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Digest of Education Statistics: 2017
Digest of Education Statistics: 2017

NCES 2018-070
January 2018


Table 605.10. Gross domestic product per capita and expenditures by public and private education institutions per full-time-equivalent (FTE) student, by level of education and country: Selected years, 2005 through 2014
Country Gross domestic product per capita Elementary and secondary education expenditures per FTE student Higher education expenditures per FTE student
2005 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2005 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2005 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
  Current dollars
OECD average1 $29,231 2 $35,159 2 $36,793 2 $37,546 2 $39,107 2 $40,208 2 $6,751   $8,551   $8,719   $8,943   $9,339   $9,472   $11,371   $13,545   $13,689   $14,871   $15,747   $16,169  
Australia 35,069   42,166   43,583   43,082   47,003   46,921   7,142   9,803   9,383   8,688   9,466   9,438   14,579   15,142   16,267   16,662   18,376   18,038  
Austria 35,025   42,059   44,469   46,478   47,937   48,801   9,436   11,693   12,509   12,481   13,391   13,507   14,775   15,007   14,895   16,476   16,900   16,933  
Belgium 33,331   40,089   41,450   42,585   43,746   44,743   7,306   10,123   10,722   11,280   11,719   11,896   11,960   15,179   15,420   15,432   16,194   16,599  
Canada3,4 36,213   40,027   41,565   42,145   44,098   45,508   7,774   10,078   10,226   10,398   10,536   10,440   22,810 5,6 23,226 5 22,006 5 21,458 5 21,664 5 21,326 5
Chile 12,668   18,159   20,303   21,447   22,353   22,727   2,099   2,935   3,203   4,534   4,376   4,179   6,873   6,863   7,101   8,354   7,974   7,836  
                                                                         
Czech Republic 21,907   27,582   28,796   29,051   30,496   32,265   4,098   5,532   6,128   6,482   6,639   6,907   6,649   7,635   9,392   10,422   10,308   10,521  
Denmark 34,153   43,047   44,408   44,809   46,743   47,905   8,997 7 11,404 7 10,230 7 10,923   11,227   11,347   14,959 7 18,977 7 21,254 7 13,718   16,609   16,568 5
Estonia 16,466   21,573   24,501   25,973   27,450   28,511   3,736   5,984   6,055   6,552   6,897   6,991   3,869   6,501   7,868   8,490   11,798   12,375  
Finland 31,993   38,775   40,683   40,620   41,293   41,463   6,610   8,591   9,180   9,448   9,659   9,779   12,285   16,714   18,002   18,046   18,018   17,893  
France 30,626   36,022   37,485   37,671   39,515   40,117   7,456   9,070 3 9,329 3 9,334   9,755   9,944   10,995   15,067   15,375   15,294   16,337   16,422  
                                                                         
Germany 32,414   39,955   42,693   43,564   45,232   47,092   7,039     9,521   9,823   10,300   10,776   12,446     16,723   17,121   16,949   17,180  
Greece. 25,577   28,176   26,141 8 25,284 8 26,098 8 26,839 8 5,493 4           6,130            
Hungary 17,082   21,556   22,841   23,094   24,463   25,525   4,027 5 4,555 5 4,527 5 4,452   4,642   5,578   6,244 5 8,745 5 9,210 5 9,039   10,096   8,688  
Iceland 37,074   38,378   39,466   40,486   42,632   44,223   8,815 7 8,592   9,326   9,241   9,757   10,615   9,474 7 8,728   8,612   10,906   11,200   11,435  
Ireland 40,437   43,302   45,176   46,469   48,297   51,468   6,411   9,638 5 9,830 5 10,071   9,423   9,203   10,468   16,008 5 16,095 5 14,305   13,523   14,131  
                                                                         
Israel 24,709   28,839   30,569   31,721   34,144   34,101   5,041   5,692   6,277   6,063   6,580   6,728   10,919   10,730   11,554   11,876   13,080   12,989  
Italy3 29,938   34,719   35,935   35,757   35,885   36,071   7,410 5 8,489 5 8,534 5 8,846 5 8,830   8,781   8,026 5 9,580   9,990   10,284   11,303   11,510  
Japan7 31,668   35,008   35,775   37,214   39,008   39,214   7,343   9,168   9,102   9,440   9,673   9,934   12,326   16,015   16,446   16,929   18,137   18,022  
Korea, Republic of 24,196   30,377   31,228   32,097   32,616   33,587   5,638   7,396   7,652   9,385   9,694   10,030   7,606   9,972   9,927   9,958   9,379   9,570  
Latvia 13,848   17,578   19,782   21,260   22,719   23,866       4,995   5,080   5,961   6,635       7,552   7,509   7,978   8,962  
                                                                         
Luxembourg 68,141   85,598   91,814   91,527   95,246   101,275   15,930 3,4,5 19,050 3 19,600 3 19,966   18,749   21,197         32,572 5 40,825 5 46,526 5
Mexico 12,342   15,143   16,366   16,958   17,225   17,876 2 2,025   2,464   2,765   2,826   2,925   3,049   6,402   7,872   7,889   8,188   8,353   8,949  
Netherlands 37,272   44,552   46,067   46,716   48,679   48,612   7,045   10,075   10,268   10,538   10,678   10,739   13,883   17,161   17,549   19,413   19,173   19,159  
New Zealand 25,590   31,177   32,667   32,912   36,024   37,036   5,659   7,681   8,831   8,360   8,770   9,051   10,262   10,418   10,582   13,603   14,234   15,088  
Norway 47,775   58,025   62,146   65,442   67,051   66,018   9,975   13,067   13,219   13,507 9 14,333 9 14,144   15,552   18,512   18,840   19,720 9 20,859 9 20,962  
                                                                         
Poland 13,898 2 20,809 2 22,576 2 23,542 2 24,423 2 25,288 2 3,165 5 5,693 5 6,066 5 6,362   6,646   6,661   5,593 5 8,866 5 9,659 5 8,652   8,947   9,708  
Portugal 22,740   27,335   26,780   26,454   27,899   28,747   5,646 3,5 7,419 3,5 7,282 3,5 7,501 7 8,732 7 7,716 7 8,787 5 10,578 5 9,640 5 9,798 7 11,094 7 11,813 7
Slovak Republic 16,572   24,809   25,836   26,654   27,900   28,928   2,740 9 5,066 9 5,105 9 5,382 9 5,929   6,401   5,783 9 6,904 9 8,177 9 9,282 5,9 10,455 5 11,300 5
Slovenia 23,941   27,763   28,805   28,906   29,803   30,857   7,065   8,505   8,867   8,707   9,050   9,034   8,573   9,693   10,413   11,872   11,827   12,067  
Spain 27,696   31,964   32,073   31,993   32,623   33,728 8 6,411   8,479   8,476   8,075   7,749   7,772   10,089   13,373   13,173   12,239   12,580   12,489  
                                                                         
Sweden 33,967   41,628   43,755   44,725   45,673   46,524   7,861   10,044   10,548   10,860   11,061   10,979   15,946   19,562   20,818   22,974   23,688   24,072  
Switzerland. 40,327   52,911   56,184   57,850   60,109   61,902   10,721 5 13,510 5 14,623 5 14,923   17,811 9 15,092 5,9 21,734 5 21,893 5 22,882 5 24,848   25,314 5,9 27,831 5,9
Turkey 11,773   17,281   19,517   20,549 2 22,314 2 24,159 2   2,020   2,501   2,829   3,195   3,375       8,193   8,543   9,025   8,927  
United Kingdom 32,431   35,880   36,593   37,703   39,322   40,717   6,888   9,980   9,738   9,962   11,487   11,970   13,506   15,862   14,223   24,112   25,614   24,542  
United States 44,237   48,303   49,719   51,388   52,726   54,651   9,769 3 11,826 3 11,841 3 11,743   11,881   12,176   24,370   25,576   26,021   27,527   27,579   29,328  
  Constant 2016 dollars
OECD average1 $36,538 2 $38,507 2 $39,157 2 $39,048 2 $40,062 2 $40,742 2 $8,312   $9,345   $9,254   $9,284   $9,552   $9,590   $13,931   $14,750   $14,582   $15,490   $16,143   $16,382  
Australia 46,089   47,848   47,874   46,505   49,523   48,237   9,386   11,124   10,307   9,378   9,974   9,702   19,161   17,183   17,869   17,986   19,362   18,543  
Austria 42,816   46,969   48,081   49,034   49,581   49,678   11,535   13,058   13,525   13,168   13,851   13,749   18,062   16,759   16,105   17,382   17,480   17,238  
Belgium 40,840   44,409   44,350   44,306   45,012   45,882   8,952   11,214   11,472   11,736   12,058   12,198   14,655   16,814   16,499   16,056   16,663   17,022  
Canada3,4 43,457   44,120   44,519   44,466   46,093   46,678   9,329   11,108   10,953   10,971   11,012   10,709   27,373 5,6 25,601 5 23,570 5 22,640 5 22,644 5 21,874 5
Chile 18,560   22,275   24,100   24,715   25,272   24,613   3,075   3,601   3,802   5,225   4,947   4,526   10,069   8,418   8,429   9,628   9,015   8,487  
                                                                         
Czech Republic 27,258   29,848   30,575   29,865   30,905   32,586   5,098   5,986   6,507   6,664   6,728   6,976   8,272   8,262   9,972   10,713   10,446   10,626  
Denmark 40,752   46,233   46,414   45,736   47,337   48,242   10,735 7 12,247 7 10,692 7 11,149   11,370   11,427   17,849 7 20,381 7 22,214 7 14,002   16,820   16,685 5
Estonia 23,240   24,084   26,055   26,575   27,326   28,413   5,273   6,681   6,440   6,704   6,866   6,967   5,461   7,258   8,367   8,687   11,745   12,333  
Finland 38,294   42,333   42,950   41,711   41,785   41,524   7,912   9,379   9,691   9,702   9,774   9,793   14,705   18,248   19,004   18,531   18,232   17,919  
France 34,924   38,102   38,829   38,274   39,804   40,206   8,503   9,593 3 9,664 3 9,483   9,827   9,966   12,538   15,937   15,926   15,539   16,456   16,459  
                                                                         
Germany 37,658   42,919   44,927   44,941   45,970   47,431   8,177     10,019   10,133   10,468   10,853   14,460     17,598   17,663   17,226   17,303  
Greece. 29,960   28,159   25,283 8 24,093 8 25,100 8 26,155 8 6,434 4           7,181            
Hungary 24,835   24,105   24,576   23,519   24,489   25,610   5,854 5 5,093 5 4,871 5 4,534   4,647   5,596   9,078 5 9,779 5 9,909 5 9,206   10,106   8,717  
Iceland 66,247   45,995   45,480   44,355   44,964   45,708   15,752 7 10,297   10,747   10,124   10,291   10,972   16,930 7 10,460   9,924   11,948   11,813   11,819  
Ireland 45,468   45,347   46,130   46,659   48,249   51,323   7,208   10,093 5 10,037 5 10,112   9,414   9,177   11,770   16,764 5 16,435 5 14,364   13,509   14,091  
                                                                         
Israel 29,866   30,609   31,361   31,997   33,915   33,712   6,093   6,041   6,440   6,116   6,536   6,651   13,198   11,388   11,853   11,980   12,992   12,841  
Italy3 35,343   37,287   37,550   36,260   35,952   36,051   8,747 5 9,117 5 8,917 5 8,970 5 8,846   8,777   9,475 5 10,288   10,439   10,429   11,324   11,503  
Japan7 32,637   36,226   37,119   38,632   40,355   39,477   7,568   9,487   9,444   9,800   10,007   10,000   12,703   16,572   17,064   17,574   18,763   18,143  
Korea, Republic of 31,145   33,686   33,290   33,484   33,588   34,153   7,258   8,202   8,157   9,790   9,983   10,199   9,790   11,058   10,582   10,389   9,658   9,732  
Latvia 20,673   18,931   20,412   21,453   22,932   23,941       5,154   5,126   6,017   6,656       7,792   7,577   8,053   8,990  
                                                                         
Luxembourg 83,202   93,745   97,236   94,418   96,580   102,052   19,452 3,4,5 20,863 3 20,757 3 20,597   19,012   21,359         33,601 5 41,397 5 46,883 5
Mexico 18,823   18,593   19,432   19,339   18,924   18,881 2 3,089   3,025   3,283   3,223   3,214   3,220   9,765   9,666   9,367   9,338   9,176   9,452  
Netherlands 44,048   48,797   49,302   48,798   49,606   49,059   8,326   11,035   10,989   11,008   10,881   10,838   16,407   18,797   18,782   20,278   19,538   19,335  
New Zealand 31,950   33,871   34,116   34,011   36,810   37,384   7,066   8,345   9,222   8,639   8,961   9,136   12,812   11,318   11,052   14,057   14,544   15,230  
Norway 60,123   65,245   68,992   72,148   72,387   69,846   12,554   14,692   14,675   14,891 9 15,474 9 14,964   19,572   20,815   20,916   21,741   22,519   22,177  
                                                                         
Poland 17,180 2 22,351 2 23,262 2 23,424 2 24,061 2 24,901 2 3,912 5 6,115 5 6,250 5 6,330   6,548   6,559   6,914 5 9,523 5 9,952 5 8,608   8,815   9,559  
Portugal 26,687   29,438   27,824   26,744   28,127   29,062   6,626 3,5 7,990 3,5 7,565 3,5 7,583 7 8,803 7 7,801 7 10,313 5 11,392 5 10,016 5 9,905 7 11,185 7 11,943 7
Slovak Republic 20,652   26,836   26,893   26,779   27,643   28,684   3,415 9 5,480 9 5,314 9 5,407 9 5,874   6,347   7,207 9 7,468 9 8,512 9 9,325 5 10,359 5 11,205 5
Slovenia 29,200   29,398   29,961   29,305   29,689   30,678   8,616   9,006   9,223   8,827   9,015   8,981   10,456   10,264   10,831   12,036   11,782   11,997  
Spain 33,092   33,977   33,036   32,167   32,345   33,492 8 7,660   9,012   8,731   8,119   7,683   7,718   12,055   14,215   13,569   12,306   12,473   12,401  
                                                                         
Sweden 38,330   43,549   44,458   45,043   46,018   46,960   8,871   10,508   10,717   10,937   11,145   11,082   17,995   20,465   21,153   23,137   23,867   24,297  
Switzerland. 41,184   51,718   54,790   56,808   59,155   60,928   10,949 5 13,206 5 14,261 5 14,654   17,528 9 14,855 5,9 22,196 5 21,399 5 22,314 5 24,401   24,912 5,9 27,393 5,9
Turkey 28,144   27,205   28,857   27,902 2 28,187 2 28,034 2   3,180   3,698   3,841   4,036   3,917       12,114   11,599   11,400   10,359  
United Kingdom 41,794   40,380   39,423   39,512   40,177   40,999   8,877   11,232   10,491   10,440   11,736   12,053   17,406   17,852   15,323   25,269   26,170   24,711  
United States 54,365   53,166   53,049   53,719   54,322   55,406   12,006 3 13,016 3 12,634 3 12,275   12,241   12,344   29,950   28,151   27,764   28,775   28,414   29,733  
—Not available.
1 Refers to the mean of the data values for all reporting Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries, to which each country reporting data contributes equally. The average includes all current OECD countries for which a given year's data are available, even if they were not members of OECD in that year.
2 Estimated value.
3 Education expenditures exclude postsecondary non-higher-education.
4 Elementary and secondary education expenditures include preprimary education (for children ages 3 and older).
5 Education expenditures include public institutions only.
6 Excludes occupation-specific education corresponding to that offered at the vocational associate's degree level in the United States.
7 Postsecondary non-higher-education included in both secondary and higher education.
8 Provisional value; data subject to revision.
9 Occupation-specific education corresponding to that offered at the vocational associate's degree level in the United States is included in elementary and secondary education instead of in higher education.
NOTE: Includes all expenditures by public and private education institutions (such as administration, instruction, ancillary services for students and families, and research and development) unless otherwise noted. Expenditures for International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) level 4 (postsecondary non-higher-education) are included in elementary and secondary education unless otherwise noted. ISCED was revised in 2011. The previous version, ISCED 1997, was used to calculate all data for years prior to 2012 (with the exception of Canada’s 2011 data, which were calculated using ISCED 2011). ISCED 2011 was used to calculate all data for 2012 and later years (with the exception of Chile’s 2012 data, which were calculated using ISCED 1997). Data calculated using ISCED 2011 may not be directly comparable to data calculated using ISCED 1997. Data adjusted to U.S. dollars using the purchasing power parity (PPP) index. Constant dollars based on national Consumer Price Indexes, available on the OECD database cited in the SOURCE note below. Some data have been revised from previously published figures.
SOURCE: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Education at a Glance, selected years, 2008 through 2017; and Online Education Database, retrieved December 1, 2017, from http://stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx. (This table was prepared January 2018.)