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Digest of Education Statistics: 2017
Digest of Education Statistics: 2017

NCES 2018-070
January 2018


Table 332.45. Percentage of graduate degree completers with student loan debt and average cumulative amount owed, by level of education funded and graduate degree type, institution control, and degree program: Selected years, 1999-2000 through 2015-16
[Standard errors appear in parentheses]
Graduate degree type, institution control, and degree program Loans for graduate education only Total loans (for undergraduate and graduate education)
1999-2000 2003-04 2007-08 2011-12 2015-16 1999-2000 2003-04 2007-08 2011-12 2015-16
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
  Percent of graduate degree completers with student loan debt
Total 44.6   (1.06) 54.6   (1.77) 54.6   (1.18) 58.6   (1.25) 54.2   (1.05) 51.3   (1.00) 60.9   (1.72) 62.9   (1.15) 64.1   (1.23) 60.5   (1.08)
Graduate degree type and
    institution control1
                                                           
Postbaccalaureate
     certificate
35.8   (5.12) 46.3   (7.43) 49.5   (5.02) 39.4   (4.66) 47.6   (4.18) 49.2   (4.72) 53.0   (7.02) 64.1   (4.68) 44.5   (4.53) 55.1   (3.88)
Public 33.4   (6.29) 30.1   (5.25) 45.1   (7.45) 35.5   (6.04) 39.0   (5.78) 51.2   (5.62) 39.9   (6.22) 64.5   (6.95) 41.5   (5.84) 48.7   (5.49)
Private nonprofit 32.8   (9.10) 70.3   (9.55) 54.7   (6.47) 48.0   (7.97) 53.5   (5.99) 40.4   (9.55) 73.1   (9.13) 63.8   (5.82) 50.5   (8.06) 57.8   (6.03)
Private for-profit   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†) 72.5   (4.88)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†) 78.1   (3.99)
Master's 39.9   (1.30) 52.0   (2.10) 53.8   (1.47) 59.0   (1.50) 52.8   (1.23) 47.2   (1.19) 59.4   (2.03) 62.7   (1.45) 65.2   (1.48) 60.0   (1.28)
Public 35.6   (1.53) 41.6   (2.20) 48.4   (1.79) 53.0   (2.19) 49.1   (1.87) 43.7   (1.57) 50.0   (2.28) 59.1   (1.87) 62.1   (2.14) 57.3   (2.04)
Private nonprofit 44.1   (2.65) 60.8   (3.13) 55.2   (1.69) 60.8   (2.29) 53.0   (1.82) 50.9   (2.46) 67.6   (2.85) 63.3   (1.84) 64.6   (2.38) 59.8   (1.74)
Private for-profit 60.4   (11.61) 76.7   (10.88) 80.3   (6.41) 74.9   (4.97) 67.5   (3.18) 61.6   (10.98) 77.2   (10.76) 83.5   (6.34) 78.6   (4.86) 71.3   (2.74)
Doctor's, research 38.8   (2.92) 45.3   (2.14) 43.1   (2.54) 40.7   (2.33) 43.6   (3.45) 43.6   (3.04) 50.5   (2.28) 49.3   (2.77) 47.5   (2.44) 48.2   (3.51)
Public 34.6   (3.35) 39.6   (2.52) 38.5   (3.12) 35.3   (2.73) 32.7   (3.96) 39.5   (3.52) 45.7   (2.82) 45.0   (3.73) 42.1   (3.04) 36.7   (4.16)
Private nonprofit 46.0   (6.55) 54.5   (4.19) 51.2   (3.39) 39.9   (3.38) 46.8   (6.14) 50.9   (6.29) 58.3   (4.13) 57.2   (3.22) 48.7   (3.30) 54.2   (6.01)
Private for-profit   (†)   (†)   (†) 95.1   (3.45) 75.8   (6.27)   (†)   (†)   (†) 95.1   (3.45) 76.2   (6.26)
Doctor's, professional2 79.4   (2.82) 84.8   (2.39) 83.8   (2.09) 84.6   (1.60) 73.5   (2.43) 81.2   (2.77) 84.8   (2.39) 84.9   (1.97) 84.9   (1.65) 74.5   (2.39)
Public 83.6   (4.65) 87.2   (2.82) 82.8   (3.61) 85.9   (2.72) 74.1   (4.18) 84.7   (4.59) 87.2   (2.82) 84.3   (3.28) 85.9   (2.72) 75.9   (4.07)
Private nonprofit 76.7   (4.06) 82.8   (4.21) 84.5   (2.42) 84.2   (2.25) 71.3   (3.40) 79.0   (3.95) 82.8   (4.21) 85.4   (2.34) 84.7   (2.31) 71.9   (3.42)
Private for-profit   (†)   (†)   (†) 94.1   (5.12) 89.5   (1.95)   (†)   (†)   (†) 94.1   (5.12) 90.2   (1.82)
                                                             
Graduate degree program                                                            
Postbaccalaureate
     certificate
35.8   (5.12) 46.3   (7.43) 49.5   (5.02) 39.4   (4.66) 47.6   (4.18) 49.2   (4.72) 53.0   (7.02) 64.1   (4.68) 44.5   (4.53) 55.1   (3.88)
Master of business
     administration (M.B.A.)
35.7   (2.70) 49.2   (5.05) 54.2   (3.45) 49.4   (4.63) 43.8   (3.41) 41.0   (2.78) 54.8   (4.67) 60.6   (3.29) 57.0   (4.78) 51.0   (3.34)
Master of education (any) 35.7   (2.86) 49.1   (3.14) 55.5   (3.46) 59.7   (3.55) 51.2   (2.83) 45.6   (2.86) 60.2   (3.24) 68.4   (3.13) 67.3   (3.64) 61.9   (3.21)
Other master of arts (M.A.)
     except in education
46.8   (4.97) 57.7   (5.07) 60.4   (4.04) 62.1   (3.53) 51.9   (4.81) 55.6   (5.09) 62.6   (5.04) 66.6   (3.76) 69.5   (3.50) 58.5   (4.42)
Other master of science (M.S.)
     except in education
35.9   (2.89) 40.0   (3.85) 45.8   (2.88) 53.6   (2.47) 49.5   (2.42) 41.9   (2.58) 47.1   (4.12) 53.9   (2.83) 59.3   (2.56) 56.1   (2.33)
Theology (M.Div., M.H.L.,
     or B.D.)
  (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)
Other master's degree3 52.5   (4.06) 69.3   (4.70) 56.3   (2.65) 71.8   (2.61) 65.0   (2.65) 58.4   (3.85) 74.5   (4.33) 62.2   (2.69) 75.0   (2.55) 70.2   (2.53)
Ph.D. except in education 36.3   (3.02) 33.5   (2.01) 31.9   (2.89) 31.6   (2.22) 38.5   (3.41) 43.6   (3.37) 40.3   (2.12) 40.2   (3.52) 40.3   (2.63) 44.7   (3.55)
Education (any doctorate) 33.4   (6.36) 49.7   (4.81) 58.0   (5.68) 72.3   (3.46) 61.4   (6.82) 33.4   (6.36) 51.9   (4.75) 61.4   (5.44) 73.3   (3.33) 63.0   (6.74)
Medicine (M.D. or D.O.) 86.4   (7.18) 91.8   (3.02) 78.3   (4.73) 84.3   (4.12) 80.3   (4.38) 86.4   (7.18) 91.8   (3.02) 79.6   (4.81) 84.3   (4.12) 81.0   (4.34)
Other health science
     professional practice
     doctorate4
79.1   (6.47) 88.3   (4.13) 86.7   (5.64) 89.5   (3.54) 73.6   (6.22) 80.9   (6.47) 88.3   (4.13) 88.6   (4.54) 89.5   (3.54) 74.6   (5.94)
Law (LL.B. or J.D.) 82.4   (2.69) 86.8   (3.05) 87.3   (2.50) 85.6   (2.46) 68.8   (5.84) 84.6   (2.52) 86.8   (3.05) 87.3   (2.50) 86.3   (2.54) 68.8   (5.84)
Other doctorate (non-Ph.D.)5 49.0   (7.64) 66.7   (4.99) 59.6   (4.47) 66.0   (4.09) 65.5   (7.35) 51.5   (7.46) 70.5   (4.56) 62.6   (4.47) 66.7   (4.15) 66.3   (7.42)
  Average cumulative amount owed (current dollars)
Total $33,300   ($1,200) $39,500   ($1,440) $43,700   ($1,010) $59,400   ($1,260) $71,000   ($2,160) $37,900   ($1,170) $45,600   ($1,520) $51,700   ($1,000) $73,100   ($1,340) $82,800   ($2,130)
Graduate degree type and
    institution control1
                                                           
Postbaccalaureate
     certificate
21,400   (3,250) 20,900   (4,490) 31,400   (3,170) 44,200   (5,080) 54,100   (7,670) 25,500   (2,680) 29,900   (4,290) 38,600   (3,630) 60,800   (5,340) 66,500   (7,950)
Public   (†) 10,300   (1,720) 32,100   (5,330) 40,400   (6,120) 43,300   (8,480) 22,800   (3,110) 19,100   (2,980) 38,700   (4,800) 57,100   (6,200) 50,100   (8,080)
Private nonprofit   (†) 26,900   (5,250) 30,300   (3,870) 48,600   (8,680) 65,700   (18,040)   (†) 37,800   (4,980) 38,200   (6,020) 68,000   (10,010) 80,000   (19,080)
Private for-profit   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†) 61,300   (6,390)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†) 95,500   (8,530)
Master's 23,500   (970) 29,100   (1,150) 34,300   (1,090) 45,100   (1,250) 50,300   (1,640) 29,400   (1,110) 35,200   (1,330) 43,900   (1,170) 60,000   (1,470) 64,800   (1,690)
Public 19,700   (1,060) 24,800   (1,000) 31,100   (1,100) 35,600   (1,640) 42,300   (2,370) 25,600   (1,100) 31,400   (1,290) 38,800   (1,330) 49,100   (2,180) 53,500   (2,400)
Private nonprofit 27,300   (1,790) 32,300   (1,730) 38,000   (1,370) 50,700   (1,990) 56,400   (2,660) 32,700   (2,090) 37,700   (2,170) 46,800   (1,610) 64,700   (2,170) 70,600   (2,700)
Private for-profit 29,700   (3,680)   (†) 33,900   (6,030) 49,500   (4,430) 62,000   (3,350) 40,900   (6,390)   (†) 54,100   (6,090) 71,900   (3,700) 88,700   (4,060)
Doctor's, research 34,600   (3,720) 52,000   (3,050) 62,700   (3,660) 77,600   (2,760) 101,500   (6,350) 37,300   (3,920) 56,200   (3,210) 65,200   (3,440) 80,300   (3,290) 106,400   (6,550)
Public 28,700   (2,790) 44,500   (2,670) 51,200   (3,470) 60,400   (3,590) 84,800   (9,380) 31,700   (3,040) 48,400   (3,000) 54,000   (3,280) 63,200   (3,980) 90,500   (8,610)
Private nonprofit 42,800   (9,510) 61,300   (5,720) 78,800   (7,050) 84,400   (5,550) 89,400   (13,750) 45,300   (9,650) 66,600   (6,410) 81,400   (6,630) 85,400   (5,400) 92,400   (13,680)
Private for-profit   (†)   (†)   (†) 125,900   (7,660) 144,900   (7,540)   (†)   (†)   (†) 140,300   (7,750) 157,300   (8,520)
Doctor's, professional2 61,900   (2,710) 78,800   (3,860) 91,500   (2,900) 132,600   (3,070) 171,700   (9,390) 68,500   (2,990) 90,600   (4,160) 102,600   (3,180) 150,100   (3,650) 183,200   (10,320)
Public 53,500   (2,870) 66,700   (3,000) 81,400   (4,650) 114,600   (3,920) 130,700   (8,470) 60,800   (3,170) 78,000   (3,180) 91,900   (5,140) 130,200   (4,120) 140,100   (9,560)
Private nonprofit 68,900   (4,240) 89,800   (5,750) 97,500   (4,110) 142,600   (4,120) 205,000   (16,330) 74,700   (4,570) 102,300   (6,080) 109,100   (4,640) 160,200   (5,020) 217,800   (18,530)
Private for-profit   (†)   (†)   (†) 175,900   (18,040) 167,400   (5,860)   (†)   (†)   (†) 184,700   (21,610) 186,800   (5,880)
                                                             
Graduate degree program                                                            
Postbaccalaureate
     certificate
21,400   (3,250) 20,900   (4,490) 31,400   (3,170) 44,200   (5,080) 54,100   (7,670) 25,500   (2,680) 29,900   (4,290) 38,600   (3,630) 60,800   (5,340) 66,500   (7,950)
Master of business
     administration (M.B.A.)
27,900   (2,860) 36,100   (4,250) 36,400   (3,680) 40,900   (2,880) 50,100   (3,780) 33,100   (2,440) 42,700   (4,540) 47,500   (3,010) 51,400   (3,820) 65,100   (4,180)
Master of education (any) 18,000   (1,240) 25,900   (1,450) 29,900   (1,700) 41,600   (2,510) 41,800   (3,420) 22,500   (1,630) 31,800   (1,930) 39,300   (2,540) 58,700   (3,720) 54,200   (3,410)
Other master of arts (M.A.)
     except in education
22,900   (1,990) 28,200   (3,720) 36,000   (3,200) 48,900   (3,550) 52,900   (5,160) 30,700   (2,910) 37,400   (3,920) 48,000   (4,170) 66,300   (5,560) 71,500   (5,040)
Other master of science (M.S.)
     except in education
23,000   (1,620) 29,800   (2,960) 33,600   (2,050) 45,500   (2,670) 48,000   (3,020) 31,300   (2,420) 35,100   (3,100) 42,900   (2,410) 60,900   (3,010) 61,200   (2,950)
Theology (M.Div., M.H.L.,
     or B.D.)
  (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)
Other master's degree3 26,800   (1,650) 27,200   (1,820) 40,700   (1,880) 49,000   (2,320) 57,300   (3,590) 32,900   (2,180) 32,800   (2,540) 48,800   (2,090) 62,500   (2,570) 73,700   (3,640)
Ph.D. except in education 33,900   (4,150) 41,900   (2,960) 47,900   (2,850) 66,400   (3,270) 96,800   (7,790) 33,700   (4,220) 45,100   (2,770) 49,200   (2,930) 65,100   (3,460) 97,000   (7,870)
Education (any doctorate)   (†) 48,200   (9,270) 58,600   (7,140) 80,900   (6,010) 101,700   (12,690)   (†) 51,600   (8,730) 61,000   (7,030) 93,800   (7,230) 109,900   (13,720)
Medicine (M.D. or D.O.) 78,700   (4,070) 108,100   (8,210) 128,300   (7,370) 166,300   (7,790) 223,100   (24,920) 87,000   (4,320) 118,700   (7,790) 135,500   (7,910) 182,600   (8,000) 241,600   (30,770)
Other health science
     professional practice
     doctorate4
72,500   (6,420) 79,000   (9,750) 91,700   (8,220) 133,500   (7,020) 190,300   (16,900) 80,600   (6,320) 94,900   (10,230) 108,300   (9,450) 157,700   (7,900) 198,800   (16,400)
Law (LL.B. or J.D.) 51,800   (2,210) 71,300   (3,940) 82,800   (2,640) 126,600   (5,040) 129,300   (10,280) 57,500   (2,540) 82,100   (4,460) 94,400   (3,170) 140,400   (5,880) 142,900   (10,790)
Other doctorate (non-Ph.D.)5 36,800   (6,990) 64,100   (5,040) 81,300   (7,120) 105,000   (5,880) 115,500   (12,110) 45,000   (6,840) 71,100   (6,520) 88,900   (7,020) 119,200   (6,600) 129,800   (11,530)
  Average cumulative amount owed (constant 2016-17 dollars)6
Total $47,700   ($1,720) $51,500   ($1,880) $50,100   ($1,160) $63,400   ($1,340) $72,300   ($2,190) $54,300   ($1,670) $59,500   ($1,980) $59,300   ($1,150) $78,000   ($1,430) $84,300   ($2,170)
Graduate degree type and
    institution control1
                                                           
Postbaccalaureate
     certificate
30,700   (4,660) 27,300   (5,860) 36,000   (3,630) 47,200   (5,420) 55,100   (7,810) 36,600   (3,840) 39,000   (5,600) 44,300   (4,160) 64,800   (5,690) 67,800   (8,090)
Public   (†) 13,400   (2,240) 36,800   (6,110) 43,000   (6,530) 44,100   (8,630) 32,600   (4,460) 24,800   (3,890) 44,300   (5,500) 60,800   (6,620) 51,100   (8,230)
Private nonprofit   (†) 35,000   (6,850) 34,700   (4,440) 51,800   (9,260) 66,900   (18,370)   (†) 49,300   (6,490) 43,800   (6,900) 72,500   (10,670) 81,500   (19,430)
Private for-profit   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†) 62,400   (6,510)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†) 97,300   (8,680)
Master's 33,700   (1,390) 37,900   (1,490) 39,300   (1,250) 48,100   (1,340) 51,200   (1,670) 42,100   (1,590) 46,000   (1,730) 50,300   (1,340) 64,000   (1,570) 66,000   (1,720)
Public 28,300   (1,520) 32,300   (1,300) 35,700   (1,260) 38,000   (1,750) 43,100   (2,410) 36,700   (1,570) 41,000   (1,690) 44,400   (1,520) 52,400   (2,330) 54,500   (2,440)
Private nonprofit 39,200   (2,570) 42,100   (2,250) 43,600   (1,570) 54,100   (2,130) 57,400   (2,710) 46,900   (2,990) 49,200   (2,820) 53,600   (1,840) 68,900   (2,310) 71,900   (2,750)
Private for-profit 42,500   (5,270)   (†) 38,800   (6,920) 52,800   (4,730) 63,100   (3,410) 58,700   (9,160)   (†) 62,000   (6,980) 76,700   (3,950) 90,300   (4,140)
Doctor's, research 49,700   (5,330) 67,800   (3,980) 71,900   (4,200) 82,700   (2,940) 103,400   (6,460) 53,500   (5,630) 73,300   (4,190) 74,700   (3,950) 85,700   (3,510) 108,400   (6,670)
Public 41,200   (4,000) 58,000   (3,480) 58,700   (3,980) 64,400   (3,830) 86,400   (9,560) 45,500   (4,360) 63,200   (3,920) 61,900   (3,760) 67,400   (4,250) 92,200   (8,770)
Private nonprofit 61,300   (13,630) 79,900   (7,460) 90,300   (8,080) 90,000   (5,920) 91,100   (14,010) 65,000   (13,830) 86,800   (8,360) 93,300   (7,600) 91,100   (5,750) 94,100   (13,930)
Private for-profit   (†)   (†)   (†) 134,300   (8,170) 147,600   (7,680)   (†)   (†)   (†) 149,600   (8,260) 160,100   (8,680)
Doctor's, professional2 88,800   (3,890) 102,800   (5,030) 104,800   (3,320) 141,400   (3,270) 174,800   (9,560) 98,200   (4,290) 118,200   (5,420) 117,600   (3,650) 160,100   (3,890) 186,600   (10,510)
Public 76,600   (4,120) 87,000   (3,910) 93,400   (5,330) 122,200   (4,180) 133,200   (8,620) 87,200   (4,550) 101,700   (4,150) 105,300   (5,890) 138,800   (4,390) 142,600   (9,740)
Private nonprofit 98,800   (6,080) 117,100   (7,500) 111,800   (4,720) 152,000   (4,390) 208,800   (16,630) 107,000   (6,560) 133,400   (7,920) 125,000   (5,310) 170,800   (5,350) 221,800   (18,870)
Private for-profit   (†)   (†)   (†) 187,600   (19,240) 170,500   (5,970)   (†)   (†)   (†) 196,900   (23,040) 190,200   (5,990)
                                                             
Graduate degree program                                                            
Postbaccalaureate
     certificate
30,700   (4,660) 27,300   (5,860) 36,000   (3,630) 47,200   (5,420) 55,100   (7,810) 36,600   (3,840) 39,000   (5,600) 44,300   (4,160) 64,800   (5,690) 67,800   (8,090)
Master of business
     administration (M.B.A.)
40,000   (4,090) 47,100   (5,550) 41,700   (4,210) 43,600   (3,070) 51,100   (3,850) 47,400   (3,490) 55,700   (5,920) 54,400   (3,450) 54,800   (4,070) 66,300   (4,250)
Master of education (any) 25,800   (1,780) 33,800   (1,890) 34,300   (1,950) 44,400   (2,680) 42,500   (3,480) 32,200   (2,330) 41,400   (2,520) 45,100   (2,910) 62,600   (3,960) 55,200   (3,470)
Other master of arts (M.A.)
     except in education
32,800   (2,850) 36,700   (4,850) 41,200   (3,670) 52,100   (3,790) 53,900   (5,260) 44,000   (4,180) 48,800   (5,120) 55,000   (4,770) 70,700   (5,930) 72,800   (5,140)
Other master of science (M.S.)
     except in education
33,000   (2,320) 38,900   (3,860) 38,500   (2,350) 48,500   (2,840) 48,800   (3,080) 44,900   (3,470) 45,800   (4,050) 49,200   (2,770) 64,900   (3,210) 62,300   (3,010)
Theology (M.Div., M.H.L.,
     or B.D.)
  (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)
Other master's degree3 38,400   (2,370) 35,400   (2,380) 46,600   (2,150) 52,200   (2,470) 58,400   (3,660) 47,200   (3,130) 42,800   (3,310) 56,000   (2,390) 66,600   (2,740) 75,100   (3,710)
Ph.D. except in education 48,500   (5,950) 54,600   (3,860) 55,000   (3,270) 70,900   (3,480) 98,500   (7,930) 48,400   (6,050) 58,800   (3,610) 56,400   (3,360) 69,400   (3,690) 98,800   (8,020)
Education (any doctorate)   (†) 62,900   (12,080) 67,100   (8,180) 86,300   (6,410) 103,600   (12,930)   (†) 67,300   (11,380) 69,900   (8,050) 100,000   (7,710) 111,900   (13,980)
Medicine (M.D. or D.O.) 112,700   (5,830) 141,000   (10,700) 147,000   (8,450) 177,400   (8,310) 227,200   (25,380) 124,700   (6,190) 154,800   (10,160) 155,300   (9,060) 194,700   (8,530) 246,000   (31,330)
Other health science
     professional practice
     doctorate4
103,900   (9,200) 103,000   (12,720) 105,200   (9,420) 142,400   (7,490) 193,800   (17,210) 115,500   (9,060) 123,700   (13,340) 124,100   (10,840) 168,100   (8,420) 202,400   (16,700)
Law (LL.B. or J.D.) 74,200   (3,160) 93,000   (5,130) 94,900   (3,030) 135,000   (5,380) 131,700   (10,470) 82,400   (3,640) 107,000   (5,820) 108,100   (3,630) 149,700   (6,270) 145,500   (10,980)
Other doctorate (non-Ph.D.)5 52,700   (10,020) 83,500   (6,570) 93,200   (8,160) 111,900   (6,280) 117,600   (12,330) 64,500   (9,810) 92,800   (8,500) 101,900   (8,050) 127,100   (7,040) 132,200   (11,750)
—Not available.
†Not applicable.
‡Reporting standards not met. Either there are too few cases for a reliable estimate or the coefficient of variation (CV) is 50 percent or greater.
1 Individuals who attended more than one institution for graduate studies are included in the subtotals by degree type but excluded from the detail by control of institution.
2 Includes chiropractic, dentistry, law, medicine, optometry, pharmacy, podiatry, and veterinary medicine.
3 Includes public administration or policy, social work, fine arts, public health, and other.
4 Includes chiropractic, dentistry, optometry, pharmacy, podiatry, and veterinary medicine.
5 Includes science or engineering, psychology, business or public administration, fine arts, theology, and other. Estimates for 2011-12 and 2015-16 also include "other professional practice doctoral degrees," which were not reported as a separate category in previous years.
6 Constant dollars based on the Consumer Price Index, prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, adjusted to a school-year basis.
NOTE: Data refer to students who completed graduate degrees in the academic years indicated. Data are based on the principal balance (excluding interest) as of June 30th of the survey year (e.g., the 2015‒16 data are based on the principal balance as of June 30, 2016). Average amounts owed were calculated only for graduate degree completers who had outstanding loans at the level of education indicated. Data include federal and private student loans, but exclude Parent PLUS loans. Direct Subsidized Loans for graduate students were discontinued after academic year 2011-12.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 1999-2000, 2003-04, 2007-08, 2011-12, and 2015-16 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:2000, NPSAS:04, NPSAS:08, NPSAS:12, and NPSAS:16). (This table was prepared January 2018.)