 22.3   (0.28) 49.4   (0.40) 34.1   (0.72)
Cuban 75   (4.7) 18.8   (1.10) 12.5   (1.29) 35.4   (2.43) 16.8   (2.90)
Dominican 148   (7.1) 34.3   (1.22) 12.9   (1.24) 51.6   (1.95) 30.2   (4.75)
Mexican 3,999   (35.1) 33.8   (0.26) 25.3   (0.33) 50.8   (0.52) 36.9   (0.91)
Puerto Rican 513   (14.3) 33.6   (0.77) 13.5   (0.92) 53.6   (1.09) 30.4   (2.05)
Spaniard 31   (3.1) 17.4   (1.62) 9.3   (1.83) 35.2   (3.72) 20.5   (4.73)
Central American3 323   (11.0) 26.8   (0.80) 17.8   (0.88) 41.8   (1.39) 31.0   (2.47)
Costa Rican 6   (1.3) 18.4   (3.53) 11.8 ! (3.71) 25.7 ! (7.79)   (†)
Guatemalan 98   (6.7) 31.5   (1.68) 23.6   (1.80) 46.4   (3.51) 36.2   (4.62)
Honduran 68   (5.2) 33.5   (2.16) 20.3   (2.57) 51.5   (3.05) 30.0   (4.83)
Nicaraguan 19   (2.8) 21.6   (2.90) 12.8   (2.80) 38.5   (5.69) 27.2   (7.33)
Panamanian 6   (1.5) 15.4   (3.49)   (†) 32.3   (6.69)   (†)
Salvadoran 123   (6.3) 23.6   (1.08) 15.5   (1.26) 36.8   (1.98) 29.5   (3.96)
South American 132   (6.4) 17.3   (0.78) 11.6   (0.79) 33.2   (1.71) 17.1   (2.57)
Chilean 3   (1.0) 10.8   (3.01) 7.3 ! (3.51) 25.8 ! (8.79)   (†)
Colombian 34   (3.5) 14.0   (1.30) 9.5   (1.34) 24.3   (2.74) 14.8 ! (5.06)
Ecuadorian 41   (4.1) 24.2   (1.95) 17.6   (2.05) 43.6   (3.49) 21.8   (5.36)
Peruvian 28   (3.8) 18.7   (2.25) 11.0   (1.90) 40.4   (4.91)   (†)
Venezuelan 10   (2.0) 17.2   (3.19) 12.7   (3.22) 33.6   (8.59)   (†)
Other South American 16   (2.5) 14.0   (1.88) 9.1   (1.77) 30.4   (5.76) 19.7 ! (8.71)
Other Hispanic 142   (7.0) 28.3   (1.15) 17.5   (1.26) 47.0   (1.96) 25.7   (3.06)
                               
Asian 383   (9.6) 12.2   (0.30) 9.5   (0.28) 28.3   (1.21) 23.6   (1.87)
Chinese4 67   (3.4) 10.0   (0.51) 7.8   (0.50) 24.1   (2.31) 21.8   (3.67)
Filipino 25   (3.1) 5.4   (0.69) 3.0   (0.56) 17.3   (2.78) 9.8 ! (2.98)
Japanese 4   (0.9) 4.6   (1.15) 2.2 ! (0.91) 25.9   (7.58)   (†)
Korean 34   (2.8) 13.0   (0.97) 9.9   (0.88) 37.0   (4.29) 8.8 ! (3.45)
South Asian5 82   (5.4) 10.0   (0.63) 8.9   (0.60) 27.8   (4.04) 24.1   (6.46)
Asian Indian 52   (4.3) 7.7   (0.61) 6.6   (0.60) 27.0   (4.53) 23.0   (6.06)
Bangladeshi 10   (1.7) 30.0   (4.25) 31.4   (4.45)   (†)   (†)
Bhutanese   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)
Nepalese   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)
Pakistani 20   (2.4) 19.2   (2.32) 17.6   (2.14) 42.5   (12.51)   (†)
Southeast Asian 140   (6.3) 21.7   (0.89) 17.2   (1.00) 34.8   (2.16) 38.0   (4.67)
Burmese   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)
Cambodian 17   (2.4) 26.3   (2.94) 20.2   (4.30) 35.4   (5.11) 39.0   (9.46)
Hmong 40   (4.4) 39.7   (3.60) 30.9   (3.86) 61.2   (6.69) 63.6   (8.43)
Laotian 11   (2.3) 20.5   (3.72) 18.0 ! (5.48) 26.4   (5.10) 17.3 ! (5.96)
Thai 5 ! (1.8) 23.3   (6.49) 23.9 ! (7.98)   (†)   (†)
Vietnamese 63   (4.2) 16.3   (1.04) 12.8   (1.01) 31.7   (3.38) 28.6   (5.76)
Other Southeast Asian6 5   (1.3) 22.6   (5.67) 23.4   (6.10)   (†)   (†)
Other Asian 32   (2.8) 15.8   (1.28) 13.2   (1.28) 29.6   (4.05) 21.7 ! (6.98)
                               
Pacific Islander 28   (2.9) 22.0   (2.24) 18.8   (2.68) 33.3   (4.82) 18.0 ! (5.47)
                               
American Indian/Alaska Native7 188   (6.5) 34.0   (1.16) 18.7   (1.45) 49.9   (1.92) 41.5   (2.72)
American Indian 159   (6.0) 35.5   (1.25) 19.2   (1.63) 52.5   (1.99) 41.8   (3.05)
Alaska Native 9   (1.4) 24.6   (3.44) 13.5   (3.36) 37.1   (6.49) 26.6 ! (8.25)
                               
Some other race8 35   (3.3) 19.7   (1.60) 11.3   (1.74) 34.9   (4.07) 35.4   (6.89)
Two or more races 591   (14.1) 21.3   (0.48) 8.7   (0.37) 41.0   (0.88) 28.1   (1.33)
                               
2016                              
Total 13,730   (107.9) 19.1   (0.15) 9.3   (0.11) 41.1   (0.27) 24.8   (0.35)
White 4,183   (48.9) 11.4   (0.13) 5.8   (0.11) 32.5   (0.35) 19.0   (0.42)
Black 3,256   (35.9) 33.7   (0.34) 13.0   (0.42) 46.3   (0.49) 34.6   (0.93)
                               
Hispanic 5,021   (54.1) 28.0   (0.30) 17.7   (0.30) 47.0   (0.52) 28.3   (0.70)
Cuban 77   (4.4) 17.7   (0.95) 9.8   (0.97) 33.3   (2.30) 20.2   (3.06)
Dominican 159   (8.9) 29.6   (1.36) 13.2   (1.57) 46.7   (2.22) 28.7   (3.61)
Mexican 3,550   (43.4) 29.1   (0.33) 19.4   (0.37) 48.5   (0.61) 28.5   (0.84)
Puerto Rican 494   (15.2) 29.3   (0.83) 11.3   (0.79) 47.3   (1.34) 30.2   (2.13)
Spaniard 27   (3.8) 13.6   (1.79) 4.7   (0.95) 40.3   (5.41) 20.0 ! (6.04)
Central American3 454   (15.2) 29.9   (0.78) 20.7   (0.93) 46.4   (1.28) 32.0   (2.16)
Costa Rican 6   (1.5) 18.2   (4.15) 8.4 ! (4.04) 39.8   (8.72)   (†)
Guatemalan 164   (9.5) 37.7   (1.53) 30.4   (2.06) 52.3   (2.70) 41.6   (4.64)
Honduran 111   (7.4) 36.5   (1.79) 23.3   (2.30) 55.7   (2.82) 34.6   (5.20)
Nicaraguan 21   (2.9) 21.9   (2.63) 13.6   (2.76) 38.0   (5.32) 15.7 ! (7.58)
Panamanian 5   (1.4) 14.2   (3.27) 0.8 ! (0.39) 34.9   (7.31)   (†)
Salvadoran 144   (6.5) 23.9   (0.99) 15.4   (1.07) 39.5   (2.11) 27.1   (3.00)
South American 112   (7.0) 14.7   (0.81) 8.7   (0.84) 32.7   (2.21) 12.3   (2.42)
Chilean 4 ! (1.9) 12.3 ! (5.54)   (†)   (†)   (†)
Colombian 33   (2.8) 14.2   (1.16) 8.4   (1.43) 32.4   (3.36) 8.6 ! (3.20)
Ecuadorian 32   (4.1) 18.0   (1.97) 9.9   (1.82) 42.3   (4.49)   (†)
Peruvian 20   (2.5) 15.7   (1.71) 8.2   (1.42) 25.8   (4.55) 35.3   (8.57)
Venezuelan 11   (2.0) 13.2   (2.22) 10.8   (2.58) 25.6   (6.33)   (†)
Other South American 12   (2.1) 10.9   (1.83) 5.8   (1.43) 30.1   (5.74)   (†)
Other Hispanic 148   (8.1) 25.2   (1.06) 14.9   (1.22) 42.6   (2.39) 31.2   (3.32)
                               
Asian 371   (10.0) 10.9   (0.29) 8.6   (0.29) 26.9   (1.27) 17.1   (1.70)
Chinese4 85   (4.7) 11.7   (0.61) 8.6   (0.61) 30.0   (2.20) 24.5   (4.52)
Filipino 24   (2.6) 5.9   (0.65) 4.2   (0.63) 14.0   (2.15) 7.2 ! (2.49)
Japanese 4   (1.1) 5.7   (1.45) 4.3 ! (1.48) 23.7 ! (9.33)   (†)
Korean 21   (2.7) 9.4   (1.06) 6.9   (0.98) 27.5   (4.76) 31.8 ! (11.50)
South Asian5 99   (5.5) 8.8   (0.49) 7.7   (0.45) 28.2   (3.78) 13.6   (4.00)
Asian Indian 52   (4.1) 5.8   (0.45) 4.8   (0.40) 24.1   (3.68) 10.3 ! (4.67)
Bangladeshi 3 ! (1.0) 36.8 ! (11.67) 34.4 ! (11.49)   (†)   (†)
Bhutanese   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)
Nepalese 6   (1.3) 18.4   (3.93) 16.7   (3.83)   (†)   (†)
Pakistani 23   (3.1) 18.2   (2.30) 17.5   (2.31) 29.1 ! (8.92)   (†)
Southeast Asian 114   (5.7) 18.5   (0.91) 15.4   (0.95) 30.6   (3.07) 20.0   (3.48)
Burmese 20   (2.8) 35.8   (4.08) 37.2   (4.59) 44.0 ! (13.77)   (†)
Cambodian 9   (1.7) 16.3   (2.71) 11.3 ! (3.91) 23.3   (4.99) 19.8 ! (8.33)
Hmong 25   (3.6) 27.6   (3.70) 29.4   (4.71) 27.8 ! (8.64) 20.3 ! (7.29)
Laotian 4   (1.2) 14.1   (3.44) 5.4 ! (1.84) 45.6   (11.86)   (†)
Thai 3 ! (0.8) 12.7   (3.66) 8.0 ! (2.92)   (†)   (†)
Vietnamese 52   (4.1) 14.5   (1.06) 10.6   (1.05) 30.7   (3.96) 24.7   (5.59)
Other Southeast Asian6   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)
Other Asian 11   (2.2) 20.5   (3.64) 18.0   (3.86) 34.4   (9.48)   (†)
                               
Pacific Islander 29   (3.7) 22.9   (2.60) 16.6   (3.24) 37.1   (5.13) 21.6 ! (7.79)
                               
American Indian/Alaska Native7 186   (6.6) 34.4   (1.13) 19.4   (1.24) 50.9   (1.77) 40.2   (2.72)
American Indian 164   (5.9) 35.7   (1.16) 20.2   (1.38) 51.2   (1.88) 44.4   (2.79)
Alaska Native 11   (1.6) 30.9   (4.91) 22.6   (4.80) 52.4   (10.27) 19.1 ! (6.69)
                               
Some other race8 51   (4.2) 21.1   (1.48) 11.9   (1.47) 40.5   (4.07) 22.1   (5.32)
Two or more races 633   (14.9) 18.7   (0.41) 8.1   (0.42) 36.7   (0.83) 23.4   (1.34)
—Not available.
†Not applicable.
!Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent.
‡Reporting standards not met. Either there are too few cases for a reliable estimate or the coefficient of variation (CV) is 50 percent or greater.
1 Related children in a family include all children in the household who are related to the householder by birth, marriage, or adoption (except a child who is the spouse of the householder). The householder is the person (or one of the people) who owns or rents (maintains) the housing unit. This table includes only children related to the householder. It excludes unrelated children and householders who are themselves under the age of 18.
2 To determine family structure, children are classified by their parents’ marital status or, if no parents are present in the household, by the marital status of the householder who is related to the children.
3 Includes other Central American subgroups not shown separately.
4 Includes Taiwanese.
5 In addition to the subgroups shown, also includes Sri Lankan.
6 Consists of Indonesian and Malaysian.
7 Includes persons reporting American Indian alone, persons reporting Alaska Native alone, and persons from American Indian and/or Alaska Native tribes specified or not specified.
8 Respondents who wrote in some other race that was not included as an option on the questionnaire.
NOTE: Respondents were interviewed throughout the given year and reported the income they received during the previous 12 months. Data are based on sample surveys of the entire population residing within the United States. Poverty status is determined by the Census Bureau using a set of money income thresholds that vary by family size and composition. For additional information about poverty status, see https://www.census.gov/topics/income-poverty/poverty/guidance/poverty-measures.html. Poverty estimates in this table may differ from table 102.50's official national poverty estimates, which are based on a different data source (the Current Population Survey). Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Census Bureau, American Community Survey (ACS), 2010 and 2016. (This table was prepared November 2017.)

2018 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest