Skip Navigation
Digest of Education Statistics: 2017
Digest of Education Statistics: 2017

NCES 2018-070
January 2018


Table 605.20. Government and private expenditures on education institutions as a percentage of gross domestic product, by level of education and country: Selected years, 2005 through 2014
Country All institutions1 Elementary and secondary institutions Higher education institutions
Government expenditures All expenditures, 2014 Government expenditures All expenditures, 2014 Government expenditures All expenditures, 2014
2005 2010 2011 2012 2013 Govern-ment Private Total 2005 2010 2011 2012 2013 Govern-ment Private Total 2005 2010 2011 2012 2013 Govern-ment Private Total
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
OECD average2 4.3   4.6   4.4   4.5 4.5 4.4 0.7 5.2   3.3   3.5   3.4   3.3   3.4   3.3   0.3   3.6   1.0 1.1 1.1 1.1   1.1   1.1   0.5   1.6  
Australia 3.9   4.5   4.2   3.9 3.9 1.8 5.8   3.3   3.7   3.4     3.2   3.2   0.7   3.9   0.7 0.8 0.7 0.7   0.7   0.7   1.1   1.8  
Austria       4.7 4.8 4.7 0.2 4.9         3.1   3.1   3.1   0.1   3.1   1.7   1.7   1.6   0.1   1.7  
Belgium 5.1   5.5   5.4   5.6 5.6 0.2 5.8   3.9   4.2   4.2     4.3   4.2   0.1   4.3   1.1 1.3 1.3 1.3   1.3   1.3   0.1   1.4  
Canada 4.5     4.8 3 6.2 3 3.1   3.5   3.3 3 3.3   3.3 3 3.2   0.3   3.6 3 1.4         2.6  
Chile 2.8   3.4   3.3   3.7 3.5 3.4 2.0 5.5   2.5   2.7   2.6   3.0   2.6   2.5   0.7   3.1   0.3 0.8 0.7 0.8   0.9   1.0   1.4   2.3  
                                                                                   
Czech Republic 3.3   3.3   3.6   3.7 3.5 3.4 0.5 3.9   2.5   2.5   2.5   2.5   2.4   2.4   0.2   2.6   0.8 0.9 1.1 1.2   1.1   1.0   0.2   1.2  
Denmark 5.9   6.2   5.8   6.0 6.1 6.3 0.2 6.5   4.3   4.6   4.1   4.5   4.4   4.7   0.1   4.8   1.6 1.7 1.7 1.5   1.6   1.6   0.1   1.7  
Estonia       5.0 4.7 0.3 5.0         3.2   3.1   3.0   0.1   3.1   1.8   1.9   1.7   0.2   1.9  
Finland 5.3   5.7   5.7   5.7 5.6 5.6 0.1 5.7   3.7   3.9   3.9   3.9   3.9   3.9   #   3.9   1.6 1.8 1.8 1.8   1.7   1.7   0.1   1.8  
France 4.8   4.9   4.7   4.7 4.8 0.5 5.3   3.6   3.7   3.5     3.5   3.5   0.3   3.8   1.1 1.2 1.2   1.2   1.2   0.3   1.5  
                                                                                   
Germany 3.7   3.9   3.8   3.8 3.7 3.7 0.6 4.3   2.8   2.9   2.8   2.7   2.7   2.7   0.4   3.1   0.9 1.0 1.0 1.1   1.0   1.1   0.2   1.2  
Greece                         1.4          
Hungary 4.1   3.6   3.5   3.1 3.1 3.4 0.4 3.8   3.2   2.8   2.5   2.4   2.3   2.7   0.1   2.8   0.9 0.8 0.9 0.7   0.8   0.7   0.3   0.9  
Iceland 6.1 3 5.6 3 5.6 3 5.7 5.6 5.7 0.3 6.0   5.0 3 4.5 3 4.5 3 4.4   4.4   4.5   0.2   4.7   1.1 1.1 1.0 1.2   1.2   1.2   0.1   1.3  
Ireland 4.1   5.5   5.2   4.9 4.4 0.5 4.8   3.1   4.3   4.1     3.8   3.5   0.2   3.7   0.9 1.2 1.1   1.1   0.8   0.3   1.1  
                                                                                   
Israel 4.5   4.6   4.7   4.8 4.8 4.7 1.1 5.8   3.6   3.7   3.8   3.9   3.9   3.9   0.4   4.3   0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9   0.9   0.9   0.7   1.5  
Italy 3.7   3.7   3.5   3.6 3.7 3.6 0.4 4.0   3.0   3.0   2.8   2.8   2.9   2.8   0.2   3.0   0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7   0.8   0.7   0.2   1.0  
Japan 3.0   3.3   3.3   3.3 3.2 3.2 1.2 4.5   2.6   2.7   2.8   2.7   2.7   2.7   0.2 4 2.9 4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5   0.5   0.5   1.0 4 1.5 4
Korea, Republic of 3.6   4.4   4.5   4.9 4.9 4.9 1.4 6.3   3.0   3.7   3.7   3.9   3.7   3.6   0.4   4.0   0.5 0.8 0.8 1.0   1.2   1.3   1.0   2.3  
Latvia 4.0   4.2   3.9   4.0 4.4 0.3 4.7   3.2   3.3   3.0   2.8   3.1   3.2   0.1   3.3   0.8 0.9 1.0   1.0   1.1   0.3   1.4  
                                                                                   
Luxembourg       3.4 3.5 0.1 3.6       3.3   3.2   2.9   3.0   0.1   3.1     0.5   0.5   #   0.5  
Mexico 4.1   4.3   4.2   4.2 4.4 1.0 5.4   3.3   3.4   3.4     3.3   3.3   0.6   3.9   0.8 1.0 0.9   0.9   1.1   0.4   1.4  
Netherlands 4.3   4.6   4.6   4.6 4.7 4.5 0.9 5.4   3.2   3.5   3.4   3.4   3.4   3.3   0.4   3.6   1.1 1.2 1.2 1.2   1.2   1.2   0.5   1.7  
New Zealand       5.0 4.7 4.7 1.7 6.4         4.0   3.8   3.8   0.8   4.6   1.0   0.9   0.9   0.9   1.8  
Norway 6.6   6.4     6.1 6.2 6.1 0.1 6.2   4.9   4.9     4.6   4.7 5 4.5   0.0   4.5   1.7 1.6 1.5   1.5 5 1.6   0.1   1.7  
                                                                                   
Poland 4.8 3 4.4 3 4.1 3 4.4 4.3 0.4 4.7   3.7 3 3.4 3 3.2 3   3.1   3.1   0.3   3.4   1.2 1.0 1.0   1.2   1.2   0.1   1.3  
Portugal       4.7 5.1 4.9 0.9 5.8         3.9 4 4.2 4 4.0 4 0.5 4 4.5 4 0.8 4 0.9 4 0.9 4 0.5 4 1.4 4
Slovak Republic 3.1       3.2 3.4 3.4 0.4 3.9   2.4       2.4   2.5   2.6   0.2   2.8   0.7 0.6 0.8   0.8   0.9   0.2   1.1  
Slovenia 4.7   4.5   4.4   4.5 4.4 4.1 0.5 4.6   3.8   3.5   3.4   3.4   3.3   3.2   0.3   3.5   0.9 1.0 1.0 1.1   1.0   1.0   0.1   1.1  
Spain 3.5   4.0   3.9   3.6 3.5 0.7 4.3   2.7   2.9   2.9   2.7   2.7   2.6   0.4   3.0   0.9 1.0 1.0   0.9   0.9   0.4   1.3  
                                                                                   
Sweden 5.4   5.3   5.2   5.2 5.2 5.2 0.2 5.4   4.0   3.8   3.7   3.7   3.7   3.7   0.0   3.7   1.4 1.5 1.5 1.5   1.5   1.5   0.2   1.7  
Switzerland 4.8   4.6 3 4.7 3 4.7 4.7 4.7   3.5   3.4 3 3.4 3 3.4   3.4   3.4       1.3 1.2 1.3 1.3   1.3   1.3      
Turkey 2.7   3.3   4.1   3.9 3.9 3.9 1.1 4.9   1.9   2.4   2.5   2.6   2.6   2.6   0.6   3.2   0.7 0.9 1.6 1.3   1.3   1.3   0.4   1.8  
United Kingdom       5.1 4.8 1.9 6.6   3.4   4.6   4.2     4.1   4.2   0.6   4.8   1.1   1.1   0.6   1.3   1.8  
United States 4.5 3 4.7 3 4.6   4.4 4.2 4.2 2.1 6.2   3.5 3 3.6 3 3.5   3.3   3.3   3.2   0.3   3.6   1.0 1.1 1.1 1.1   1.0   0.9   1.7   2.7  
                                                                                   
Other reporting                                                                                  
countries                                                                                  
Argentina       3.8 5.0 4.9 0.7 5.6         3.8   3.9   3.8   0.6   4.4   0.0   1.1   1.1   0.2   1.2  
Brazil       4.9                 4.1           0.8  
Colombia       4.1 3.9 1.8 5.7           3.3   3.1   1.0   4.1     0.8   0.8   0.8   1.6  
Costa Rica                                  
India                                  
Indonesia                                  
Lithuania   4.4   4.3   4.0 3.9 3.8 0.4 4.2       2.9   2.7   2.6   2.5   0.1   2.6   0.9 1.1 1.4 1.3   1.3   1.3   0.4   1.7  
Russia       3.3                 2.1           1.3  
South Africa                                  
—Not available.
#Rounds to zero.
1 Includes expenditures that could not be reported by level of education.
2 Refers to the mean of the data values for all reporting Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries, to which each country reporting data contributes equally. The average includes all current OECD countries for which a given year's data are available, even if they were not members of OECD in that year.
3 Excludes postsecondary non-higher-education.
4 Postsecondary non-higher-education included in both secondary and higher education.
5 Occupation-specific education corresponding to that offered at the vocational associate's degree level in the United States is included in elementary and secondary education instead of in higher education.
NOTE: Government expenditures on education include both amounts spent directly by governments to hire education personnel and to procure other resources, and amounts provided by governments to public or private institutions. Types of expenditures may include direct expenditures, research and development activities, ancillary expenditures, and capital expenditures. Government expenditures may also include subsidies to households for payments to education institutions and expenditures on education institutions from international sources. Private expenditures exclude government subsidies that are used for payments to education institutions. All data in this table were calculated using International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011. Expenditures for ISCED level 4 (postsecondary non-higher-education) are included in elementary and secondary education unless otherwise noted. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. Some data have been revised from previously published figures. This table includes only data that had been validated for consistency and accuracy by OECD and the relevant country as of December 1, 2017.
SOURCE: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Online Education Database, retrieved December 1, 2017, from http://stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx. (This table was prepared January 2018.)