This chapter provides a broad overview of education in the United States. It brings together material from preprimary, elementary, secondary, and postsecondary education, as well as from the general population, to present a composite picture of the American education system. Tables feature data on the total number of people enrolled in school, the number of teachers, the number of schools, and the total expenditures for education at all levels. This chapter also includes statistics on education-related topics such as educational attainment, family characteristics, and population. Economic indicators and price indexes have been added to facilitate analyses.
Many of the statistics in this chapter are derived from the statistical activities of the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). In addition, substantial contributions have been drawn from the work of other groups, both governmental and nongovernmental, as shown in the source notes of the tables. Information on survey methodologies is contained in Appendix A: Guide to Sources and in the publications cited in the table source notes.
The U.S. system of education can be described as having three levels of formal education: elementary, secondary, and postsecondary (figure 1). Students may spend 1 to 3 years in preprimary programs (prekindergarten [PK] and kindergarten [K]), which may be offered either in separate schools or in elementary schools that also offer higher grades. (In Digest of Education Statistics tables, prekindergarten and kindergarten are generally defined as a part of elementary education.) Following kindergarten, students ordinarily spend 6 to 8 years in elementary school. The elementary school program is followed by a 4- to 6-year program in secondary school. Students typically complete the entire program through grade 12 by age 18. Education at the elementary and secondary levels is provided in a range of institutional settings—including elementary schools (preprimary schools, middle schools, and schools offering broader ranges of elementary grades); secondary schools (junior high schools, high schools, and senior high schools); and combined elementary/secondary schools—that vary in structure from locality to locality.
High school graduates who decide to continue their education may enter a specialized career/technical institution, a 2-year community or junior college, or a 4-year college or university. A 2-year college typically offers the first 2 years of a standard 4-year college curriculum and a selection of terminal career and technical education programs. Academic courses completed at a 2-year college are usually transferable for credit at a 4-year college or university. A career/technical institution offers postsecondary technical training programs of varying lengths that lead to a specific career.
An associate’s degree requires at least 2 years of postsecondary coursework, and a bachelor’s degree typically requires 4 years of postsecondary coursework. At least 1 year of coursework beyond a bachelor’s degree is necessary for a master’s degree, while a doctor’s degree usually requires a minimum of 3 or 4 years beyond a bachelor’s degree.
Professional schools differ widely in admission requirements and program length. Medical students, for example, generally complete a bachelor’s program of premedical studies at a college or university before they can enter the 4-year program at a medical school. Law programs typically involve 3 years of coursework beyond a bachelor’s degree.
Total enrollment in public and private elementary and secondary schools (prekindergarten through grade 12) grew rapidly during the 1950s and 1960s, reaching a peak year in 1971 (table A, table 105.30, and figure 2). This enrollment rise reflected what is known as the “baby boom,” a dramatic increase in births following World War II. Between 1971 and 1984, total elementary and secondary school enrollment decreased every year, reflecting a decline in the size of the school-age population over that period. After these years of decline, enrollment in elementary and secondary schools started increasing in fall 1985, began hitting new record levels in the mid-1990s, and continued to reach new record levels every year through 2006. After a period of slightly declining or stable enrollment from 2007 to 2012, enrollment began increasing again. Enrollments in fall 2013 (55.4 million) through fall 2016 (56.4 million) were higher than the fall 2006 record level of 55.3 million. A pattern of annual enrollment increases is projected to continue at least through fall 2028 (the last year for which NCES has projected school enrollment). Total elementary and secondary enrollment is projected to increase 2 percent between fall 2018 and fall 2028, when enrollment is expected to reach 57.4 million.
|Table A. Total elementary and secondary school enrollment, by overall trends: Selected years, 1949–50 through fall 2028|
|Trend and year||Number of students
|"Baby boom" increases|
|1949–50 school year||28.5|
|Fall 1971 (peak)||51.3|
|13 years with annual declines|
|Fall 1972 (first year of decline)||50.7|
|Fall 1984 (final year of decline)||44.9|
|Annual increases from 1985 to 2006|
|Fall 1996 (new record highs begin)||51.5|
|Fall 2006 (final year of record highs)||55.3|
|Slight declines or stable enrollment|
|Annual increases with new record highs|
|Fall 2016 (projected)||56.4|
|Fall 2017 (projected)||56.5|
|Fall 2018 (projected)||56.5|
|Fall 2028 (projected)||57.4|
|SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Biennial Survey of Education in the United States, 1949–50; Statistics of Public Elementary and Secondary School Systems, 1959 through 1972; Common Core of Data (CCD), 1984 through 2016; Private School Universe Survey (PSS), 1997–98 through 2015–16; and National Elementary and Secondary Enrollment Projection Model, 1972 through 2028.|
Between 1985 and 2017, the total public and private elementary and secondary school enrollment rate for 5- and 6-year-olds decreased from 96 to 94 percent, and the enrollment rate for 7- to 13-year-olds decreased from 99 to 98 percent (table 103.20). In 2017, the enrollment rate for 14- to 17-year-olds (96 percent) was not measurably different from the rate in 1985. Since these enrollment rates changed by less than 4 percentage points between 1985 and 2017, increases in elementary and secondary school enrollment primarily reflect the larger increases in the number of children in these age groups. Between 1985 and 2017, the number of 5- and 6-year-olds increased by 16 percent, the number of 7- to 13-year-olds increased by 26 percent, and the number of 14- to 17-year-olds increased by 13 percent (table 101.10). Increases in the enrollment rate of prekindergarten-age children (ages 3 and 4), from 39 percent in 1985 to 54 percent in 2017 (table 103.20), and in the number of 3- and 4-year-olds, from 7.1 million to 8.0 million (table 101.10), also contributed to overall increases in prekindergarten through grade 12 enrollment.
Public school enrollment at the elementary level (prekindergarten through grade 8) rose from 29.9 million in fall 1990 to 34.2 million in fall 2003 (table 105.30). Public elementary school enrollment was less than 1 percent lower in fall 2004 than in fall 2003 and then generally increased to a projected total of 35.5 million for fall 2018. Public elementary school enrollment is projected to increase 2 percent between 2018 and 2028. Public school enrollment at the secondary level (grades 9 through 12) rose from 11.3 million in 1990 to 15.1 million in 2007 but then declined 2 percent to 14.7 million in 2011. Public secondary school enrollment is projected to increase 3 percent between 2011 and 2018. Public secondary school enrollment in 2028 is expected to be about 1 percent higher than in 2018. Total public elementary and secondary school enrollment is projected to increase in most years between 2018 to 2028.
The percentage of students in private elementary and secondary schools declined from 11.0 percent in fall 2005 to 10.2 percent in fall 2015 (table 105.30). In fall 2018, an estimated 5.8 million students were enrolled in private schools at the elementary and secondary levels.
Total enrollment in public and private degree-granting postsecondary institutions reached 14.5 million in fall 1992 but decreased every year through fall 1995 (table 105.30). Total enrollment increased 47 percent between 1995 and 2010 (to 21.0 million) but declined 6 percent between 2010 and 2017 (to 19.8 million). Total enrollment is expected to increase 3 percent between fall 2017 and fall 2028, reaching 20.3 million. The percentage of students who attended private institutions in fall 2017 (26 percent) was the same as the percentage in 2007. In fall 2017, about 5.2 million students attended private institutions, with 4.1 million in nonprofit institutions and 1.1 million in for-profit institutions (table 303.10).
Enrollment in degree-granting institutions in fall 2017 was 8 percent higher than in fall 2007 (table 105.30). This enrollment change was affected by changes in the enrollment rate and the population of 20- to 24-year-olds. The percentage of 18- and 19-year-olds enrolled in degree-granting postsecondary institutions in 2017 (48 percent) was not measurably different from the percentage in 2007 (49 percent). The number of 18- and 19-year-olds decreased 3 percent, from 8.7 million in 2007 to 8.5 million in 2017 (tables 101.10 and 103.20). In contrast, the number of 20- to 24-year-olds rose by 5 percent during this period, from 21.1 to 22.1 million. Also, the enrollment rate of 20- to 24-year-olds was higher in 2017 (39 percent) than in 2007 (36 percent).
The percentages of people 25 years old and over completing high school and higher education have been rising. Between 2008 and 2018, the percentage of people 25 years old and over who had completed at least high school increased from 87 to 90 percent, and the percentage who had completed a bachelor’s or higher degree increased from 29 to 35 percent (table 104.10 and figure 3). In 2018, about 10 percent of people 25 years old and over held a master’s degree as their highest degree and 3 percent held a doctor’s or first-professional degree (table 104.30).
Among 25- to 29-year-olds, the percentage who had completed at least high school increased from 88 percent in 2008 to 93 percent in 2018 (table 104.20 and figure 4). The percentage of 25- to 29-year-olds who had completed a bachelor’s or higher degree increased from 31 percent in 2008 to 37 percent in 2018. In 2018, about 7 percent of 25- to 29-year-olds held a master’s degree as their highest degree and 2 percent held a doctor’s or first-professional degree (table 104.30 and figure 5). Overall, the percentage of 25- to 29-year-olds who held a master’s or higher degree rose from 7 percent in 2008 to 9 percent in 2018.
Between 2008 and 2018, changes in the educational attainment of 25- to 29-year-olds also occurred by race/ethnicity. During this period, the percentages of Hispanic, White, and Black 25- to 29-year-olds who had completed at least high school increased, but there was no measurable change in the percentage of Asian 25- to 29-year-olds (table 104.20 and figure 6). The percentage of Hispanic 25- to 29-year-olds who had completed at least high school rose from 68 percent in 2008 to 85 percent in 2018, an increase of 17 percentage points. During the same period, the percentage of White 25- to 29-year-olds who had completed at least high school rose from 94 to 96 percent. Since the increase for White 25- to 29-year-olds was smaller than the increase for Hispanic 25- to 29-year-olds, the gap between the high school completion percentages for these two groups decreased from 25 percentage points in 2008 to 10 percentage points in 2018. Between 2008 and 2018, the percentage of Black 25- to 29-year-olds who had completed high school increased from 88 to 92 percent. The gap between the White and Black high school completion percentages in 2018 (4 percentage points) was not measurably different from the gap in 2008. In 2018, the percentage of 25- to 29-year-olds who had completed at least high school was higher for those who were Asian (97 percent) and White (96 percent) than for those who were Black (92 percent), American Indian/Alaska Native (89 percent), and Hispanic (85 percent).
The percentage of bachelor’s degree holders also varied among 25- to 29-year-olds of different racial/ethnic groups, with 71 percent of Asian 25- to 29-year-olds holding a bachelor’s or higher degree in 2018, which was higher than the percentages for those who were White (44 percent), of Two or more races (27 percent), Black (23 percent), Hispanic (21 percent), American Indian/Alaska Native (16 percent), and Pacific Islander (15 percent) (table 104.20 and figure 6). Between 2008 and 2018, the percentages who had completed a bachelor’s or higher degree increased for Asian, White, and Hispanic 25- to 29-year-olds but showed no measurable change for those who were Black, Pacific Islander, American Indian/Alaska Native, and of Two or more races. During this 10-year period, the percentages who held a bachelor’s or higher degree increased from 37 to 44 percent among White 25- to 29-year-olds, from 12 to 21 percent among Hispanic 25- to 29-year-olds, and from 60 to 71 percent among Asian 25- to 29-year-olds. The gap in bachelor’s degree attainment percentages between White and Black 25- to 29-year-olds in 2018 (21 percentage points) was not measurably different from the gap in 2008. Also, the gap between White and Hispanic 25- to 29-year-olds in 2018 (23 percentage points) was not measurably different from the gap in 2008.
A projected 3.7 million elementary and secondary school full-time-equivalent (FTE) teachers were engaged in classroom instruction in the fall of 2018 (table 105.40), which was less than 1 percent lower than in 2008. The number of FTE public elementary and secondary school teachers in 2018 was 3.2 million, and the number of FTE private elementary and secondary school teachers was 0.5 million. FTE faculty at degree-granting postsecondary institutions totaled a projected 1.1 million in 2018, including 0.7 million at public institutions and 0.4 million at private institutions (table 105.10).
Expenditures of educational institutions were an estimated $1.4 trillion for the 2017–18 school year (table 106.20 and figure 2). Elementary and secondary schools spent 56 percent of this total ($789 billion), and degree-granting postsecondary institutions spent the remaining 44 percent ($608 billion). After adjustment for inflation, total expenditures of all educational institutions rose by an estimated 13 percent between 2007–08 and 2017–18. Inflation-adjusted expenditures of degree-granting postsecondary institutions rose by an estimated 27 percent. Expenditures of public elementary and secondary schools were 4 percent higher in 2017–18 than in 2007–08. In 2017–18, expenditures of educational institutions were an estimated 7.2 percent of the gross domestic product (table 106.10).